Thursday, May 28, 2015

Vedic astrology- Part 4 - Pathani Samanta: The Great Hindu Astrologer

Pandit Samanta Chandra Sekhar Harichandan Mohapatra, locally known as “Pathani Samanta”, was the illustrious author of Siddhanta Darpan – a systematic record of his life-long relentless work composed in beautiful metrical Sanskrit verses . Siddhanta Darpan is an astronomical treatise in elegant Sanskrit verses, developed and improved upon the Surya-Siddhanta and the Siddhanta- Siromani of the past. This magnum opus of Chandra Sekhar, the last and best book is worthy of its name as a real mirror of India’s astronomical knowledge.

A Hindu orthodox by nature, Chandra Sekhar, with his traditional background alone studied the subject of astronomy, observed the movements of planets through naked eyes and was able to reach the approximate reality as founded by scientists with the aid of modern equipments. He was an outstanding mathematician of high order and engaged himself in the field of mathematical calculations known as Astronomy.
In Siddhanta Darpan, poetry and mathematics are in tune with each other, and this stands as a specimen of his genius. By sheer efforts and perseverance, this last and foremost orthodox Hindu siddhanta writer could rise above his environment. He left an indelible stamp of his genius on the history of Indian astronomy. His ability in the use of manayantra (measuring instrument), “Golyantra” (spherical instrument) and surya-ghadi (sundial to measure the time) proved him to be a good architect with engineering skill.
He had also interest in the preparation of fire works with knowledge to launch the same to a particular height. India is a nation of ancient culture and tradition. It reached the zenith in all spheres at one time when most of the so-called advanced nations of to-day were not discovered. Indian astronomy is nearly as old as the Vedas. As a science, it rose to its peak in the days of Aryabhatta in the 5th century A.D. Indian astronomy is a mere curiosity to the scholars of the West. They know very little about our traditional mathematical astronomy because it does not come under the mainstream of astronomy which originated in Babylonia and evolved through the Greeks and Europeans. Hence neither are the scholars of the West fair enough to assess the merit of our system, nor are we sincere to project ourselves sufficiently in order to establish our wit and wisdom before the so-called advanced world.
Chandra Sekhar recorded all of his findings in Siddhanta Darpan, a small book with about 2500 verses(24 chapters) in Sanskrit language entirely written on palm-leaves. Will Durrant was amazed to find this great Hindu scholar writing treatises on mathematics even in verses. This invaluable contribution of Chandra Sekher to the astronomical science, Siddhanta Darpan was written on April 12, 1869 and completed in all respect by November 12, 1892. Out of its 2,500 verses (slokas), 2,184 are his own. The composition and structure of the verses indicate his extraordinary genius and deep knowledge in Sanskrit. The verses are highly ornamental and orderly. They flow like a running stream unchecked, un-controlled, un-restricted and unbridled.
The contents of Siddhanta Darpan look amazing and unimaginable as the achievement of a single mind. Chandra Sekhar observed, verified and corrected all that was known to the Hindu astronomers for thousand of years. Even on many occasions he has gone beyond them to discover new phenomena and formulations, and came out with predictions that will remain valid for at least the next ten thousand years. In the field of observational astronomy, very often he has given new methods of calculation. At the end of his treatises he has furnished the calculations of an almanac, which has been named the Kautuka Panjee.
Among those who applied their brain and mind for the improvement as well as development of Panjika, the name of Chandra Sekhar figures in a very eminent position. A glorious personality by virtue of his high academic attainments, scholarly approach to the problems and moral effulgence, Chandra Sekhar no doubt shines best in the history of Panjika-Samskara”. In 1876, the almanac computed according to Siddhanta Darpan found recognition in the temple of Sri Jagannath, and religious rites there are calculated/determined as per the latest Siddhanta of Chandra Sekhar.
Nearly one thousand years before the birth of Chandra Sekhar, no astronomer of repute had made any reformative study in the field of astronomical science. In order to know the exact longitude (grahasphuta of the planets) he took the help of Surya Siddhanta as his base book and innovated new methods in each chapter of Siddhanta Darpan.
As the moon changes its position more frequently than any other planet, it is very difficult to ascertain the exact longitude of moon. Hence, Chandra Sekhar innovated three principles, i.e. Tungatanra, Pakshika and Digamsa to know the exact longitude of moon. These three formulas expounded by him are very correct and they hold good in every respect. Likewise he had devised many new formulas for ascertaining the exact longitude of all the planets. His formulas regarding the solar and lunar eclipse are still invaluable objects in the astronomical treasury.
Completely unaware of the scientific and technological developments in the West, Chandra Sekhar had employed the traditional methods for astronomical measurements. He was well known in India and beyond for his accurate astronomical calculations, new theories about the planets and their movements, which were based on observations made by his naked eyes or with primitive instruments designed by himself. So he is rightly called the second Bhaskara in India. Chandra Sekhar seems to be the last link in the long order of great Hindu astronomers like Aryabhatta, Varahamihira, Brahma Gupta and Bhaskara, whose genius blazed from places spread all over India, scaling a time span of nearly 1,500 years, with available systematic record from 5th century A.D. to the turn of the last century. This continuous stream of genius appeared to have broken after Bhaskara for about seven hundred years, and one sees the burst of the last glow in Chandra Sekhar.
The long traditional culture of Jyotisha in Orissa for so many centuries was epitomized in Chandra Sekhar, who was honoured with the title of “Mahamahopadhyaya” by the British government in 1893 for his monumental work on Hindu astronomy, Siddhanta Darpan. He corrected the discrepancies in the astronomical calculations found in the annually prepared Almanac of Orissa.
Astronomy is a science in which observations go simultaneously with the calculations. Besides a thorough knowledge of motion of the stellar objects, it requires sufficient computational skill to tackle the vast multitude of big numbers. Chandra Sekhar was extraordinary in this respect, demonstrating a computational fit by providing tables with cores of data which pose a challenge even in this computerized age.
Chandra Sekhar had expressed his deep gratitude to all his predecessors in general and Bhaskaracharya in particular. He improved upon their calculations after careful observation of the planetary positions. Like any other original research work, his contributions are purely of intellectual interest in the field of mathematical astronomy.
The present Oriya Almanacs are being prepared as per the rules of Siddhanta Darpan and they have stood the test of time in successfully predicting the eventful occasions like eclipses. He had broken the icewhich blocked the path of progress in Indian astronomy for about a thousand years and mirrored the Siddhantas in modern perspectives, paving the way for future development. Our researchers today boast of degrees conferred on the basis of works which can hardly be compared with the originality and innovations that Chandra Sekhar has exhibited in a single chapter of his Siddhanta Darpan and its stupendous tables, called saranis. His contribution to the field of Hindu astronomy is little known and assessed due to the non-availability of a lucid commentary explaining the intricacies of astronomical calculations involved in understanding the Sanskrit verses composed in elegant pendantic style.
Pathani Samanta, alias Chandra Sekhar, was born in Khandapada, an ex-state of Orissa, in the un-divided Puri district of Orissa, on 11th January 1836 (the 8th lunar day of black fortnight in Pausa month of Saka era 1757). His final departure from this mortal world was on 11th June 1904. As per his own prediction, he came all the way to Sri Jagannath Temple at Puri to breathe his last.

Vedic astrology- part 3- How it works?

The knowledge of Vedic Astrology has come down to us from the Vedic slokas. These slokas have been deeply studied and realized by our Siddhas in ancient times. Hence, through them we learnt about the Universe, and the waves of energy that impact our lives. They suggested practical ways to diffuse negative energies of planets in our lives and how to seek blessings of good energies.

Vedic Astrology guides us to seek a better life than what our planets have destined for us. Siddhas in ancient times had understood the cosmic energy, and calculated its effects for the good of common man. Maharishi Parashara is said to have provided explanations of this ancient Vedic science as predictive astrology to enable man seek blessings of benefic forces and protect themselves from malefic ones.
Source of Vedic Astrology:
Vedic slokas tell us how the presence of planets in each house can create specific effects on man. But many of these slokas are indicative or suggestive in nature and not easy to comprehend without deeper knowledge of Metaphysics. Generally speaking, Ancient Vedic Astrology, as revealed through Vedas, mainly relates about creation of this Universe, and its relationship with man born to the Earth.
Astrology that came down from the Siddhas:
It was through the Siddhas that we learnt about the Universe, and the waves of energy that impact our lives. It is interesting to note that for better perception of the powerful forces of cosmos and understanding the nature of each planet; Siddhas represented them to us as deities. So planets are prayed and invoked as Gods and Goddesses: Power of Mars is represented by Lord Muruga, Sun by Lord Shiva, Mercury by Lord Vishnu and so on.
The Siddhas also suggested practical ways to diffuse negative energies of planets to a certain extent. Such remedies specifically help in adding good energies in human life.
The Predictive Astrology:
In Vedic Astrology, Moon is a very important planet and the Moon sign of a person is considered his or her Rasi. It is the combined study of the yogas, qualities of the 9 planets, their influence on the 12 houses, and how the qualities or gunas like Sattwa, Rajjas and Tamasa, and five primordial elements like space, air, fire, water and earth influence matter in forming their nature.
Modern Vedic Astrology has evolved over the years and at present, it is popular as a predictive astrology that forecasts about individuals from their birth-charts based on the time and place of birth. And here lies the most sensitive point of this field – what percentage of accuracy in predicting human life can be achieved? Perhaps 75 percent, at least this is the common belief.
The role of astrologer:
What surely an individual can gain from Vedic astrology is the knowledge about himself or herself. With a certain amount of interaction with individuals, and mainly study of birth-chart, an astrologer can tell about the nature and inclinations of the individual. He makes one aware of the good and the bad influences of planets and such awareness of cosmic powers can help one with better abilities to make appropriate decisions further in their lives.
The remedies in Vedic astrology:
When planets are in debilitated state, or in retrograde they bring lot of hardship to the native. There are certain strong afflictions of planets in birth-charts such as Pitra Dosha, Kaal Sarpa Dosha, Shani Dosha, and Mangal Dosha, which prevent the native from enjoying the good effects of planets.
Vedic Astrology suggests remedial measures like chanting of Mantras, observing and practicing certain rituals, keeping one energized through Yantras, wearing beads garlands and observing practices such as fasting on the days when the planets are powerful.

