Showing posts with label ASTROLOGY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ASTROLOGY. Show all posts

Thursday, May 28, 2015

Vedic astrology- Part 4 - Pathani Samanta: The Great Hindu Astrologer

Pandit Samanta Chandra Sekhar Harichandan Mohapatra, locally known as “Pathani Samanta”, was the illustrious author of Siddhanta Darpan – a systematic record of his life-long relentless work composed in beautiful metrical Sanskrit verses . Siddhanta Darpan is an astronomical treatise in elegant Sanskrit verses, developed and improved upon the Surya-Siddhanta and the Siddhanta- Siromani of the past. This magnum opus of Chandra Sekhar, the last and best book is worthy of its name as a real mirror of India’s astronomical knowledge.

A Hindu orthodox by nature, Chandra Sekhar, with his traditional background alone studied the subject of astronomy, observed the movements of planets through naked eyes and was able to reach the approximate reality as founded by scientists with the aid of modern equipments. He was an outstanding mathematician of high order and engaged himself in the field of mathematical calculations known as Astronomy.
In Siddhanta Darpan, poetry and mathematics are in tune with each other, and this stands as a specimen of his genius. By sheer efforts and perseverance, this last and foremost orthodox Hindu siddhanta writer could rise above his environment. He left an indelible stamp of his genius on the history of Indian astronomy. His ability in the use of manayantra (measuring instrument), “Golyantra” (spherical instrument) and surya-ghadi (sundial to measure the time) proved him to be a good architect with engineering skill.
He had also interest in the preparation of fire works with knowledge to launch the same to a particular height. India is a nation of ancient culture and tradition. It reached the zenith in all spheres at one time when most of the so-called advanced nations of to-day were not discovered. Indian astronomy is nearly as old as the Vedas. As a science, it rose to its peak in the days of Aryabhatta in the 5th century A.D. Indian astronomy is a mere curiosity to the scholars of the West. They know very little about our traditional mathematical astronomy because it does not come under the mainstream of astronomy which originated in Babylonia and evolved through the Greeks and Europeans. Hence neither are the scholars of the West fair enough to assess the merit of our system, nor are we sincere to project ourselves sufficiently in order to establish our wit and wisdom before the so-called advanced world.
Chandra Sekhar recorded all of his findings in Siddhanta Darpan, a small book with about 2500 verses(24 chapters) in Sanskrit language entirely written on palm-leaves. Will Durrant was amazed to find this great Hindu scholar writing treatises on mathematics even in verses. This invaluable contribution of Chandra Sekher to the astronomical science, Siddhanta Darpan was written on April 12, 1869 and completed in all respect by November 12, 1892. Out of its 2,500 verses (slokas), 2,184 are his own. The composition and structure of the verses indicate his extraordinary genius and deep knowledge in Sanskrit. The verses are highly ornamental and orderly. They flow like a running stream unchecked, un-controlled, un-restricted and unbridled.
The contents of Siddhanta Darpan look amazing and unimaginable as the achievement of a single mind. Chandra Sekhar observed, verified and corrected all that was known to the Hindu astronomers for thousand of years. Even on many occasions he has gone beyond them to discover new phenomena and formulations, and came out with predictions that will remain valid for at least the next ten thousand years. In the field of observational astronomy, very often he has given new methods of calculation. At the end of his treatises he has furnished the calculations of an almanac, which has been named the Kautuka Panjee.
Among those who applied their brain and mind for the improvement as well as development of Panjika, the name of Chandra Sekhar figures in a very eminent position. A glorious personality by virtue of his high academic attainments, scholarly approach to the problems and moral effulgence, Chandra Sekhar no doubt shines best in the history of Panjika-Samskara”. In 1876, the almanac computed according to Siddhanta Darpan found recognition in the temple of Sri Jagannath, and religious rites there are calculated/determined as per the latest Siddhanta of Chandra Sekhar.
