Monday, May 18, 2015

Agni Purana: Destruction, Yoga, and Knowledge of Brahman

Destruction, Pralaya
Periodically pralayas (destructions) take place. A destruction comes at the end of four thousand yugas on earth. For a hundred years there are no rains and there is widespread drought. Thereafter, Vishnu uses the rays of the sun to drink and dry up all the waters that there are on earth. Seven different suns appear in the sky and they burn up the three worlds of heaven, the earth and the underworld. The earth becomes as flat as the back of a turtle. The breath of the great snake (Shesha) also serves to burn up the three worlds.

After the three worlds have been burnt up, dark clouds full of thunder and lightning appear in the sky. For a hundred years it continue to rain. The rain puts out the fires that have been raging. From Vishnu’s breath are created tremendous winds and these drive away the clouds. But there is water everywhere. And Vishnu sleeps on these waters. For an entire kalpa he sleeps. The sages then pray to Vishnu for the three worlds to be created yet again.
Yama And Hell
When human beings die, their physical bodies are given up. But they acquire new bodies that are known as ativahika bodies. In these bodies, they are brought to Yama’s abode by Yama’s servants. Living beings other than human are not brought to Yama. Yama then decides whether the dead person should go to heaven or to hell. After he has served his time in heaven or in hell, he is born again. Yama further decides what living being the person should be born as, depending on the actions in his past life. And so the cycle of birth death and rebirth goes on and on.
Since he keeps tally of all good deeds and all sins, Yama is also known as the god Dharma. Those who have done good deeds are rewaraded by Yama and those who have committed sins are punished. Chitragupta is Yama’s accountant, he keeps the account of all punya and papa.
There are twenty-eight circles of hells with many hells located in each circle. A sinner may have to go to more than one hell depending on the sins that he has committed. Some sinners are boiled in oil, others are pierced with spears and still others are whipped. Some sinners are fed heated iron balls, others are fed blood and rubbish. There are also machines for torturing sinners. Terrible birds eat up some sinners. Other sinners have their heads cut off.
When it is time to be reborn, the killer of a brahamana is born as a deer, dog, pig or camel. A drunkard is born as a donkey. A stealer of gold is born as a worm or an insect. A killer of a brahmana may also suffer from tuberculosis. a drunkard will have teeth like a dog and a stealer of gold will malformed nails. A stealer of food is born dumb. A person who has stolen the property of brahmanas is born as a rakshasa and lives alone in the forest. A stealer of fragrant scents is born as a mole. One who steals foodgrains is born as a rat. One who steals animals is born as a goat, one who steals milk as cow, one who steals fruit as monkey and one who steals meat as a vulture. A stealer of clothes is born as a crane and a stealer of salt as a cricket.
Yoga is the way to circumvent the miseries of life. True knowledge is that which informs one about the true nature of brahman or paramatman. The atman or jivatman is that which characterises an individual. Yoga means union, it is the union of the jivatman with the paramatman. Yoga concentrates one’s mind on the paramatman.
The first prerequisites of yoga is non-violence. A non-violent person is always righteous. The second requirement of yoga is truthfulness. The third prerequisite is celibacy. The fourth is controlling one’s senses and the last is the worship of god. One who practices yoga should not go around collecting material possessions. A piece of cloth, a covering against the cold, and a pair of sandals are possessions enough for him.
Before meditating on the true nature of the paramatman, one has to seat oneself in a proper asana (posture). The piece of cloth on which one is to sit should be placed in a clean place. One sits on such a seat and tries to purify one’s atman by controlling one’s mind and senses through yoga. The head and the neck should be held straight up, motionless. The point of vision should be directed towards the tip of one’s nose. One should not look in any direction. The arms should lightly rest on the folded thighs and the right hand should be placed, palm upwards, on the left palm. Padmasana (lotus position) is one such recommended posture.