Vedic astrology part 2- Horoscope

A horoscope in your hands is a map of destiny. The secrets that it contains can be revealed only by a Vedic Astrologer. Now you may be wondering “What is Vedic Astrology?” You probably have heard of astrology–who hasn’t? Most people know what their Sun sign is in Western Astrology, but very few know about Vedic Astrology, the subject of this report. Even people who have only the slightest smattering of knowledge about astrology want to know what is Vedic Astrology and how it differs from the Western Astrology that they are accustomed to. To answer these questions I would first like to very briefly explain a little about Vedic Astrology and how it is different from its Western cousin.

Vedic versus Western Astrology
The Vedas are the oldest scriptures known to exist, being well over 5,000 years old. The vast ocean of Vedic knowledge encompasses both material and spiritual knowledge; it is perfect knowledge that was revealed by Sri Krishna (The Godhead) to the Rishis, the sages of Vedic culture. Astrology is part of the Vedic literature, and has been preserved and handed down in the guru-parampara, the chain of apostolic succession, since time immemorial. Vedic Astrology is the original form of astrology that existed thousands of years ago in what is now known as the Indian subcontinent. It gradually spread by diffusion into other cultures such as the Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Chinese, etc. The major differences between Vedic Astrology and modern Western Astrology are threefold:
First of all, Vedic Astrology is technically termed a “sidereal system” whereas Western Astrology is “tropical.” What this essentially means is that up in the sky there are stars which make up the various constellations of the Zodiac such as Virgo, Aquarius, etc. Vedic Astrology is based upon the actual stellar constellations (sidereal), whereas Western Astrology is based on a fictitious zodiac that slowly moves backwards in space as a function of time (“tropic” in Latin means “to turn”). These definitions can be found in any good dictionary. As of this writing (October, 1993), the beginning of the Western imaginary zodiac–their first point of Aries–is at 6.25 degrees of the constellation Pisces. This is called the Age of Pisces in Western Astrology. This first point will move in a retrograde (backward) motion at a rate of about 1 degree per 72 years until it enters into the constellation of Aquarius. That will be the beginning of the famous Age of Aquarius that we have all heard about. At the rate of motion of 72 years/degree ´ 6.25 degrees, it will take 450 years before the so-called Age of Aquarius takes place. Out of ignorance of astronomy, the New Age community has “jumped the gun” by almost half a millennia in declaring that we are already in the Age of Aquarius.
Secondly, as already mentioned, Vedic Astrology is based on a very old, unbroken tradition since time immemorial whereas Western Astrology has had a very checkered history. Astrology virtually disappeared in the West during the Dark Ages (circa 500-1000AD); it resurfaced during the Renaissance, only to fall out of favor during the so-called Age of Reason. In fact, it totally disappeared from the European continent until the late 19th century. It had been kept barely alive in England during that time. Western Astrology as we know it today has existed for about 130 years only when it began a resurgence. The point is that the Vedic tradition is very strong and vibrant, with the heritage of many millennia of accumulated knowledge, whereas Western Astrology does not have the advantage of an unbroken tradition.
Thirdly, Vedic astrology, being an appendix to the Vedas, is thoroughly steeped in Vedic thought and philosophy. This means that the practitioner of the science must have earnestly assimilated the Vedic philosophy and lived the life of a Vedic Brahmana, with all its attendant spiritual practices. By contrast, modern Western astrology is a reflection of permissive Western culture, in which “anything goes.” Western astrology has no real or consistent philosophical basis; what passes for a basis is watered down, distorted, third-hand Vedic philosophy. The Western Astrologer has (in comparison to the Vedic Astrologer) no philosophical training, nor does he know what it means to follow a spiritual discipline. The combined effect of genuine philosophical knowledge coupled with an authentic spiritual lifestyle cannot be overestimated when it comes to developing the divine vision and ability that is so necessary for enabling an astrologer to properly guide others.
I have hardly done justice to the subject of comparing-contrasting Vedic and Western Astrology, but hopefully what I have said will give the reader an inkling of the differences. These are not just technical differences but depend on an entirely different worldview. Now that we have completed our digression, let’s return to the main objective of this treatise. The birth-map, or horoscope, is a symbolic representation of the Earth, planets, and stars at the time of one’s birth. It is a divine language, a mystic cryptogram by which God has communicated what a person’s destiny will be, knowing which a wise person will exercise his free will to optimize the result.
Fate, Free Will and Vedic Astrology
The viewpoint of Vedic Astrology is that life is an interplay of both fate and free will–fate being the reaction to our previous exercise of free will. In our lives we are often faced with choices presented to us by our environmental circumstances. We have the freedom to chose “a” or “b,” but once that decision is made we must accept the reaction to our choice. The reaction may be immediate, or it may be delayed by thousands of lifetimes. In any case, the reaction, pleasant or unpleasant, will come at the appointed time determined by higher authorities. As Canakya Pandita says, “Just as a calf can find its mother in a herd of 10,000 cows, in the same way your [re]actions will find you.” The reactions to life’s actions are inescapable by everyone except those who are completely devoted to God (via Bhakti-yoga). When a karmic reaction ripens and fructifies it creates a new situation, a new environment that presents us with more choices upon which to exercise our free will. Thus, life is an interplay of both fate and free will as previously stated.
Let’s consider an example of how this works. Suppose someone is born into a poor family because of his bad karma from a previous lifetime and so is raised in a ghetto beset with crime and poverty. Let us say, hypothetically, that he has two choices. He can blame society for the evils he faces and thus try to victimize society by taking to a life of crime to acquire wealth; or he can take responsibility for his situation and try to better himself by education and honest endeavor. Suppose he chooses the first option of crime and robs several establishments. Eventually he will get caught (if not killed first) and sent to jail, a natural reaction for his criminal behavior. But even while in jail he still has options, though more limited than those of a free man. He can choose to be a hardened criminal or to be a model prisoner and reform himself. Each choice will have a reaction. Thus we can see that life is an intricate interplay of fate (karma) and free will.

VEDIC ASTROLOGY-PART 1- Introduction to Nakshatras

The nakshatras are the apparently fixed bodies in the Zodiac, where the planetary system moves with them placed in the background. Among the Rasi and the nakshatras, the former is overlorded by the Sun, whereas the latter is overlorded by Moon. This implies that the Rasi shows the environment we would be placed with at different times in our life and what we get out of it, on the other hand, the nakshatras govern the different state of mind we shall be having at various times. Even the actual events are important in our life, taking a person-centric view point; our reactions to them also matter equally. Hence the study of the nakshatras is well warranted.