Nearly one thousand years before the birth of Chandra Sekhar, no astronomer of repute had made any reformative study in the field of astronomical science. In order to know the exact longitude (grahasphuta of the planets) he took the help of Surya Siddhanta as his base book and innovated new methods in each chapter of Siddhanta Darpan.
As the moon changes its position more frequently than any other planet, it is very difficult to ascertain the exact longitude of moon. Hence, Chandra Sekhar innovated three principles, i.e. Tungatanra, Pakshika and Digamsa to know the exact longitude of moon. These three formulas expounded by him are very correct and they hold good in every respect. Likewise he had devised many new formulas for ascertaining the exact longitude of all the planets. His formulas regarding the solar and lunar eclipse are still invaluable objects in the astronomical treasury.
Completely unaware of the scientific and technological developments in the West, Chandra Sekhar had employed the traditional methods for astronomical measurements. He was well known in India and beyond for his accurate astronomical calculations, new theories about the planets and their movements, which were based on observations made by his naked eyes or with primitive instruments designed by himself. So he is rightly called the second Bhaskara in India. Chandra Sekhar seems to be the last link in the long order of great Hindu astronomers like Aryabhatta, Varahamihira, Brahma Gupta and Bhaskara, whose genius blazed from places spread all over India, scaling a time span of nearly 1,500 years, with available systematic record from 5th century A.D. to the turn of the last century. This continuous stream of genius appeared to have broken after Bhaskara for about seven hundred years, and one sees the burst of the last glow in Chandra Sekhar.
The long traditional culture of Jyotisha in Orissa for so many centuries was epitomized in Chandra Sekhar, who was honoured with the title of “Mahamahopadhyaya” by the British government in 1893 for his monumental work on Hindu astronomy, Siddhanta Darpan. He corrected the discrepancies in the astronomical calculations found in the annually prepared Almanac of Orissa.
Astronomy is a science in which observations go simultaneously with the calculations. Besides a thorough knowledge of motion of the stellar objects, it requires sufficient computational skill to tackle the vast multitude of big numbers. Chandra Sekhar was extraordinary in this respect, demonstrating a computational fit by providing tables with cores of data which pose a challenge even in this computerized age.
Chandra Sekhar had expressed his deep gratitude to all his predecessors in general and Bhaskaracharya in particular. He improved upon their calculations after careful observation of the planetary positions. Like any other original research work, his contributions are purely of intellectual interest in the field of mathematical astronomy.
The present Oriya Almanacs are being prepared as per the rules of Siddhanta Darpan and they have stood the test of time in successfully predicting the eventful occasions like eclipses. He had broken the icewhich blocked the path of progress in Indian astronomy for about a thousand years and mirrored the Siddhantas in modern perspectives, paving the way for future development. Our researchers today boast of degrees conferred on the basis of works which can hardly be compared with the originality and innovations that Chandra Sekhar has exhibited in a single chapter of his Siddhanta Darpan and its stupendous tables, called saranis. His contribution to the field of Hindu astronomy is little known and assessed due to the non-availability of a lucid commentary explaining the intricacies of astronomical calculations involved in understanding the Sanskrit verses composed in elegant pendantic style.
Pathani Samanta, alias Chandra Sekhar, was born in Khandapada, an ex-state of Orissa, in the un-divided Puri district of Orissa, on 11th January 1836 (the 8th lunar day of black fortnight in Pausa month of Saka era 1757). His final departure from this mortal world was on 11th June 1904. As per his own prediction, he came all the way to Sri Jagannath Temple at Puri to breathe his last.