The breath of life (prana vayu) has to be controlled. This process of control is known as pranayama. A finger is placed on the nose when the breath is being exhaled. The entire breath should be exhaled from the body. Since rechana means exhalation, this process of control is known as rechaka. When the breath is inhaled, the inhalation should be such that it fills the entire body. Since puraka literally means ‘that which fills’, this process of control is known as puraka. When the breath is neither being exhaled nor inhaled, one sits completely still like a kumbha (pot) and this is known as kumbhaka. Pranayama makes one healthy, swift, enthusiastic, strong and collected. Since the senses are controlled, one goes to heaven and avoids going to hell. Material pursuits are like the strong current of a river. The atman drowns in it.
Pranayama alone is not enough. It has to be supplemented with dhyana of japa (meditation and contemplation). One contemplates the true nature of the paramatman. The body is like a chariot. The senses are its horses, the mind is the charioteer and pranayama is the bridle. An individual who dies while performing dhyana is immediately assimilated with Vishnu.
Dhyana involve four different things, all of which must be in complete harmony. The first is the meditator, the second is the act of meditating, the third is the object that one is meditating upon and the fourth is the reason why one is performing the mediation. One does not have to; sit in a rigid posture for dhyana to be possible. It can be done while one is walking, sitting or even sleeping. The important aspect is to establish the object of one’s meditation in one’s heart.
There are different ways of establishing one’s concentration. As an object of meditation, one can meditate on three concentric circles which are black, red and white. In the centre of the circles is a divine lotus. The lotus has eight petals. One thinks that detachment is the stem of the lotus and praying to Vishnu its stamen. Right in the centre of the lotus is a pure spark of fire and that is the paramatman. Alternatively, one can visualise the paramatman in a blaze of light, in the centre of the lotus. Dhyana is far far superior to any yajna that one might perform.
One particular form of deep and intense meditation is known as samadhi. The meditator is then completely still, as calm as the ocean. He loses all track of the outside world. He does not hear, smell, see or touch. His mind has no wishes and feels nothing. He is completely united with god. Such a meditator automatically gets to know all the knowledge that can be gleaned from the Vedas or the shastras. He can obtain all the material possessions that he wants, but he regards them all as no more important than a blade of grass.
Such a meditator attains supreme knowledge. If you look at various pots full of water, you will find that the same sky is reflected in them all. Supreme knowledge tells one that, exactly similarly, it is the same atman that is everywhere. It is the atman which is the same as the paramatman, it is this atman that is in the water, in energy, in water, in the earth and in metals. The atman is everywhere.
The Knowledge of The Brahman
Brahma jnana is the knowledge of brahman. This knowledge, which gives the ultimate bliss, is nothing but the sense that the individual atman is identical with the universal brahman or paramtman. The physical body is not the atman. Nor are the senses the atman. The mind or intelligence is not the atman. Life itself is not the atman.
The atman is different from all the objects that have been mentioned above. The atman is in an individual’s heart. It sees everything and senses everything, but is different from the physical body. It is this that sages contemplate when they meditate. The sky was created from the brahman, from the sky came wind, from wind fire, from fire water, from water the earth and from the earth the five elements. One has to meditate on the physical body gradually disappearing and merging into the brahman.
The brahman is neither true nor untrue. It has neither form nor is it without form. The brahman has several parts, but at the same time it is an integral whole. The brahman cannot be described. It cannot be achieved through the power of action. The brahman is always pure. It has no ties and it is the true form of happiness. What is required is the sense that it is I, the individual, who am the brahman. I am nothing but the atman and the atman is nothing but the brahman. This sense is true knowledge. The brahman is the Lord who is the origin of everything and the individual is part of the brahman. It is this knowledge that frees one from the ties of the world and this is what brahman jnana is all about.
The brahman is not the earth; it is beyond the earth. The brahman is not the wind, nor is it the sky. The brahman has no beginning; it is independent of all action. The brahman is huge; it is everywhere. The brahman not only has no form, it is beyond all form. The brahman cannot be heard. It cannot be touched. The brahman has neither intelligence nor mind. It has no sense of ego or vanity. It does not have life, birth, old age or death.
The brahman is neither happy nor unhappy. It does not feel hungry or thirsty. It cannot be measured. At the same time, it is both nothing and everything.