There are two nakshatra schemes, one of which uses 27 Nakshatras and the other uses 28 nakshatras, which include the Abhijit Nakshatra, an intercalary nakshatra. Both the schemes are useful in their own right. While 27 nakshatra scheme is used for all day to analysis, such as analysis of birth chart, analysis of dasas, using Navatara chakra etc; the 28 nakshatra scheme is used for analysis of few chakras such as sarvatobhadra chakra, the sannadi chakra etc. The Nakshatras are reckoned from beginning with Aries which coincides with the beginning of Ashwini.
There are four padas (quarters) of each nakshatra, each measuring 3d 20m making the total duration of the nakshatra to be 13d 20m. Thus there are 108 padas across the zodiac and each map to 1 Navamsa. However, since the duration of 1 sign is 30 degrees, the nakshatra cannot be mapped exactly on the Rasis. However, it is interesting to see that 9 nakshatras can be mapped to 4 Rasis. From this we can derive the basis of dividing the zodiac of 12 Rasis and 27 nakshatras into 3 parts each measuring 120 degrees. This is the basis for the Navatara Chakra, where the nakshatras are divided into three groups of 9 each, starting either from the Janma or Lagna Nakshatra.
While we see the mapping of the 9 Nakshatras on 4 Rasis, we see that there are few nakshatras which would fall across two Rasis such as Krittika, which falls in Aries and Taurus; Mrgashiras, which falls across Taurus and Gemini and so on. There are others which would fall in 1 rasi such as Ashwini, Bharani, Rohini etc. Even though this looks haphazard and erratic, there is a hidden meaning behind it. To understand the meaning, we need to know the tattvas (primordial elements) ruling the Rasis and the Nakshatra padas. Beginning from Aries, the Rasis are ruled by Fire, Earth, Air and Water in a cyclical manner. Thus Aries, Leo and Sagittarius are the fiery signs; Taurus, Virgo & Capricorn are the earthy signs and so on. This is the same pattern which repeats for the nakshatra padas, which means that the first pada is governed by fire element, 2nd by earth, 3rd by air and the 4th by water. This cycle repeats across the nakshatras.
The beauty of the mapping of the Nakshatra with the rasi is that, among the 9 nakshatra padas which fall in a rasi, the tattva of the first and the last pada belongs to the tattva of the sign. So the first and last pada of Aries would be Fiery, the first and last pada of Taurus would be Earthy and so on. Seeing this from another perspective, the while seen among the three groups of 4 signs (starting from Aries, Leo and Sagittarius), the 1st sign starts from 1st pada of a nakshatra and ends with the 1st pada of a nakshatra (for example, Aries starts with 1st pada of Ashwini and ends with the 1st pada of Krittika). Similarly, the 2nd sign (Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn) start with 2nd pada of a nakshatra and end with the 2nd pada of another nakshatra (for example, Taurus starts with 2nd pada of Krittika and ends with 2nd pada of Mrgashiras); 3rd sign Gemini starts with 3rd pada of Mrgashiras and ends with 3rd pada of Punarvasu and the 4th sign Cancer start with 4th pada of Punarvasu and end with 4th pada of Aslesha.
The lordship of each cycle of 9 nakshatras, as per Vimshottari dasa scheme, starting from Ashwini is Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury. It is worthy to note that the 3 of the 9 nakshatras, which fall in the junction of signs (rasi sandhi), are ruled by Sun, Mars and Jupiter, the three best friends on the Deva’s side! The other Nakshatras which fall inside the signs are ruled by Ketu, Venus, Moon, Rahu, Saturn & Mercury. What can be made out of these two categories of the planets?
Classification of Nakshatra
Fixed Nakshatras
Rohini, Uttar-phalguni, Uttar-ashadha and Uttar-bhadrapada are supposed to be fixed nakshatras and they are favourable for activities which are related to establishing something permanent such as coronations, laying the foundations of cities, sowing operations, planting trees.
Soft Nakshatras
Chitta, Anuradha, Mrigasira and Revati are soft nakshatras. They are favourable for soft or artistic activities such as wearing new apparel, learning dancing, music and fine arts, sexual union and performance of auspicious ceremonies.
Light Nakshatras
Ashwini, Pushya, Hasta and Abhijit are light nakshatras, and they are favourable for light and sportive activities such as putting ornamentation, pleasures and sports, administering medicine, starting industries and undertaking travels.
Sharp Nakshatras
Moola, Jyestha, Ardra and Aslesha are sharp nakshatras in nature and they are favourable for sharp, piercing and painful activities such as incantations, invoking spirits, for imprisonment, murders, and separation of friends.
Mobile Nakshatras
Sravana, Dhanishta, Satabhisaj, Punarvasu and Swati are mobile nakshatras and they are auspicious for mobile activities such as acquiring vehicles, for gardening and for going on procession.
Dreadful Nakshatras
Purva-phalguni, Poorvashadha and Poorvabhadra, Bharani and Makha are dreadful nakshatras and they are favourable for nefarious schemes, poisoning, deceit, imprisonment, setting fire and other evil deeds.
Mixed Nakshatras
Krittika and Visakha are mixed nakshatras and during their influences, works of day-to-day importance can be undertaken.
Inauspicious Nakshatras
Beginning from the third quarter of Dhanishta and ending with the last part of Revati, the time is held to be unsuitable for any kind of auspicious work. This period goes under the special name of Nakshatra Panchaka and when these stars are ruling, one should avoid journey towards the south, house repairing or renovation, collecting fuel and cattle fodder or acquiring cots and beds.
Auspicious Nakshatras
Of all the twenty-eight constellations, the pride of place appears to have been given to Pushya, the 8th star.
1. Ashwini
2. Bharani
3. Krittika
4. Rohini
5. Mrgashiras
6. Ardra
7. Punarvasu
8. Pushya
9. Aslesha
10. Makha
11. Purva-phalguni
12. Uttara-phalguni
13. Hasta
14. Chitra
15. Swati
16. Visakha
17. Anuradha
18. Jyestha
19. Moola
20. Purva-ashadha
21. Uttara-ashadha
22. Sravana
23. Dhanishta
24. Satabhisaj
25. Purva-bhadrapada
26. Uttara-bhadrapada
27. Revati

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

How Mantras work?

Since ancient time till the present era; Mantras have been used as a remedy for nearly every problem. With the increasing number of TV channels in India, the situation is such that you tell about any issue and one out of ten persons, you will find at least one to come out with a handy Mantra to resolve your issue. The great learned pundits are there on the small screen almost round the clock. Now a question arises, do we really get benefit from those free of cost advice ? I don’t think the TV channels will be helpful to you in this respect. They should be more than happy with the increasing TRP and would hardly get time to undertake a survey to find efficacy of such remedial mantras etc.

With a view to verify the effectiveness of mantras, let us try to answer these questions:
Can one mantra be effective for multiple purposes?
What is the source of power of any mantra ?
What is the correct way of using a mantra ?
What matters the most – The sound, the tone and rhythm of reciting a mantra, the meaning of the words used in the mantra, or the procedure prescribed?
By usage of a Mantra can any one be able to escape from experiencing the fructification of Karma?
How does ‘offering’ of a mantra by a Siddha makes a difference?
One Mantra removes all evil?
One should not need any thing more than mere common sense to reject the notion of ‘elixir’ kind of a Mantra that can be used to resolve a problem irrespective of nature of problem.
As we accept the low of ‘Cause and Effect'; we have to find the likely cause of a problem and then the remedy has to address the cause. In a way, the remedy should be a kind of reversal process of the cause.
We can understand that every problem has to have a particularly related cause and hence, it has to be addressed with a specific process. Thus, a Mantra to increase physical height of a person cannot be accepted as a cure of Cancer.
Hindu mantras like ‘Maha Mrintyunjaya Mantra’, ‘Gayatri Mantra’, etc. suffer from the notion of ‘One-for-All’ remedy and we most humbly do not agree with the belief.
The sanctity of mantras for spiritual upliftment should be maintained and must not be recommended for temporal laukik reasons as trivial as ‘securing a job transfer ‘ or ‘begetting children’ etc. People indulging in such activities are unknowingly doing a grave disservice to the sacred heritage of Vedas.
Prerequisites for Using a Mantra
The seers who formulated the mantras offered them to their disciples who were well-versed with the prerequisites as a part of the methodology of particular school of spiritual Sadhana. The knowledge of such prerequisites was believed to be so fundamental that its narration, at times, used to be omitted to avoid repetition.
Most of the mantras have been a part of a Stotra or an Upanishad or a fullfleged Sadhana or an Anushthana and were never intended to be used in isolation. However, over a period of time, some of the Pundits started compiling the mantras and formulated books of such collection. At this stage, the brevity was the call and not only the prerequisites, but even the overall purpose and relevance lost their place.