Vedic astrology- part 3- How it works?

The knowledge of Vedic Astrology has come down to us from the Vedic slokas. These slokas have been deeply studied and realized by our Siddhas in ancient times. Hence, through them we learnt about the Universe, and the waves of energy that impact our lives. They suggested practical ways to diffuse negative energies of planets in our lives and how to seek blessings of good energies.

Vedic Astrology guides us to seek a better life than what our planets have destined for us. Siddhas in ancient times had understood the cosmic energy, and calculated its effects for the good of common man. Maharishi Parashara is said to have provided explanations of this ancient Vedic science as predictive astrology to enable man seek blessings of benefic forces and protect themselves from malefic ones.
Source of Vedic Astrology:
Vedic slokas tell us how the presence of planets in each house can create specific effects on man. But many of these slokas are indicative or suggestive in nature and not easy to comprehend without deeper knowledge of Metaphysics. Generally speaking, Ancient Vedic Astrology, as revealed through Vedas, mainly relates about creation of this Universe, and its relationship with man born to the Earth.
Astrology that came down from the Siddhas:
It was through the Siddhas that we learnt about the Universe, and the waves of energy that impact our lives. It is interesting to note that for better perception of the powerful forces of cosmos and understanding the nature of each planet; Siddhas represented them to us as deities. So planets are prayed and invoked as Gods and Goddesses: Power of Mars is represented by Lord Muruga, Sun by Lord Shiva, Mercury by Lord Vishnu and so on.
The Siddhas also suggested practical ways to diffuse negative energies of planets to a certain extent. Such remedies specifically help in adding good energies in human life.
The Predictive Astrology:
In Vedic Astrology, Moon is a very important planet and the Moon sign of a person is considered his or her Rasi. It is the combined study of the yogas, qualities of the 9 planets, their influence on the 12 houses, and how the qualities or gunas like Sattwa, Rajjas and Tamasa, and five primordial elements like space, air, fire, water and earth influence matter in forming their nature.
Modern Vedic Astrology has evolved over the years and at present, it is popular as a predictive astrology that forecasts about individuals from their birth-charts based on the time and place of birth. And here lies the most sensitive point of this field – what percentage of accuracy in predicting human life can be achieved? Perhaps 75 percent, at least this is the common belief.
The role of astrologer:
What surely an individual can gain from Vedic astrology is the knowledge about himself or herself. With a certain amount of interaction with individuals, and mainly study of birth-chart, an astrologer can tell about the nature and inclinations of the individual. He makes one aware of the good and the bad influences of planets and such awareness of cosmic powers can help one with better abilities to make appropriate decisions further in their lives.
The remedies in Vedic astrology:
When planets are in debilitated state, or in retrograde they bring lot of hardship to the native. There are certain strong afflictions of planets in birth-charts such as Pitra Dosha, Kaal Sarpa Dosha, Shani Dosha, and Mangal Dosha, which prevent the native from enjoying the good effects of planets.
Vedic Astrology suggests remedial measures like chanting of Mantras, observing and practicing certain rituals, keeping one energized through Yantras, wearing beads garlands and observing practices such as fasting on the days when the planets are powerful.

Vedic astrology part 2- Horoscope

A horoscope in your hands is a map of destiny. The secrets that it contains can be revealed only by a Vedic Astrologer. Now you may be wondering “What is Vedic Astrology?” You probably have heard of astrology–who hasn’t? Most people know what their Sun sign is in Western Astrology, but very few know about Vedic Astrology, the subject of this report. Even people who have only the slightest smattering of knowledge about astrology want to know what is Vedic Astrology and how it differs from the Western Astrology that they are accustomed to. To answer these questions I would first like to very briefly explain a little about Vedic Astrology and how it is different from its Western cousin.