Life has five possible ends. By performing yajnas one can attain heaven. By performing tapasya one can become an ascetic. By performing actions one can attain brahmaloka. By detachment from material pursuits (vairagya) one can merge oneself into nature. And by true knowledge the individual gets absorbed into the divine essence. This is known as kaivalya. Detachment means to withdraw oneself from the effects of all actions. And knowledge means the knowledge that the atman is no different from the brahman. This is known as jnana yoga (the yoga of knowledge).
There are few people who attain this knowledge. One of those was Bharata. Bharata had done a lot he became very attached to a deer and when he died, he died thinking of the deer. The result was that in his next life, Bharata was born as a deer. But the deer happened to be a jatismara, that is, it remembered its earlier life. The deer eventually died and Bharata was again born as jatismara human.
The king of Soubira was once travelling on a palanquin and he wanted someone who would bear his palanquin free of charge. The king’s servants caught hold of Bharata to bear the palanquin. But Bharata moved slowly and could not keep up with the other bearers. The palanquin did not progress and the king asked Bharata. “Why are you so tired? You have not been bearing my palanquin for long. Can’t you some toil? You look fairly strong to me.”
Bharata replied, “I am not strong. Nor am I bearing your palanquin. I am not tired. nor am I lazy. I am my atman and feet are and my body is balanced on my thighs. My shoulders are on my body and your palanquin rests on my shoulders. But I am not my feet, thighs, body or shoulders. I am the atman. The atman is not carrying you. So why do you say that I am beating you?” Bharata then instructed the king on the mysteries of true knowledge. The atman was pure, ever-lasting, calm, without traits and beyond natural characteristics. Since the atman had no traits and since an individual was the atman and not the body, it was meaningless to say that an individual was strong or weak. The physical body was made of the elements and so was the palanquin. What was the point therefore in saying that the physical body was bearing the palanquin?
Heating these words of wisdom, the king fell at Bharata’s feet. “Forgive me,” he said, “and let go of the palanquin, Who are you?”
“Who am I?”, asked Bharata. “That is not a question that can easily be answered.”
The king answered, “I fail to understand. Surely the form in which you are now existing is who you are.”
“No,” said Bharata. “I am the atman and the atman is the same as the paramatman. The paramatman is everywhere and therefore, the atman is also everywhere. I am everywhere. I am in all physical bodies. It is meaningless to ask who you are and who I am. We are all one and the same. Wood has come from the trees and this palanquin is made of wood. But is the palanquin wood or tree? When you ride on the palanquin, does anyone say that you are riding on a tree? Men, women, cows, horses, elephants, birds and trees, these are all meaningless names. They are all illusions. Everything is one and the same. I am everywhere. If there had been a place or an object where I do not exist, I could have everywhere, I do not know how to answer your question. Tell me king, are you your head or your stomach? Or is all of it, you? But then, what will you call that which is distinct from your physical body? Think about what I have said.”
Bharata’s words were so profound that the king immediately accepted Bharata as a teacher. And Bharata told the king the story of Ribhu and Nidagha.
The sage Ribhu was Brahma’s son. He was also extremely learned. Nidagha was Ribu’s disciple. After Ribhu had taught Nidagha what there was to be taught, Nidagha went to the city to see how Nidagha was getting on. Nidagha worshiped his teacher and gave him all sorts of things to eat. After Ribhu had eaten, Nidagha asked him, “Are you satisfied?”
“What do you mean?”, asked Ribhu. “The question of satisfaction would have arisen had I been hungry or thirsty. I am my atman and the atman is always satisfied. So what is the brahman that is omnipresent and so are you. You are not distinct from me, we are both part of the same whole. I came to teach you this knowledge. Now that you have learnt that the brahman is everywhere, let me leave.”
After another thousand years had passed, Ribhu came to the city again and discovered that Nidagha no longer lived in the city. He had begun to live on the outskirts of the city.
“Why have you given up living in the city?”, Ribhu asked Nidagha.
“Because I do not like to live in the city, where there is a king, “ replied Nidagha.
“Who is the king ?”. asked Ribhu. “Point him out to me in this procession that is passing. And point out to me the subjects.”
Nidagha said, “The king is the one who is as tall as a mountain peak. He is the one who is riding the elephant. The ones who are walking are the subjects.”