In the modern age, where education and spirituality has turned into an Industry, Astrology, too, has slipped into the hands of commercial people. In absence of honest custodians and the rightful inheritors; mantras are prescribed in most bizarre manner by the commercial astrologers for meeting their selfish means. Needless to say, mantras have become tools in their hands to exploit the greedy and ignorant people.
The Rishis who formulated the mantras also advocated certain procedures to be followed for its right use. This include a formal commitment in the form of ‘Sankalpa’, some movements and gestures in form of ‘Nyasa’, creating protective sheath in form of ‘Kavacha’ and offerings to the Devata in the form of ‘Arghya’.
Let us understand the procedure as well as the parts of mantra.
Sankalpa with respect to Mantra Sadhana, means a formal commitment about one’s plan of the Sadhana. A statement of sankalpa generally contains one’s own identification. This is in the vedic manner including one’s full name, one’s vedic lineage i.e. Veda, Gotra, Shakha etc. Then follows ones desire to chant the Mantra for a particular duration and in particular number or undertake an Anushthana for fulfillment of a particular wish. The sankalpa is addressed to the Devata of the Mantra. Ritualistically, a sankalpa is taken through Sanskrit. However, as we know the significance of Mental vibrations in Mantra Sadhana, it should be OK to undertake the Sankalpa in one’s own language.
Nyasa is an important preparatory stage of Mantra Sadhana. It is in a way a ‘warming up’ and ‘cleansing’ session prior to undertaking Mantra chanting. The sadhaka while exercising Pranayama, touches different parts his body either physically or visualize mentally depending upon the type of nyasa he has adopted. There are different types of Nayasa, e.g.Kara Nyasa, Anga Nyasa, Hridayadi Nyasa, Rishyadi Nyasa, Panchatatwa Nyasa, etc. Here, again the primary objective is to augment the process of attaining embodiment with the Mantra and its Devata at psyche level.
‘Kavacha’ is the imagery shield to be created for the protection of the Sadhaka during Sadhana. It is very important because, the Sadhaka loses his conscious sense of awareness as he transgress into meditative state or altered state of awareness. During such a state he stands vulnerable and exposed to abnormal frequencies and vibrations. The performing of Kavacha protects the Sadhaka from such vibrations. The Kavacha in a way create hypontic layer of self-confidence and keep him comfortable
Arghya is a symbolic gesture of hospitality offered to the Devata. As we offer some tea and snacks and respect to the guest at our home, similarly, here during Mantra sadhana, we are invoking the Devata of the Mantra and suitable welcome is essential. The arghya is normally a mixture of water, milk, curd, flower petals, kumkum, sandal and grains like til (sesame). The mixture is taken in hands in the cavity created by holding two palms together and then poured in the vessel meant for it. The ingredients of Arghya are Devata specific and so is the way of offering it and as such different Mantra Sadhana requires different kind of Arghya. On mental and subtle level, the offering of Arghya signifies surrender of the individual ego at the feet of the Devata.
In addition to the procedure, it is vital to understand the essential parts of a Mantra. Every mantra is suppose to be complete only when it is used with the following six parts, knows as ‘Shadanga':
Keelaka and
Rishi is the person who originally formulated the Mantra. In vedic culture, Rishi is believed as the seer, a visualizer of Mantra. The prerequisite of naming the Rishi of the mantra before using the same is a humble way of showing gratitude and acknowledgement. This act of acknowledgement is the first step towards dissolution of personal pride and ego. The feeling of gratitude initiates the altered state of mind leading to internal environment congenial to invocation of the Devata of the Mantra.
Devata of the Mantra is the form of the god who is being propitiated. The deveta element engages the visualizing faculty of human mind. Every Devata has its own Shape, Colour, Posture, Gesture, Mudra, Ayudha, and personality. The preceding steps of Rishi and Chhanda prepares the ground for effective visualization of the Devata. The initial utterrance of name of the Devata creates flashes of the visions. Its frequent repetition enables a devotee to contemplate upon the form of the Devata. Ultimately, he forgets his own self and gets unified with the form of the Devata.
Chhandas denotes to the grammatical formation of words in a particular rhythm. The chhanda sets the pattern of words and number of syllables. The formation guides the recitation of the Mantra in a particular way. The pattern activates different points in human brain and further augment the internal psychic environment. Each chhanda has its own attributes to influence the mood of the person reciting it.
Chhandas are classified into two types (1) Varnik Chhand (alphabetical stanzas) and (2)Matrik Chhand (stanzas containing short vowels). Hindu mantras follow the Chhandas of their respective Vedic Samhita and Shakha. Generally a distinct Matrik Chhanda has been preferred by different Shakha in different Samhitas.
Beeja is a single letter of Sanskrit Alphabet and it represent, again, shortest possible form of the Devata. The shape of the Beeja creates the route for the energy to vibrate. Beejam resembles the basic character (tatva) of the mantra. for example jala tatva(soft), agni tatva (hard) etc.
Keelaka means a nail. Now, what is significance of a Nail here with respect to reciting a Mantra? To understand the significance of Keelaka we have to link it with the nail that stops a rotating wheel slipping out of its excel. We know that the energy of a mantra is generated from the mind of the person and its important to keep it centered at a point to save it getting dissipated. This is done through Keelaka. Some people symbolize it with a key of the lock. Thus, a keelaka is believed to be a Key to open the lock of the source of a Mantra power.
Shakti means Power. Shakti means power or energy of the Mantra. This is the power generated through reciting the mantra.
It has to be noted that every Mantra has its own form of Shakti. However, let us admit that today, except the name denoted to the Shakti, we do not know much about distinct forms of the energy of Mantra. The main reason for this omission is attributable to the fact that graphical reproduction of the form of energy vibrations visualized during altered state of mind remains difficult. The second reason for the misconception is that we consider the words ‘Devi’ and ‘Shakti’ as synonyms.
Due to this ambiguity, it is quite possible that a Sadhaka of a Mantra may contemplate upon a known form of Devi in stead of the energy vibrations of the Mantra.
Now, it should be clear as to why we don’t get the much acclaimed results from reciting a mantra. If we ignore the essential 6 parts, how can we expect the desired effects?
The limitation lies on two parts. First is the ignorance of the doer. The person who undertakes Mantra, does not know the essential prerequisites. Secondly, the limitation lies with the source from where a person receives the mantra. It is quite common now that people take mantra from any source, be it a cheap pocket book being sold at the roadside, any Sadhu or a TV Jyotishi. It is quite possible that the prerequisites are compromised in offering and receiving the Mantra in this manner.
Research on Mantra Sadhana
My objective here is to sensitize the need for conducting a research upon effectiveness of various Mantras. This way, we can assess the effectiveness of different mantras. The research should include the following:
What was the objective of undertaking a Mantra?
Whether Mantra was received from a Siddha or a Guru
If yes – who was the person?
what was the procedure used by the guru to season (siddhi) the Mantra?
What were the conditions followed by the Guru to assess the suitability of the beneficiary?
How many times the Mantra was recited/chanted every day?
What was the duration/period the Mantra was recited?
Whether the Shadangas i.e. Rishi, Devata etc. were performed ritualistically?
Whether Viniyas i.e. Sankalpa, Nyaasa, Puruscharana were performed?
If yes, what was the procedure?
What benefits were observed that can be confidently attributable to Mantra sadhana?
What way the pronunciation and modulation recitation of Mantra or or any instrumental sound used substantiated ? Could it be verified by a
living experienced expert?
Whether the Verbatim meaning of the Mantra signified the expected benefits?
Whether colours were used deliberately i.e., colour of the cloths or the Asana used by the sadhaka
If Mantra was used as a remedy of any disease; was it verified through medical reports?
I wish to have valuable contributions from learned members and visitors of this esteem site so that the science of mantra can be augmented in right direction. I invite suggestions with regard to classification of various kinds of Mantras and its genuine purpose. I wish that we can compile the Shadangas of every Mantra with its dos and don’ts. Let us bring in transparency into this subject. This is the way, we can get back the lost glory to our divine heritage. Let us admit and sensitize as to what can be done and what cannot be done through Mantra.This is the way, we can curb the Cheaters and Thugs who are exploiting the ignorance of poor and needy people.