Vedic versus Western Astrology
The Vedas are the oldest scriptures known to exist, being well over 5,000 years old. The vast ocean of Vedic knowledge encompasses both material and spiritual knowledge; it is perfect knowledge that was revealed by Sri Krishna (The Godhead) to the Rishis, the sages of Vedic culture. Astrology is part of the Vedic literature, and has been preserved and handed down in the guru-parampara, the chain of apostolic succession, since time immemorial. Vedic Astrology is the original form of astrology that existed thousands of years ago in what is now known as the Indian subcontinent. It gradually spread by diffusion into other cultures such as the Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Chinese, etc. The major differences between Vedic Astrology and modern Western Astrology are threefold:
First of all, Vedic Astrology is technically termed a “sidereal system” whereas Western Astrology is “tropical.” What this essentially means is that up in the sky there are stars which make up the various constellations of the Zodiac such as Virgo, Aquarius, etc. Vedic Astrology is based upon the actual stellar constellations (sidereal), whereas Western Astrology is based on a fictitious zodiac that slowly moves backwards in space as a function of time (“tropic” in Latin means “to turn”). These definitions can be found in any good dictionary. As of this writing (October, 1993), the beginning of the Western imaginary zodiac–their first point of Aries–is at 6.25 degrees of the constellation Pisces. This is called the Age of Pisces in Western Astrology. This first point will move in a retrograde (backward) motion at a rate of about 1 degree per 72 years until it enters into the constellation of Aquarius. That will be the beginning of the famous Age of Aquarius that we have all heard about. At the rate of motion of 72 years/degree ´ 6.25 degrees, it will take 450 years before the so-called Age of Aquarius takes place. Out of ignorance of astronomy, the New Age community has “jumped the gun” by almost half a millennia in declaring that we are already in the Age of Aquarius.
Secondly, as already mentioned, Vedic Astrology is based on a very old, unbroken tradition since time immemorial whereas Western Astrology has had a very checkered history. Astrology virtually disappeared in the West during the Dark Ages (circa 500-1000AD); it resurfaced during the Renaissance, only to fall out of favor during the so-called Age of Reason. In fact, it totally disappeared from the European continent until the late 19th century. It had been kept barely alive in England during that time. Western Astrology as we know it today has existed for about 130 years only when it began a resurgence. The point is that the Vedic tradition is very strong and vibrant, with the heritage of many millennia of accumulated knowledge, whereas Western Astrology does not have the advantage of an unbroken tradition.
Thirdly, Vedic astrology, being an appendix to the Vedas, is thoroughly steeped in Vedic thought and philosophy. This means that the practitioner of the science must have earnestly assimilated the Vedic philosophy and lived the life of a Vedic Brahmana, with all its attendant spiritual practices. By contrast, modern Western astrology is a reflection of permissive Western culture, in which “anything goes.” Western astrology has no real or consistent philosophical basis; what passes for a basis is watered down, distorted, third-hand Vedic philosophy. The Western Astrologer has (in comparison to the Vedic Astrologer) no philosophical training, nor does he know what it means to follow a spiritual discipline. The combined effect of genuine philosophical knowledge coupled with an authentic spiritual lifestyle cannot be overestimated when it comes to developing the divine vision and ability that is so necessary for enabling an astrologer to properly guide others.
I have hardly done justice to the subject of comparing-contrasting Vedic and Western Astrology, but hopefully what I have said will give the reader an inkling of the differences. These are not just technical differences but depend on an entirely different worldview. Now that we have completed our digression, let’s return to the main objective of this treatise. The birth-map, or horoscope, is a symbolic representation of the Earth, planets, and stars at the time of one’s birth. It is a divine language, a mystic cryptogram by which God has communicated what a person’s destiny will be, knowing which a wise person will exercise his free will to optimize the result.
Fate, Free Will and Vedic Astrology
The viewpoint of Vedic Astrology is that life is an interplay of both fate and free will–fate being the reaction to our previous exercise of free will. In our lives we are often faced with choices presented to us by our environmental circumstances. We have the freedom to chose “a” or “b,” but once that decision is made we must accept the reaction to our choice. The reaction may be immediate, or it may be delayed by thousands of lifetimes. In any case, the reaction, pleasant or unpleasant, will come at the appointed time determined by higher authorities. As Canakya Pandita says, “Just as a calf can find its mother in a herd of 10,000 cows, in the same way your [re]actions will find you.” The reactions to life’s actions are inescapable by everyone except those who are completely devoted to God (via Bhakti-yoga). When a karmic reaction ripens and fructifies it creates a new situation, a new environment that presents us with more choices upon which to exercise our free will. Thus, life is an interplay of both fate and free will as previously stated.
Let’s consider an example of how this works. Suppose someone is born into a poor family because of his bad karma from a previous lifetime and so is raised in a ghetto beset with crime and poverty. Let us say, hypothetically, that he has two choices. He can blame society for the evils he faces and thus try to victimize society by taking to a life of crime to acquire wealth; or he can take responsibility for his situation and try to better himself by education and honest endeavor. Suppose he chooses the first option of crime and robs several establishments. Eventually he will get caught (if not killed first) and sent to jail, a natural reaction for his criminal behavior. But even while in jail he still has options, though more limited than those of a free man. He can choose to be a hardened criminal or to be a model prisoner and reform himself. Each choice will have a reaction. Thus we can see that life is an intricate interplay of fate (karma) and free will.