“What do you mean?”, asked Ribhu. “The brahman is in the king and the brahman is in the elephant. How do you distinguish one from the other, how do you say that one is riding the other? Is the king the physical body or the atman and is the elephant the physical body or the atman? Who is riding on whom? I do not understand.”
This knowledge, that the atman is the same as the brahman, is known as advaita (unified) brahma-jnana. Ribhu taught this to the king of Soubira. This is the knowledge that all elements are one and the same. It is only those who suffer from illusions who think that different elements and different beings have different identities.
The Gita
Krishna had taught Arjuna the lessons of the Gita on the plains of Kurukshetra. The Agni Purana now relates the essence of the Gita.
If physical body is alive, that is no reason for rejoicing. Just as, if the physical body is dead, that is no reason for mourning. The atman does not die. It does not decay, it cannot be destroyed and it is immortal. The atman does not warrant any tears that might be shed over it. people who are addicted to sensual pleasures cannot realise this. The person who is addicted to the atman alone has no desire for anything else. He had no action to perform. He had neither gains nor losses. The knowledge of this is like a raft that rescues one from the flood of illusions.

Aditya Hridayam

This prayer is possibly the greatest one addressed to the Sun and occurs in Yudha Kanda of Ramayana. Lord Rama after ceaseless battle with Ravana is not able to kill him and is perplexed. At that time the devas who have assembled in the sky advice him to ask the advice from Sage Agasthya and he does it. Sage Agasthya teaches him about this great prayer and Lord Rama subsequently was able to kill Ravana.

asya sree adithya hrudaya sthothra maha manthasya agasthyo bhagawan rishi anushtup chanda sree adithyathma soorya narayano devatha sarva jaya sidhyarthe jape viniyoga
The sage for Aditya Hridaya stotras is Sage Agasthya, the meter is anushtup and the presiding deity is Soorya Narayana who is the heart of Adithya.
atha dyanam:
jayathu jayathu soorya saptha lokaika deepam
kirana samitha papam klesa dukhasya nasam
aruna nigama gamyam chadhi adithya moorthim
sakala bhuvana vandhyam, bhaskaram tham namami
Victory, Oh victory to the Sun god,
Who is the lamp to the seven worlds,
Who by his rays destroys sin,
Who destroys aches and sorrow,
Who is lead to by the path of Vedas,
Who is the Sun God to the universe,
And Who is saluted by all the worlds,
And also my salutations to Him who makes the day.
thatho yudha parisrantham samare chinthaya sthitham,
ravanam chagratho drushtwa yudhaya samupasthitham.
daivathischa samagamya drushtu mabhya gatho ranam,
upagamyabraveed ramam agasthyo bhagawan rishi
The great God like sage Agasthya,
Who has come along with other Gods to see the war,
Seeing the tired and thought filled Ravana,
Approached Lord Rama, who is ready for the war and told.
rama rama maha baho srunu guhyam sanathanam
yena sarvaanareen vatsa samare vijayishyasi
Hey Rama, Hey dear Rama, be pleased to hear,
That which is secret and perennial,
By reciting which, son,
You would be victorious in war.
adithya hrudayam punyam sarva sathru vinasanam
jayavaham japen nithyam akshayyam paramam shubham
This is the prayer called “the heart of the sun”.
Which is holy, destroys all enemies,
Which leads to victory,
And by reciting which daily,
Leads you to perennial state of good.
sarva mangala mangalyam sarva papa pranasanam
chinthasoka prasamanam ayur vardhanamuthamam
This prayer great gives all that is good,
Destroys all sins committed,
Acts as an antidote for sorrow and thought,
And also leads to very long life.
rasmi mantham samudhyantham devasura namaskrutham
poojayaswa vivaswantham bhaskaram bhuvaneshwaram
Offer prayers to the Great Sun God,
Who is the owner of rays,
Who rises up from below,
Who is worshipped by devas and asuras,
And who is worshipped by every one of the universe.
sarva devathmako hyesha tejaswai rasmi bhavana
esha devasura ganan lokan pathi gabasthibhi
He has within him all the devas,
He is the brightest among the bright,
He runs the whole world by his rays,
And protects all the worlds of Devas and Asuras,
By his great Rays.
esha brahma cha vishnuscha shiva skanda prajapathi
mahendro dhandha kalo yama somo hyapam pathi
He is Brhama, He is Vishnu,
He is Shiva, He is Skanda,
He is the progenitor of human race,
He is the king of devas,
He is Kubhera, the lord of all riches.