Siddhis, Riddhis and Mystical Experiences

Quotes by Srimad Bhagavatam on Desire’s Younger Brother - Anger(Originally published in Tattva Prakasha newsletter.)

It has become quite popular nowadays to speak about mystical experiences and “siddhis”. Most yoga and meditation groups speak of them, along with other esoteric blabber such as the raising of kundalini, opening of chakras, and other things which no one has actually experienced. On one side we have new age gurus speaking of siddhis very cheaply as though they are as common as sand on a beach, and on the other hand we have “rationalists” who discount siddhis all together as mere fantasy.
Siddhis are a reality, and the science behind them has been passed down from time immemorial by the rishis and preserved in the Vedic texts. In actuality nothing is mystic. Everything functions according to natural laws. The rishis, by virtue of their expanded consciousness, understood the functioning of matter on the subtle levels of sound and mind. They actually understood the absolute laws of nature, and not just the surfacial reactions caused by mixing gross physical elements.
True transcendentalists have no interest in mundane material life. As such, the rishis did not give much importance to material powers and perfections. They were not interested in acquiring wealth, power, fame, etc. Their aim was much higher.
Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita:
vishaya vinivartante
niraharasya dehinah
rasa-varjam raso ‘py asya
param drishtva nivartate
“The embodied soul may be restricted from senses enjoyment, though the taste for sense objects remains. But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, he is fixed in consciousness.”
We must imagine how great the spiritual experience of the rishis and yogis must be to turn away from absolute material power – control over the fundamental laws of nature – and sit alone in the forest absorbed in meditation. That is the brahmananda, paramananda, shivananda, yogananda spoken of in the scriptures – the spiritual bliss which is the constitutional nature of the self. Experiencing a higher taste of spiritual bliss, they are able to renounce all lower material sensual enjoyment – both subtle and physical.
How else can we explain the countless yogis, jnanis, tapasvis, siddhas, and rishis who dwell in the sacred realm of the Himalayas. High in the mountains, surrounded by a forest covered in snow. The rishis are there even today meditating on the banks of the Ganges. What keeps them there, living in apparent poverty? Are they fools, are they mad? No, on the contrary, the world is mad and we are all fools. For we are chasing after the broken glass of sense enjoyment, while they are offering us the diamonds of
spiritual bliss.
The rishis are calling to us. We must heed their call. Whether we are in the city or in the forest, it makes no difference. Internally we must all become rishis and sadhus – transcendentalists of the concrete jungle. Be situated in your place and attain the goal of life, this is the message of the rishis and the Upanishads – sthane sthitah shruti gatam tanu-van-manobhih.
The aim of those following spiritual discipline is to become free from the desire to lord over material nature. Those seeking mystic perfections are motivated by their desire to control matter, subtle and gross. Those who are sincerely interested in spiritual life should try their best to become free from such material desires. I have seen many people who belong to lines that focus on siddhis. Some of the siddhis are amazing, some are just stupid. Everything from being able to pull chocolate out of the sand (the specialty of one particular sadhu) to being able to change the density of matter. Through various processes of meditation one’s mind is expanded and the understandings of matter become much greater. All matter is based on sound, so through sound it can be manipulated. Furthermore, the physical realm of our experience exists and is based on the subtle mental realm. Those who have conscious access to that realm can know and do things that we would consider to be mystical or supernatural.
There are eight primary siddhis described in the scriptures, and ten secondary perfections. Lord Krishna confirms this in the Srimad Bhagavatam as follows:
siddhayo ‘shtadasa prokta
dharana yoga-para-gaih
tasam ashtau mat-pradhana
dasaiva guna-hetavah
“The masters of the yoga system have declared that there are eighteen types of mystic perfection and meditation, of which eight are primary, having their shelter in Me, and ten are secondary, appearing from the material mode of goodness.”
The eight primary mystic perfections are as follows:
Anima-siddhi – The ability to decrease the size of one’s body and become smaller than the smallest particle. Through this siddhi one may enter into stone or change the density in one’s body, enabling one to pass through solid matter.
Mahima-siddhi – The ability to increase the size of one’s body, ultimately enveloping the universe.
Laghima-siddhi – The ability to make one’s body lighter than air and fly at will. The perfection of this siddhi enables one to travel on the sun’s rays and enter into the sun planet.
Prapti-siddhi – The ability to manifest any object one desires within one’s hand. This siddhi removes the limitations of space which seperate two objects from each other. It is said one will even be able to touch the moon with one’s finger [i.e. the limitation of distance is removed].
Prakamya-siddhi – The ability to attain anything one desires.
Ishita-siddhi – The ability to control the sub-potencies of the laws of nature. This enables one to control various energies and seemingly defy the laws of nature. On the lowest level, one may make fire come from one’s mouth, etc.
Vashita-siddhi – The ability to bring others under one’s control.
Kamavasayita-siddhi – The ability to attain anything anywhere. This is the highest of the eight and contains most of the abilities of the other perfections.
The ten secondary perfections are as follows:
1) The ability to be free from hunger and thirst. With this perfection one no longer depends on food and water for maintenance of one’s body. One will be able to sustain himself simply on prana, the life air.
2) The ability to hear things far away. With this perfection one can hear any conversation spoken anywhere in the world.
3) The ability to see things far away. With this perfection one develops a mystic vision, by which one can see any person or place. Sanjaya, the disciple of Vyasa, used this siddhi to see and hear the conversation between Krishna and Arjuna (known as Bhagavad Gita) which took place on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, though he was situated far away.
4) The ability to travel at the speed of the mind. With this perfection one can travel great distances in a moment simply by thinking of the destination.
5) The ability to assume any form one desires. This enables one to change one’s physical body at will.
6) The ability to enter the bodies of others. This perfection enables one to enter into the bodies of others and enjoy through their senses. Since ghosts do not have physical senses, they often resort to this to satisfy their desires through other’s bodies.
7) The ability to control the time of one’s death. With this perfection one may choose the time of leaving his body.
8) The ability to witness the pastimes between the demigods and the celestial girls called apsaras.
9) Satya-sankalpa – Perfect accomplishment of one’s determination. Whatever one desires to happen will happen.
10) Satya-vak – Giving orders that are unimpeded. With this perfection one’s very word is truth. Simply by saying something it occurs.
Besides these eighteen, there are five inferior perfections as follows:
The ability to know past, present and future.
The ability to tolerate heat, cold and other dualities.
The ability to know the minds of others.
The ability to check the influence of fire, water, poison, and weapons.
The ability to remain unconquered by others.
The primary eight siddhis are of a much higher order than the rest, and require severe discipline to accomplish. It is very rare that one will achieve such a perfection. But for every siddhi there is a reflection that is easily attained. The processes for attaining these minor siddhis are usually outlined in the Tantra-shastra. [Please refer to the course on Vedic literature to understand what is Tantra-shastra.] The processes generally involve doing upasana to a particular deity, who when pleased reveals their form to the Sadhaka. On the way many siddhis naturally develop due to expansion of the consciousness through mantra upasana and meditation. According to the category of deva one worships the result will come either quickly or after a long time, and the result will either be temporary or permanent. If you aim at a low entity, for example a ghost, the result will be quick, but it will be of minimal value. Whereas if your upasana is to a higher divinity, the result will be much more permanent and significant, but will take much more time to accomplish. The aim of the Sadhaka generally depends on his conditioning within the modes of nature. This is described by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita:
yajante sattvika devan
yaksa-raksamsi rajasah
pretan bhuta-ganams canye
yajante tamasa janah
“Men in the mode of goodness worship the demigods; those in the mode of passion worship the yakshas and rakshasas; and those in the mode of ignorance worship ghosts and spirits.”
As you progress in the modes, the worship becomes more and more purified, from ignorance to goodness. When you finally transcend the modes by worship of Krishna, the worship is completely transcendental beyond the influence of material nature.
The long term results of various upasanas are also described by Lord Krishna:
yanti deva-vrata devan
pitrin yanti pitri-vratah
bhutani yanti bhutejya
yanti mad-yajino ‘pi mam
“Those who worship the demigods will take birth among the demigods; those who worship the ancestors go to the ancestors (pitruloka); those who worship ghosts and spirits will take birth among such beings; and those who worship Me will live with Me.”
Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, our divine spiritual master, says in his commentary to this verse:
“Pishacha (ghost) worship is called ‘black arts’ or ‘black magic.’ There are many men who practice this black art, and they think that it is spiritualism, but such activities are completely materialistic.”
It should be noted that in this verse from Bhagavad Gita the first three types of worship are described as a vow (vrata). The worshipper is making a vow to the object of worship in exchange for some material gain. An agreement is being made between the two parties. But in regards to the worship of Krishna it is stated to be devotion (mad-yajinah). There is no expectation on the part of the devotees. The true yogi, meditating on the Paramatma within his heart, has no desire for mundane mystical perfections. Their worship is completely unalloyed, without a tinge of desire for material enjoyment.
Another category of siddhi involves the control of the object of worship. You do not directly acquire a siddhi, but you maintain control over an entity who by nature of their higher existence possess natural powers. This relationship is maintained through your worship to the entity, who receives nourishment from the worship.
According to the level of the deity the results are greater and more permanent. But the greater the results the more difficult the process is. As you move up from the lowest levels of worship of ghosts, to yakshas and yakshinis, to minor devas, the process becomes harder and harder (i.e. there is more sacrifice and sincerity involved). The perfection one achieves by worshipping a ghost cannot be compared to that attained by worshipping someone like Ganesha, but the worship of Ganesha will require more on the part of the Sadhaka. The results will not nearly be as temporary as that attained by worshipping a ghost or spirit. In the same way, when you go beyond the worship of the devas and you take up the worship of Lord Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the perfection you will achieve will be much greater than anything that is offered within this material world. And more than that, it will be the most permanent (eternal to be precise). But at the same time, to attain it will require the most sacrifice and sincerity. From the bottom of the grades of worship up to the top most level (worship of Lord Krishna) there is a direct correspondence between the necessary endeavour for perfection and the permanence of the result.
The third chapter of the Yoga sutras describe the following minor siddhis:
The ability to know all languages including those of animals.
Knowledge of one’s past lives.