VEDIC ASTROLOGY-PART 1- Introduction to Nakshatras

The nakshatras are the apparently fixed bodies in the Zodiac, where the planetary system moves with them placed in the background. Among the Rasi and the nakshatras, the former is overlorded by the Sun, whereas the latter is overlorded by Moon. This implies that the Rasi shows the environment we would be placed with at different times in our life and what we get out of it, on the other hand, the nakshatras govern the different state of mind we shall be having at various times. Even the actual events are important in our life, taking a person-centric view point; our reactions to them also matter equally. Hence the study of the nakshatras is well warranted.

There are two nakshatra schemes, one of which uses 27 Nakshatras and the other uses 28 nakshatras, which include the Abhijit Nakshatra, an intercalary nakshatra. Both the schemes are useful in their own right. While 27 nakshatra scheme is used for all day to analysis, such as analysis of birth chart, analysis of dasas, using Navatara chakra etc; the 28 nakshatra scheme is used for analysis of few chakras such as sarvatobhadra chakra, the sannadi chakra etc. The Nakshatras are reckoned from beginning with Aries which coincides with the beginning of Ashwini.
There are four padas (quarters) of each nakshatra, each measuring 3d 20m making the total duration of the nakshatra to be 13d 20m. Thus there are 108 padas across the zodiac and each map to 1 Navamsa. However, since the duration of 1 sign is 30 degrees, the nakshatra cannot be mapped exactly on the Rasis. However, it is interesting to see that 9 nakshatras can be mapped to 4 Rasis. From this we can derive the basis of dividing the zodiac of 12 Rasis and 27 nakshatras into 3 parts each measuring 120 degrees. This is the basis for the Navatara Chakra, where the nakshatras are divided into three groups of 9 each, starting either from the Janma or Lagna Nakshatra.
While we see the mapping of the 9 Nakshatras on 4 Rasis, we see that there are few nakshatras which would fall across two Rasis such as Krittika, which falls in Aries and Taurus; Mrgashiras, which falls across Taurus and Gemini and so on. There are others which would fall in 1 rasi such as Ashwini, Bharani, Rohini etc. Even though this looks haphazard and erratic, there is a hidden meaning behind it. To understand the meaning, we need to know the tattvas (primordial elements) ruling the Rasis and the Nakshatra padas. Beginning from Aries, the Rasis are ruled by Fire, Earth, Air and Water in a cyclical manner. Thus Aries, Leo and Sagittarius are the fiery signs; Taurus, Virgo & Capricorn are the earthy signs and so on. This is the same pattern which repeats for the nakshatra padas, which means that the first pada is governed by fire element, 2nd by earth, 3rd by air and the 4th by water. This cycle repeats across the nakshatras.
The beauty of the mapping of the Nakshatra with the rasi is that, among the 9 nakshatra padas which fall in a rasi, the tattva of the first and the last pada belongs to the tattva of the sign. So the first and last pada of Aries would be Fiery, the first and last pada of Taurus would be Earthy and so on. Seeing this from another perspective, the while seen among the three groups of 4 signs (starting from Aries, Leo and Sagittarius), the 1st sign starts from 1st pada of a nakshatra and ends with the 1st pada of a nakshatra (for example, Aries starts with 1st pada of Ashwini and ends with the 1st pada of Krittika). Similarly, the 2nd sign (Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn) start with 2nd pada of a nakshatra and end with the 2nd pada of another nakshatra (for example, Taurus starts with 2nd pada of Krittika and ends with 2nd pada of Mrgashiras); 3rd sign Gemini starts with 3rd pada of Mrgashiras and ends with 3rd pada of Punarvasu and the 4th sign Cancer start with 4th pada of Punarvasu and end with 4th pada of Aslesha.
The lordship of each cycle of 9 nakshatras, as per Vimshottari dasa scheme, starting from Ashwini is Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury. It is worthy to note that the 3 of the 9 nakshatras, which fall in the junction of signs (rasi sandhi), are ruled by Sun, Mars and Jupiter, the three best friends on the Deva’s side! The other Nakshatras which fall inside the signs are ruled by Ketu, Venus, Moon, Rahu, Saturn & Mercury. What can be made out of these two categories of the planets?