He is Kala, the God of death,
And He is the moon also He is Varuna
pitharo vasava sadhya hyaswinou marutho manu
vayur vahni praja prana ruthu hartha prabhakara
He is the manes, He is the Gods called Vasus,
He is the gods called sadhya,
He is the Aswini devathas, the doctors of Gods,
He is the maruths who are responsible for breeze,
He is the wind God, He is the fire God,
He is the soul of all beings,
He is the creator of seasons,
And he is the giver of light.
adithya savitha soorya khaga poosha gabasthiman
suvarna sadrusa bhanu hiranya retha divakara
He is the son of Adithi,
He is the creator of the world,
He makes us do things,
He travels on the sky,
He feeds the world by rain,
He is the one with rays,
He is the colour of Gold,
He is always shining,
He is responsible for creation,
And he is the maker of the day.
haridaswa sahasrarchi saptha sapthir mareechiman
thimironmadhana shambhu thwashtwa marthanda amsuman
He has green horses,
He has thousands of rays,
He rides on seven horses,
He dispels darkness,
He gives a pleasant life,
He kills all life,
He gives rebirth to those killed,
He removes darkness,
And he is resplendent in his glory.
hiranya garbha shisira thapano bhaskaro ravi
agni garbha adithe puthra sanka shisira nasana
He who keeps the golden source,
He who cools down minds of devotees,
He who bestows heat,
He who is the source of light,
He who is praised by every one,
He who has fire within himself,
He who is the son of adhithi,
He who travels in the sky with pleasure,
And he who melts cold.
vyomanadha sthamobhedi rig yajur sama paraga
ghana vrushtirapam mithro vindhya veedhi plavangama
He who is the lord of the sky,
He who dispels darkness,
He who is a master of Rig, Yajur and Sama veda,
He who is the cause of heavy rains,
He who is the friend of water,
And he who travels over the Vindhyas swiftly.
aathapee mandali mruthyu pingala sarva thapana
kavir viswo maha thejaa raktha sarvodbhava
He who gives heat,
He who is of the global shape,
He who is of the form of death,
He who is of the colour of gold,
He who heats everything,
He who is in expert in knowledge,
He who manages the universe,
He who is of great brilliance,
He who is dear to every one,
And he who manages every event.
nakshtra gruha tharanam adhipo viswa bhaavana
thejasam aphi thejaswi dwadasathman namosththe
Salutations to him who is the Lord of stars, planets and zodiac,
To him who looks after the universe,
To him who gives light to all that shines,
And To him who has twelve forms.
nama poorvaya giraye, paschimayadraye nama
jyothirgananam pathaye dhinadhipathaye nama
Salutations to him who rises from the mounts of east,
Salutations to him who sets on mounts of west,
Salutations to the lord of objects that shine,
And the Lord of the day.
jayaya jaya bhadraya haryaswaya namo nama
namo nama sahasramso adithyaya namo nama
Salutations to him who is the cause of victories,
Salutations to him who has green horses,
Salutations and salutations to him who has thousand rays,
Salutations and salutations to the son of Adhithi.
nama ugraya veeraya sarangaya namo nama
nama padma prabhodaya, marthandaya namo nama
Salutations and salutations,
To him who is fearful to the sinners,
To him who is the hero,
And to him who travels swiftly.