Knowledge of the nature of other peoples minds.
The ability to make one’s body invisible.
The ability to make the sounds of one’s body unhearable.
The ability to make everyone happy and joyful.
The ability to possess great strength.
The ability to locate hidden things.
The knowledge of the fourteen planetary systems.
The knowledge of the arrangements of stars.
The knowledge of the movement of stars.
The knowledge of bodily anatomy.
The ability to remain motionless.
The ability to perceive the celestial beings known as siddhas.
The understanding of consciousness.
The knowledge of the soul.
The ability to walk on water, thorns and similar objects.
The ability to surround oneself with a blaze of light.
The ability to be omnipotent and omniscient.
How these powers are attained is summarized by Patanjali as follows:
janmaushadhi-mantra-tapah-samadhijah siddhayah
“The mystical perfections may be obtained either by birth, by elixir, by the chanting of mantras, by austerities, of by attainment of samadhi.”
The Vedic texts describe 400,000 different species of humans existing throughout the universe (such as yaksha, rakshasa, vanara, etc.) In many of the species, they are born automatically with various powers. This is the siddhi attained by birth. By reciting certain mantras and performing austerities one’s consciousness is expanded and one develops supernatural abilities. Finally, by attaining the state of complete absorption in meditation, samadhi, one attains powers depending on the object of one’s meditation. For example, one who meditates on the sun gains complete knowledge of the planetary systems; one who meditates on the relationship between the ear and the ether attains the ability to hear anything.
After listing all of these apparently wonderful powers, Patanjali provides a warning:
tad-dvairamyadipi doshabijajakshaye kaivalyam
“By giving up even these powers the seed of evil is destroyed and liberation follows.” This is the last test of the yogi.
Patanjali mentions one final method for attaining these perfections:
pratibhadva sarvam
“All these powers will come to one whose mind is spontaneously enlightened through purity.”
Even without following a mechanical process of meditation, if one’s mind is naturally purified by spiritual advancement and unalloyed devotion to God, one will automatically attain these various supernatural abilities. Lord Krishna confirms this in the Bhagavad Gita when He says:
yoginam api sarvesham
sraddhavan bhajate yo mam
sa me yuktatamo matah
“Of all the yogis, the one with great faith who always abides in Me, thinks of Me within himself, and renders transcendental loving service to Me – he is the most intimately united with Me in yoga and the highest of all. That is My opinion.”
The topmost yogi is not someone who has artificially restricted his senses through mechanical processes (like asana, pranayama, pratyahara, etc.), but one who has naturally engaged all of his senses in the devotional service of the Lord. The devotee, having experienced the spiritual bliss of bhakti-yoga, has no interest in mundane perfections and remains fixed on his ultimate aim to attain the lotus feet of Krishna. That is the ultimate perfection, sam-siddhi:
mam upetya punar janma
duhkhalayam ashashvatam
napnuvanti mahatmanah
samsiddhim paramam gatah
“After attaining Me, the great souls (mahatmas), who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection (sam-siddhi).”
Questions and Answers:
For most of my life I have been able to feel objects in my left hand that aren’t there and manipulate their texture and shape, etc. Do you know anything about this?
Thank you very much for your question. What you are experiencing is the residual effects of prapti-siddhi from your previous life. One of the sadhakas at our ashram had similar experiences when he was young. He would feel something like an itching sensation in his hand and he would feel the subtle presence of some object. When he would close his eyes, he could see what object was there. Later by mantra upasana he was able to revive the siddhi to the extent that he could materialize things within his hand.
The prapti siddhi enables one to acquire any object one desires by transfering it from one location to one’s hand. As mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita, there are eight material elements:
bhumir apo ‘nalo vayuh
kham mano buddhir eva ca
ahankara itiyam me
bhinna prakritir ashtadha
“Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego – all together these eight constitute My separated material energies.”
The Sankhya system of philosophy explains how each element telescopes out from the previous element. The first physical or gross element is the ether. Within the ether all the other four gross elements are present (earth, water, fire and air) in a subtle form. The subtle quality of ether is sound, and from the sound expands the air. The subtle quality of air is touch (movement), and from the touch expands the fire. The subtle quality of fire is sight, and from the sight expands the water. The subtle quality of water is taste, and from the taste expands the earth. And finally, the subtle quality of earth, the last of the physical elements, is smell.
Thus you have a telescoping effect of the elements and their subtle qualities beginning from ether down to earth. Since each element is manifesting from the previous, each new element contains all of the qualities of the previous elements. The ether element, being the first, only possesses the quality of sound. One cannot touch, see, taste or smell ether. The air element, having expanded from the ether, possesses both the qualities of sound and touch. One can feel and hear the movements of air, but one cannot see, taste or smell the air. The fire element’s added quality is sight. Thus one can see, touch and hear the fire, but one cannot taste or smell fire. The water, having expanded from the fire, can be heard, felt, seen and tasted, but not smelt. And earth, being the final element, contains all the five qualities of sound, touch, sight, taste and smell.
This sequence is the natural sequence of manifestation of gross matter. The prapti siddhi enables one, through mantra, to reverse this process and transform gross physical objects into ethereal objects by merging the respective elements into their source element. Thus one takes an object located in a particular location, and by utilizing mantra siddhi, one merges the earth element into the water element, the water element into the fire element, the fire element into the air element, and finally the air element into the ether element. As you merge each element into the previous, the corresponding quality disappears (being merged back into the source element). In this way, a physical object is transformed into an ethereal object with no quality other than sound. This ethereal object can be transferred over space by mind, and then the entire process is reversed to remanifest the original object in one’s hand.
What appears as a mystical feat to most is actually manipulation of the subtle laws that govern physical nature. There are eight major siddhis and ten secondary siddhis, all of which are based on manipulation of the subtle laws of nature.
To revive this latent siddhi you will need to take up mantra upasana very seriously. At present we are shifting our library from one location to another, so all of our manuscripts are in trunks. After one or two weeks, when the shifting is over, I will be able to provide you with the necessary mantra and yantra for prapti siddhi.
You must rekindle your spiritual pursuits. In your previous life you had undertaken much sadhana. Now continue from where you left off and perfect your life. These siddhis are not important at all. They will arise in anyone who takes seriously to spiritual practices. For the weak minded they are an obstacle on the path of self-realization. Their use is only to reaffirm one’s faith that one is progressing on the path.
You have mentioned [in Tattva Prakasha 1.1] that at the final devastation Lord Brahma will also have to face his karma but I have indeed read that Lord Brahma goes to Vaikuntha upon the final devastation. Please clarify.
The scriptures state:
brahmana saha te sarve
samprapte pratisancare
parasyante kritatmanah
pravishanti param padam
“Brahma along with all of his followers enter into the supreme abode at the time of devastation.”
This verse is in reference to the present Brahma of this particular universe, who is a pure devotee of the Lord. It does not mean that every Brahma in every universe will automatically attain liberation. Neither will every inhabitant of Brahma-loka automatically go to the spiritual world. Brahma is no different than any other living entity. If he engages in pure devotional service he goes to the spiritual world. The same is the case for any of us. If he does not execute unalloyed devotional service, he will take his birth according to his desires.
Sri Bhaktivinoda Thakura, a great saint in the line of Chaitanya, has sung:
kita-janma hau jatha tuwa das
bahir-mukha brahma-janme nahi as
“May I be born again even as a worm, so long as I remain Your [Krishna’s] devotee. I have no desire to be born as a Brahma averse to You.”
Very rarely there is a bahir-mukha brahma, a Brahma who is averse to the Lord’s devotional service. Generally all Brahma’s are favourable to bhakti, but there are exceptions. Sri Viraraghava acharya has stated, based on revelation, that two brahma-kalpas (lives of brahma) ago within this universe there was a bahir-mukha brahma. Otherwise we generally do not get information of what has occured in other universes, or even within the same universe in prior creations.
Is it possible to tell one’s future?
Dear Sadhaka,
There are ancient sciences that enable one to know the destiny one has created for himself in previous lives. Our future is based on the previous activities we have performed and the karmic reactions we have accumulated. At the same time, free will is powerful enough to overcome any fate that one may have, provided it is powered from a spiritual source. It is like the water flowing in a river. Generally the water will follow the river bed, and it will not flow above the river bank. But it is possible if there is enough force for the water to make a new path. Such an occurrence is very rare. Thus, if a man sees a river flowing, he can “predict” the path it will follow. It will naturally follow the riverbed towards the ocean. Our futures can be known in a similar manner, but 99% of modern astrologers do not know the actual science behind it. They are simply interested in making money from the public. Only a spiritually powerful person has the purity and honesty to be able to tell your future in truth.
Can I know what will be my future. Also, can I get rid of bad luck and if so how?
Dear Sadhaka,
Everyone’s future in this world is the same. We are all moving towards death. Time is constantly ticking away, decreasing our life by the second. This is the only future that everyone can be certain of. It is possible to know other aspects of one’s future and destiny, but the information is not as important as this.
For all the wealth in the world, one cannot buy back one second of time wasted. Thus there is nothing more valuable than time. Use your time valuably in spiritual pursuit. Then you will be able to know your ultimate future, and become free from the bondage of “destiny”.
Bad luck is very simple to remove. You must take up a daily spiritual sadhana, for by spiritual strength only can destiny be changed. Spend at least 10 minuted a day in the morning doing nama japam. Recite the names of Hari and meditate on the sound vibrations of the divine names. Swami Shivananda, the great saint from Rishikesh, has advised that this is the simplest way by which we can become free from the influence of bad luck.
Actually there is no such think as “luck”. Everything happens due to our previous activities. The Karmic reactions are comming to us from previous lives of activity. We must burn up the seeds of karma before they sprout into reactions. For our previous good activities we will experience enjoyment or happiness, and for our previous bad activities we will experience suffering or disturbance. Those who have knowledge of these laws of nature know there is no luck, but only the natural law. Develop your spiritual strength and you can burn the karmic reactions to ashes. The scriptures describe that just as dry grass is instantly burnt to ash, in the same way the chanting of Hari’s name will burn away the sinful reactions. If you truly want to become free from the control of your karmic reactions, take up a daily spiritual sadhana. Spend ten minutes a day in meditation on the mantra:
hare krishna hare krishna krishna krishna hare hare
hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare

Monday, May 18, 2015

Aitareya Upanishad

om van me manasi pratishthita mano me vaci
pratisthitamaviravirma edhi vedasya ma anisthah srutam
me ma prahasih anenadhitenahoratra nsandadhamritam
vadisyami satyam vadisyami tanmamatatu
tadvaktaramavatu avatu mamavatu
vaktaram-avatu vaktaram
aum santih santih santih harih om
O Almighty Lord! My speech is well established in my mind. My mind is well established in my speech. O Lord, please empower me to grasp and preach the Vedas. May I never forget Your teachings. Only by knowing You are with me am I able to maintain my days and nights. I shall always only follow You. May You protect me. My dear Lord, please protect me and my preceptor. O my dear Lord, please protect me and my preceptor and all those around me!
Chapter One
atma va idameka evagra asit
nanyat kincana misat sa iksata
lokan nu srija iti
Before creation of the universe everything was situated within the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Brahman), everything was contained within Him, nothing was at that time separate. The jivas (individual souls, tatastha sakti) and even the external energy Maya was still within Him. So that Lord then willed to manifest all the worlds through me (mahi dasa aitareya).
sa imamllokan-asrijata
ambho maricirmaramapah
ado-ambhah parena divam
dyauh pratistha-anttariksam maricayah
prithivi maro ya adhastatta apah
He created all the worlds – Ambahas (Tapah, Janah, Mahah and Svarga lokas – upper planets), Maricayah (the middle planets in the region of the sun, moon, stars which we in the middle earth planet can see. Mara refers to the earth, the planet where sh ort life spans are normal) and Apah (the seven lower planets – Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Rasatala, Mahatala & Patala).
sa iksareme u loka
lokapalan nu arija iti
so ‘dbhya eva purusam samuddhrtyamurcchayat
After contemplating the world He had created, He then decided to fill the worlds. From that waters in which He was lying in, He made the Hiranmaya Purusha.
tamabhyatapat tasyabhitaptasya mukham
nirabhidyata yathandam mukhadyak
vaco ‘gnih nasike nirabhidyetam nasikabhyam
pranah pranad-vayug aksini nirabhidyetam
aksibhyam caksiscaksisa adityah
karnau nirabhidyetam karnabhyam srotam
srotrad disah tvag nirabhidyata tvaco lomanyo
lomabhya osadhivanaspatayah hrdayam
nirabhidyata hrdayanmano manasascascacanddramah
nabhirnabhidyata nabhya apanah apananmrtyah
sisnam nirabhidyata sisnad retah retasa apah
The Lord deeply thought upon the form of Hiranyagarbha Purusha, as He thought in this way there burst forth from that golden egg a mouth. From that mouth came speech, from speech it’s guardian deity, Agni, came. Then came two nostrils and with them came prana – breath and it’s guardian Vayu. Two eyes next came with their guardians, the sun. Then two ears along with hearing, and it’s subtle guardian of the ether. Next came skin, the hairs of that skin being herbs and trees. B-boom, b-boom came the pounding of the heart, from the heart came the mind, and the mind’s guardian deity, the moon. The navel and the out-going breath next came with it’s guardian deity – death. The generative organ appeared, and from this organ semen came forth along with it’s guardian deity, the water based god, Prajapati.
ta eta devatah srista asmin
mahatyarnave prapatamstama-sanaya
pipasabhyam anvavarjjat
ta enamabruvannayatanam nah prajanihi
yasmin pratisthita annamadameti
Being created by the Lord, these guardian deities fell head first into the ocean of birth and death full of sufferings. Now the Lord subjected that Hiranyagarbha Purusha to hunger and thirst. The guardian deities then approached the Lord saying, “O creator, please give us an abode where we can reside and eat food.”
tabhyo gamanayat ta abruvan na vai no ‘yam alamiti
tabhyo-asvamanayat ta abruvan-na vai no ‘yamlamiti
The Lord then brought before the guardian deities a cow. But they said that this was not sufficient for them. So then the Lord brought a horse before them, but again they said it was not sufficient.
tabhyah purusamanayat ta abravan asukrtam vateti
puruso vava sukrta to abravit yathayatanam pravisateti
The Lord then led up a human being before them to which they said, “O well done. This form is just right for us to be established.” The Lord then told them to enter into that body and take up their respective places of residence.
agnirvag bhutva mukham pravisat
vayuh prano bhutva nasike pravisat
adityascaksurbhutva aksini pravisad
disah srotram bhutva jarnau
pravisan ausadhivanaspatayo-lomani
bhutva tvadham pravisan chandrama
mano bhurva hrdayam pravisad
mrtyarapano bhutva nabhim pravisad
apo reto bhutva sisnam pravisan
The fire-god, Agni, representing speech, then entered the mouth. Vayu, the life giving breath then entered the nostrils. The bright sun god Surya representing sight, entered the eyes. The Dik-devatas, the prajapatis from all directions representing hearing, entered the ears. The deities of herbs and trees as haris entered the skin. The moon-god Candra, lord of the mind, entered the heart. The god of death, Yama, entered into the navel representing out-going breath. Varuna Ojas, the water god representing semen entered the generative organ.
tamasanaya-pipase abrutatmavabhyamabhi-prajanihiti
sa te abravidetassveva vam
devatasvabhajamyetasu bhaginyau karomiti
tasmad yasyai kasyai ca devatayai havir-grihyate
bhaginyavevesyamasanaya-pipase bhavatah
Now hunger and thirst personified prayed to the Lord, “Where can we reside, please find a place for us.” The Lord then said, “You shall be shared among all of these aforementioned deities, in this way whichever respective deity receives an offering, hunger and thirst can partake of it.
sa iksateme nu lokasca lokapalasca,
annamebhyah sriji iti
The Lord, Supreme Creator of all, then though, Now I have created the universe and the demigods (guardian deities), let Me now create food for them.
so ‘po ‘bhyatapat tabhyoabhitaptabhyo
murtirajayata ya vai sa
murtirajayatannam vai tad
Contemplating for some time, looking at the waters, then up from the waters came a form. Indeed, that form that was produced from the waters was to be food.
tadenad sristam parag-tyajighamsat
tadvaca ajighriksat
tan-nasaknodvaca grihitum sa
Having been created, it tried to run away. Speech tried to capture it, but was not able to grasp it. If speech had of grasped it then just by the utterance of food one would be satisfied.
tannasaknot pranena gribitum sa yadhainat
pranenagrahaisyadabhipranya haivannam trapsyat
The human form then tried to capture ‘it’s food’ by breath, but he was not able to grasp it by breath, for if he had of grasped it be breath alone, then merely by the scent of food one would be satisfied.
tac caksusta ajighriksat tan nasaknoccaksusa grihitum
sa yad hainaccaksisagrahaisyad dristva
haivannamatra psipat
tad-shortrenagighriksat tannasaknoc-cotreba grihitum sa
yad-hainah-srotrenagrahaisyaca-srutva haivannamatrapsyat tatvaca-ajighriksat
tannasaknot tvaca grihitum sa yad-hainat tvaca grahaisyat
spristva haivann-amatrapsyat tanmnasa-ajighriksat
tannasaknot-manasa grihitum sa yad-hainanmanasagrahaisyat
tannasanotsisnena grihitum sa yad-hainat-sisnenagrahaisyad
visrijya haivannamatrapsyat
The being then tried to grasp it with his sight but couldn’t. If he had then just by the sight of food one would have been satisfied. The being then tried to grasp his food with hearing, but he was not able to do so. If he had then simply by hearing food one would have been satisfied. The being then tried to grasp the food with it’s skin but could not. If he had then simply by touching food one would be satisfied. The being then tried to grasp the food with the min but was unable to do so. If he had of then just by thinking of food one would be satisfied. The being then tried to grasp the food with it’s generative organ, prodding it, but could not grasp it. If this were possible then just by discharge or emission of food one would have been satisfied.
tadapanenajighrisat tadavayat
saiso ‘nnasya graho yadvayuannayurva
esa yadvayuh
Then the being sought to grasp the food by the apana – digestive breath. Taking the food through the mouth with the help of the digestive air, and taking the food down to the stomach, the food was consumed. Proving that it is the digestive air (apana) that consumes food; and so the apana is the principle cause in sustaining one’s life by the intake of food.
sa iksata katham nvidam madrite syadutu
sa iksata katarena prapadya iti
sa iksata yadi vacabhivyahritam
yadi pranenabhipranitam
yadi caksisa dristam
yadi srotrena srntam,
yadi tvaca spristam
yadi manasa dhyatam
yady apanenabhyapanitam
yadi sisnena visristamatha ko ‘ham iti
The Lord then thought to Himself, “How can this being live without Me?” Again He thought, “Through what shall I enter into this gross body?” Again the Lord thought to Himself, “If speech talk, if nostrils breaths, if the eyes see, if the ears hear, if the skin feels, if the mind thinks, if the apana vayu digests, and if the generative organ emits, then what am I?”
sa etam eva simanam vidaryaitaya
dvara prapadyata saisa vidritirnam
dvastadetannandanam tasya traya
avasathastrayah svapnah
ayamavasatho ‘yamavasatho ‘yamavasatheti
So then the Lord opened the Brahma Randhra in the skull and entered into that opening. This opening is known as vidriti; the place of bliss or delight (nandana). For the Lord there are three palces which are dwelling places within that of waking, dreaming, and deep sleep, deluded in all those three covered states.
sa jato bhutany abhivyai-ksat kimihanyam vavadisaditi,
sa etam eva purusam brahma tatamamapasya-didamadarsam iti
Thus having manifest Himself within the body of a being, the Lord then made the jiva soul active and naturally the body and senses became conscious of their respective objects. The tiny jiva soul (individual soul) in bondage being puffed up by false ego acted himself as the Lord of the body, the Lord in the form of Paramatma (supersoul or witness) who is actually Lord of the body, saw the tiny soul bewildered thinking himself as being independent from the Lord. There are however some aware souls who on realization of the Supersoul exclaim that there is another who is superior, all pervading, Brahman I see him now.
tasmadidandro-nama idandro ha vai nama
tamidandram santam-indra ityacaksate paroksena
paroksapriyaiva hi devah paroksapriya iva hi devah
Knowing Him indirectly some call Him Indra (He who is beyond the range of the senses – idam drah). Yes, surely His name is Indra, for those wise devotees cryptically call Him Indra for they are fond of such cryptic puzzles.
Chapter 2
puruse ha va ayamadito garbho bhavati
yadetadretah tad etad sarvebhyo ‘…gebhyastejah
sambhutamatmanyevatmanam vibharti
tad yada striyam sinchati-athaitadjanayati
tadasya prathamam janma
In this being, the individual soul (jiva) first enters repeated births in the form of an embryo. The individual soul left his previous situation with desires to fulfill in this world, and now through the semen of the male, is injected into a womb of a woman during her flowering period (ovulation). This is one’s first birth.
tat striya atmabhuyam gacchati
yatha svamangam tatha
tasmadenam na hinasti
sasyaitamatmanamatra gatam bhavayati
The embryo grows in the womb of the woman and she looks after it just as she does one of her very own limbs. She carefully nourishes this embryo that she has received from her husband.
sa bhavayitri bhavayitavya bhavati
tam stri garbham vibharti
so ‘gra eva kumaram janmano ‘gre adhibhavayati
sa yat kumaram janmano ‘gre ‘dhibhavayaryarmanameva
tad bhavayatyesam lokanam santatya
evam santata hime lokastadasya dvitiyam janma
The wife, being the caretaker of her husband’s embryo, is naturally nourished and cared for by the husband. The wife bears the child in her womb and the husband bestows cherishing care on the child in the womb and after birth. While the father nourishes the child from birth onwards, he also looks after his own well-being, for the continuaation of the growing progeny. In this way progeny is continued on the earth. After some time the son gets his sacred thread. This is one’s second birth.
so ‘syayamatma punyebhyah karmabhyah pratidhiyate
athasyayamitara atma krtakrtyah
vayogatah praiti sa itah prayanneva punarjayate
tadasya tritiyam janma
Now the son, whose prototype is the father, is commissioned by the father to perform the samskara ceremonies and spiritual activities in the absence of the father. After this the worthy son (putra) has accomplished his father’s rites, the father having attained old age, the father passes away and is born again. This is one’s third birth.
taduktamrisninah-garbhe nu sannanvesa
mavedamaham devanam janimani visva
satam ma pura ayasiraraksannadhah
syeno javasa niradiyamiti
garbha eva etat-shayano vamadeva-evamvuvaca
In regard to this, it is stated by a great seer: “While I was confined in my mother’s womb I knew well all the many births I had taken. A hundred iron citadels confined me. But somehow by the causeless mercy of the Supreme Lord, I again came in contact with my spiritual master that I had previously had in another birth. And now with the swiftness of a hawk, I flew forth” – Thus Rsi Vamadeva declared even while lying in the womb of his mother.
sa evam vidvanasmah sarira-bhedadurdhvam
utcramya-musmin svarge loke sarvan
kamanaptva-amrtahsamabhavat samabhavat
Realizing his predicament Rishi Vamadeva gave up all further materialistic desires, desiring only the lotus feet of the Lord. When finally his present body’s dissolution came, he attained to the Vaikunthas, the abode of transcendental bliss, and resumed his normal eternal constitutional blissful body free from three fold sufferings of this world.
Chapter 3
ko ‘yamatmeti vayamupasmahe
katarah satma yena va rupam pasyati
yena ca sabdam srinoti
yena va gandhanajighrati
yena va vacam vyakaroti
yena va svadu casvaduca vijanati
Who is that Lord whom we worship? Out of the two souls residing in the body, who is that witness who is worshipped by us? The tiny jiva soul observes to see if he is the same as that Lord by seeing Whom one sees, by Whom one hears or by Whom one smells or talks about. Or by how one discriminates between the bitter and the sweet. Are we one?
yadetaddhrdayam manascaited sanjnanam vijnanam
prajnanam medha dristirdhritirmatirmanisa
jutih smritih samkalpah craturasuh kamo vasa iti
sarvanyevaitani prajnanasya namadheyani bhavanti
So we see that which is the heart and mind cannot also be the soul, perception, discrimination, intelligence, wisdom, insight, steadfastness, thought, thoughtfulness, impulse, memory, conception, purpose, life, desire, and control – all these are attributes of the entity within the body whose nature is Brahman, but they are not He, nor He, they.
esa brahmaisa indra esa prajapatirete
sarve devemani ca panca mahabhutani prithivi vayurakasa
apo-joytim-shityetanimani ca ksudramisraniva bijani
itaranmi cetarani ca andajani ca jarujani
ca svedajanicodbhijjani ca asva gavah pusu
sa hastino yadkincedam prani jangamanca patatrica
yaccha sthavaram sarvam tat prajnanetram prajnane
pratisthitam prajnanetro lokah
prajna pratistha prajnanam brahma
He who is the underlying unseen, the Lord of hosts of demigods and humans alike. Who has put into motion the five great elements, earth, water, fire, air and ether, mixed with the modes of nature, each and every living entity down to the smallest organism, those born form an egg and those born from a womb, those born from sweat and those born of a sprout, of horses, cows, men, elephants, those that walk and those that fly, all moving and non-moving beings. Know that the omniscient Personality of Godhead Who is the source of the impersonal Brahma has manifest all these different animate and inanimate objects through His power of Brahman. For the Lord is the source of the spiritual and material worlds everything eminates from Him, knowing this one can go to Him.
sa etena prajnenatmana asman-lokadutcramya
amusmin svarge loke sarvan kamanaptva amrtah
samabhavat samabhavat aum
Rishi Vamadeva having realized his true nature as a spiritual being, free from the influence of material conditioning and the impositions thereof, attained to the transcendental plane. Now happily he regained his natural constitutional position as an eternal servant of Lord Krishna in Goloka Vrndavana.
O Almighty Lord! My speech is well established in my mind. My mind is well established in my speech. Kindly show yourself to me. Bestowing Your kindness upon me, enable me to fully understand You, Whose glories are sounded throughout the Vedas. May I never lose sight of the Vedic injunctions. By constantly remembering You I maintain my days and nights. I shall always deem to live by Your path and shall always speak the truth.
Thus ends Aitareya Upanishad.