Classification of Nakshatra
Fixed Nakshatras
Rohini, Uttar-phalguni, Uttar-ashadha and Uttar-bhadrapada are supposed to be fixed nakshatras and they are favourable for activities which are related to establishing something permanent such as coronations, laying the foundations of cities, sowing operations, planting trees.
Soft Nakshatras
Chitta, Anuradha, Mrigasira and Revati are soft nakshatras. They are favourable for soft or artistic activities such as wearing new apparel, learning dancing, music and fine arts, sexual union and performance of auspicious ceremonies.
Light Nakshatras
Ashwini, Pushya, Hasta and Abhijit are light nakshatras, and they are favourable for light and sportive activities such as putting ornamentation, pleasures and sports, administering medicine, starting industries and undertaking travels.
Sharp Nakshatras
Moola, Jyestha, Ardra and Aslesha are sharp nakshatras in nature and they are favourable for sharp, piercing and painful activities such as incantations, invoking spirits, for imprisonment, murders, and separation of friends.
Mobile Nakshatras
Sravana, Dhanishta, Satabhisaj, Punarvasu and Swati are mobile nakshatras and they are auspicious for mobile activities such as acquiring vehicles, for gardening and for going on procession.
Dreadful Nakshatras
Purva-phalguni, Poorvashadha and Poorvabhadra, Bharani and Makha are dreadful nakshatras and they are favourable for nefarious schemes, poisoning, deceit, imprisonment, setting fire and other evil deeds.
Mixed Nakshatras
Krittika and Visakha are mixed nakshatras and during their influences, works of day-to-day importance can be undertaken.
Inauspicious Nakshatras
Beginning from the third quarter of Dhanishta and ending with the last part of Revati, the time is held to be unsuitable for any kind of auspicious work. This period goes under the special name of Nakshatra Panchaka and when these stars are ruling, one should avoid journey towards the south, house repairing or renovation, collecting fuel and cattle fodder or acquiring cots and beds.
Auspicious Nakshatras
Of all the twenty-eight constellations, the pride of place appears to have been given to Pushya, the 8th star.
1. Ashwini
2. Bharani
3. Krittika
4. Rohini
5. Mrgashiras
6. Ardra
7. Punarvasu
8. Pushya
9. Aslesha
10. Makha
11. Purva-phalguni
12. Uttara-phalguni
13. Hasta
14. Chitra
15. Swati
16. Visakha
17. Anuradha
18. Jyestha
19. Moola
20. Purva-ashadha
21. Uttara-ashadha
22. Sravana
23. Dhanishta
24. Satabhisaj
25. Purva-bhadrapada
26. Uttara-bhadrapada
27. Revati

Friday, April 24, 2015

Ancient Indian ASTROLOGY was a Science

Ancient Indian wisdom is a treasure trove of science. In fact, most of the claims made by ancient India (related to astrology, yoga, ayurveda) have been validated by Modern Science today. For example, this physics journal from USA in 1998 was astonished to find that ancient India knew the speed of light, down to the last digit of accuracy!!

Not only that new scientist acknodge that Solar does influence mind of all living in earth. Heard about Full moon and many unusual activites.
The radiation patterns of the Sun not only affects at individual level but might affect at society level as well. Extensive studies and historical evidences have shown the correlation between historical activity and moments of maxima of solar activity.
For example, this webpage from National University of Singapore gives more insight into the concepts of maxima-minima of solar activity (sunspots & sunflares) and their effect on humans
Carlini Research Institute, based in Canada, is involved in intensive study of the effect of solar activity on human psychology and has been publishing papers depicting the influence of solar activity on our lives.
Following is an interesting revelation from a science magazine which claims: “Solar activity affects every single aspect of human life
A recent study published in the popular science journal NewScientist claims that solar activity affects physical & mental state of humans.