Salutations to him who opens the lotus,
And salutations and salutations,
To him who makes men live.
brihamesanachuthesaya sooryadhithya varchase
bhaswathe sarva bhakshaya roudraya vapushe nama
Salutations to Him,
Who is God to Brahma, Achyutha and Shiva,
Who is the giver of light,
Who is the son of Adhithi,
Who is ever shining,
Who eats everything,
And to him who has a fearsome body,
thmognaya himagnaya sathrugnaya amithathmane
kruthagnagnaya devaya jyothisham pathaye nama
Salutations to him,
Who destroys darkness,
Who destroys, snow,
Who destroys his enemies,
Who has an immeasurable body,
Who destroys those who are not grateful,
And to him who is the Lord of those who shine.
taptha chamikarabhaya vahnaye viswa karmane
namasthomabhinignaya ruchaye loka sakshine
Salutations to Him,
Who is of the colour of molten gold,
Who is of the form of fire,
Who has created the world,
Who destroys ignorance,
Who is the subject of all that is loved,
And to him who is the witness of the world.
naasa yatyesha vai bhootham tadeva srujathi prabha
payathyesha thapathyesha varshatyesha gabhasthibhi
This our lord helps beings to grow,
And also destroys them.
He with his awesome rays,
Looks after every being,
Gives intense heat to them,
And also causes rains to shower
yesha suptheshu jagarthi bhootheshu parinishtitha
yesha evagnihothram cha phalam chaivagnihothrinam.
This our Lord is awake,
When all the world is asleep,
Without anyone being aware,
And he is the fire sacrifice,
And also the one who performs fire sacrifice.
vedascha kradavaschaiva krathoonam phalameva cha
yani kruthyani lokeshu sarva yesha ravi prabhu
All the Vedas,
All the yagas,
Result of all yagas.
And all the actions,
That happen in this world,
Are this Lord Surya himself.
yena mapathsu kruchreshu kanthareshu bhayeshu cha,
keerthayan Purusha kaschin aavaseedhathi raghava
Hey Lord Raghava,
Any one who sings the praise of the Sun,
In time of danger,
In time of suffering,
In wild forests.
And in times of fear,
Is able to cross the problem for sure.
poojaswaikegro deva devam jagat pathim
ethath trigunitham japthwa yudeshu vijayishyasi
Please worship Him.
Who is God of Gods,
And who is the lord of the universe,
With single minded devotion.
If you chant this thrice,
You would win in the war.
asmin kshane maha baaho ravanam thwam vadhishyasi
evamukthwaa agasthyo jagam yada gatham
“Oh hero of heroes,
You would kill Ravana within a second,”
Saying this the sage Agasthya,
Went back his way.
edath sruthwa maha theja nashta shoka abhavath thada
dharayamasa supreetho raghava prayathathmavaan
Hearing this, the resplendent one,
Became devoid of sorrow,
And with utmost devotion,
Wore this prayer within himself.
adhithya prekshya japthwa thu param harsha mavapthavan
thrirachamya suchir bhoothwa dhanuradhaaya veeryavaan
Cleansing himself,
By doing Aachamana thrice,
And facing the Sun God,
Lifting his bow
The great hero Rama became very happy
ravanam preshya hrushtathma yudhaya samupagamath
sarva yathnena mahatha vadhe thasya drutho bhavath
Came he facing Ravana,
For starting the war again,
With all preparations great,
With an intention of killing him.
adharavira vadha nireekshya ramam
mudhithamana paramam prahrushyamana
nisicharapathi samkshyam vidhithwa
sura gana madhya gatho vachasthwarethi
Immediately then Lord Sun,
Who is the king of the skies
Arose from the middle of the bevy of Gods,
With mind full of happiness,
And asked Rama to kill Ravana forthwith.
sooryam sundara loka nadham
amrutham vedantha saram shivam
gnanam brahma mayam suresha
mamalam lokaika chitham swayam
I bow and salute always before the great Sun God,
Who is ever shining,
Who is the Lord of the universe,
Who is forever living,
Who is the essence of Veda,
Who is forever peaceful,
Who is store house of knowledge,
Who is God personified,
Who is the king of gods,
Who is purity personified,
And who has the mind of all the world under his control.
bhano bhaskara marthanda
chanda rasmai divakara
ayur arogyam aiswaryam
vidhyam dehi namosthuthe
Oh God of gods,
Who is source of light,
Who makes the day,
Who removes darkness,
Who has fearful rays,
And who is the creator of the morn,
Please give me long life,
Health, wealth, knowledge
And I salute you.
anyadha saranam nasthi
thwameva saranam mama
thasmath karunya bhavena
raksha raksha maha prabho
I don’t have anybody to seek refuge,
Except thee, Oh great God,
So please have mercy upon me,
And protect me again and again.
ithi srimad valmiki ramayane yudha kande
sapthothara sathathama sargathmakam
adhithya hrudaya sthothram samaptham
Thus ends the great prayer called Adithya Hrudhayam,
Which occurs in the 107th chapter of the section of war,
In Ramayana composed by Sage Valmiki.