Bhavishya Purana: The Prediction of Islam

[From the third part of the Pratisarga Parva.]
Shri Suta Gosvami said: In the dynasty of king Shalivahana, there were ten kings who went to the heavenly planets after ruling for over 500 years. Then gradually the morality declined on the earth. At that time Bhojaraja was the tenth of the kings on the earth. When he saw that the moral law of conduct was declining he went to conquer all the directions of his country with ten-thousand soldiers commanded by Kalidasa. He crossed the river Sindhu and conquered over the gandharas, mlecchas, shakas, kasmiris, naravas and sathas. He punished them and collected a large ammount of wealth. Then the king went along with Mahamada (Mohammad), the preceptor of mleccha-dharma, and his followers to the great god, Lord Shiva, situated in the desert. He bathed Lord Shiva with Ganges water and worshipped him in his mind with pancagavya (milk, ghee, yoghurt, cow dung, and cow urine) and sandalwood paste, etc. After he offered some prayers and pleased him.

Suta Goswami said: After hearing the king’s prayers, Lord Shiva said: O king Bhojaraja, you should go to the place called Mahakakshvara, that land is called Vahika and now is being contaminated by the mlecchas. In that terrible country there no longer exists dharma. There was a mystic demon named Tripura, whom I have already burnt to ashes, he has come again by the order of Bali. He has no origin but he achieved a benediction from me. His name is Mahaoda and his deeds are like that of a ghost. Therefore, O king, you should not go to this land of the evil ghost. By my mercy your intelligence will be purified. Hearing this the king came back to his country and Mahamada came with them to the bank of the river Sindhu. He was expert in expanding illusion, so he said to the king very pleasingly: O great king, your god has become my servant. Just see, as he eats my remnants, so I will show you. The king became surprised when he saw this just before them. Then in anger Kalidasa rebuked Mahamada, “O rascal, you have created an illusion to bewilder the king, I will kill you, you are the lowest…”
That city is known as their site of pilgrimage, a place which was Madina or free from intoxication. Having a form of a ghost (Bhuta), the expert illusionist Mahamada appeared at night in front of king Bhojaraja and said: O king, your religion is of course known as the best religion among all. Still I am going to establish another religion by the order of the Lord. The symptoms of my followers will be that they first of all will cut their genitals, have no shikha, but having beard, be cruel, make noise loudly and eat everything. They should eat animals without performing any rituals. This is my opinion. They will perform purificatory act with the musala or a pestle as you purify your things with kusha. Therefore, they will be known as musalman. Thus the adharmic religion will be founded by me. After having heard all this the king came back to his palace and that ghost went back to his place.
The intelligent king, Bhojaraj established the language of Sanskrit in three varnas – the brahmanas, kshatriyas and vaisyas – and for the shudras he established prakrita-bhasha, the ordinary language spoken by common men. After ruling his kingdom for 50 years, he went to the heavenly planet. The moral laws established by him were honored even by the demigods. The arya-varta, the pious land is situated between Vindhyacala and Himacala or the mountains known as Vindhya and Himalaya. The Aryans reside there, but varna-sankaras reside on the lower part of Vindhya. The musalman people were kept on the other side of the river Sindhu.
On the island of Barbara, Tusha and many others also the followers of Isamsiha were also situated as they were managed by a king or demigods.

Bhavishya Purana: The Prediction of Buddhism

[ From the 29th chapter of the Pratisarga Parva. ]
Long ago in the country known as Citrartha, the inhabitants of the heavenly planets used to come to play during the time of autumn. One day a heavenly apsara know as Manjughosha came to that place where the sage Shuka was residing. Seeing this beautiful boy, she tried to attract him while singing and dancing, being overwhelmed by lusty desires. She praised him with a beautiful prayer holding her hands and bowing down. Somehow, she pleased the muni. Then the glorious Shuka, hearing this auspicious prayer asked her to request a benediction. Manjughosha humbly said: ”O lord, you are the protector of those who came to your shelter, therefore I’m at your shelter, please become my husband”.

The sage accepted her and after some time they produced a son named ‘Muni’ who performed austerity very strictly upto 12 years. He married the daughter of Svarnadeva, the god of gold. They gave birth to a daughter named Kinnari. She was very young and beautiful. She performed austerity to please Lord Shiva, and as a benediction lord Shiva intrusted her to a sober sage Makaranda.
Then her father, Muni, asked lord Shiva to bless her, so that they will successfully make progress in this world.
Lord Shiva said: Upto 30 years you will enjoy your country in the middle of the earth, then it will be destroyed. After hearing this Muni went to his place with Makaranda and resided there. As soon as the 29th year started the battle took place among those kings who took birth as the incarnations of the associates of Krishna. Bauddha, the lord of nyuhas (the lessened people) attacked the beautiful city of Netrapala, thinking that this city is wonderfully decorated with various kinds of jewels. The powerful king Bauddha-simha who had seven-million soldiers, fought with those kings who had only three million soldiers. The fight went on terribly between the armies for seven days and nights. The great powerful kings, who killed all the inimical armies protected by Baudha-simha, were Yoga-simha, Bhoga-simha and Vijaya.
After that more Buddhists came from the countries known as Shyama and Japaka, and all of them were magicians. Again they had a large battle which lasted for one month. Then Netrasimha arrived with seven million soldiers protected by eight generals, for the destruction of the Buddhists. Being afraid, all the Buddhists left India completely and went to China to continue the war from there. The opposite army also continued following them. When they arrived on the bank of the Huha river, it was the month of Magh, the second half part of the month of January, the fight took place again. There were one million soldiers each from the countries of Syama and Japaka, and ten million soldiers from China assembled for a fight. On the other side, Krishnamsa, Deva, Netrapala, Mandalika, Dhanyapada, Lallasimha, Talana and Jana nayaka were the generals, each of them having one million soldiers. There was a terrible battle between the Buddhists and the Aryans. In that war seven million Buddhists, and two million Aryans were killed. Being afraid the Buddhists ran away from the battle and went to their home to produce a wooden army with the help of a machinery arrangement. They made ten-thousand elephants (made out of wood) along with warriors, one million horses, one thousand buffaloes, one thousand hogs, one thousand tigers, one thousand swans, and seven thousand camels. All these creatures had wooden warriors on their back. Thus with the wooden army which was 125,000 in number, they killed two million soldiers protected by Krishnamsas. Seeing this wonder Jayanta, the expert fighter shot fire arrows toward the wooden armies, so that they were immediately destroyed, being burnt to ashes. Only three million kshatriyas (warriors) were left, and they glorified the proficient warrior Jayanta again and again. Then the Buddhists from China, made a twenty thousand strong iron horse calvary and sent them to fight. The powerful warrior Yogasimha, riding on an elephant held the bow and arrows in his hands and shot to the neck of the iron warriors. Being afflicted by the arrows of Yogasimha five thousand soldiers were killed. Seeing this, Bauddhasimha made an iron tiger and sent it to Yogasimha. By the attack of that iron tiger the brave Yogasimha was finally killed, and then Bhogasimha riding on a horse, went to fight with the tiger. He killed the tiger by throwing a missile, and roared loudly. Then a lion was sent to him by Bauddhasimha and thus he (Bhogasimha) was killed by a lion. When the son of Swarna-vati (Jayanta) saw that his maternal uncles were already dead, he rode on a powerful horse and went to Bauddhasimha. He took illusory arrows and put the opposite army into delusion along with Bauddhasimha. He captured ten-thousand kings including Bauddhasimha, and returned to Krishnamsas having destroyed the mechanical armies.
Then all of them happily went to the city and forcibly “looted” the wealth from the palace, which was very opulent, and came back the fort of the king. Jayanta came and released Bauddhasimha. After being released he offered his daughter Padmaja to Jayanta and also offered 100,000,000 golden coins for the pleasure of his in law. After that all the Buddhists made their vows there itself saying “We will never go to Arya-desa to invade the country.” Then they offered their homage and left. They went to Netrapala with their three million remaining soldiers.