Bhavishya Purana: Regarding Bible

The Bhavishya Purana is an ancient text authored by Sri Vyasa Muni, the compiler of the Vedas. It is listed among the eighteen major Puranas. Bhavishya means “future” and Purana means “history”, so the text’s name would translate literally as “The History of the Future”. Though the text was written many thousands of years before the recorded events took place, by the power of his mystic vision, Sri Vyasa was able to accurately predict the happenings of the modern times.
Modern scholars reject the contents of Bhavishya Purana mostly on the grounds that its information is too accurate. But we should ask ourselves: If there was an empowered saint, who knew past, present and future, and if he chose to write a book named “the History of the Future”, shouldn’t it contain accurate information about the modern times, as the title suggests? We cannot disqualify it simply because it speaks accurately of the British controlling India, Hittler fighting the world, and Max Mueller misrepresenting the Vedic teachings. “Veda” means knowledge, and the Vedic texts contain knowledge of everything – past, present and future.

Biblical and Modern History of Kali Yuga from Bhavishya Purana
[From the Pratisarga Parva, Chapters Four to Seven.]
Suta Goswami said: Once upon a time in Hastinapura, Pradyota the son of Kshemaka was leading an assembly and meanwhile the great sage Narada arrived there. King Pradyota happily honored him. Having him seated on the seat the sage told king Pradyota, “Your father was killed by the mlecchas, therefore he attained Yamaloka or the hellish planet. If you perform a ‘mleccha-yajna’, then by the effect of this sacrifice your father will attain the heavenly planets.”
Hearing this king Pradyota immediately called the best of the learned brahmanas and started ‘mleccha-yajna’ in Kuruksetra. They built a yajna-kunda which was 16 yojanas in square (128 miles). They meditated on the demigods and offered oblations of mlecchas. There are haras, hunas, barvaras, gurundas, sakas, khasas, yavanas, pallavas, romajas and those who are situated in different dvipas and in kamaru, china and the middle of the ocean; all of them were called with the mantra and burnt to ashes. Then he (the king) gave dakshina (donation) to the brahmanas and performed abhiseka. As a result his father Kshemaka went to the heavenly planets. After that he became famous everywhere as a mleccha-hanta or destroyer of mlecchas. He ruled the earth for ten thousand years and went to heaven. He had a son named Vedavan who ruled for two thousand years.
At that time the Kali purusha prayed to Lord Narayana along with his wife. After sometime the Lord apperared to him and said, “This age will be a good time for you. I will fulfil your desire having various kinds of forms. There is a couple named Adama and his wife Havyavati. They are born from Vishnu-kardama and will increase the generations of mlecchas. Saying this, the Lord disappeared. Having great joy the Kali purusha went to Nilacha
Vyasa said: “Now you hear the future story narrated by Suta Goswami. This is the full story of of kali-yuga, hearing this you will become satisfied.”
In the eastern side of Pradan city where there is a a big God-given forest, which is 16 square yojanas in size. The man named Adama was staying there under a Papa-Vriksha or a sinful tree and was eager to see his wife Havyavati. The Kali purusha quickly came there assuming the form of a serpent. He cheated them and they disobeyed Lord Vishnu. The husband ate the forbidden fruit of the sinful tree. They lived by eating air with the leaves called udumbara. After they had sons and all of them became mlecchas. Adama’s duration of life was nine-hundred and thirty years. He offered oblations with fruits and went to heaven with his wife. His son was named Sveta-nama, and he lived nine-hundred and twelve years. Sveta-nama’s son was Anuta, who rulled one-hundred years less than his father. His son Kinasa rulled as much as his grandfather. His son Malahalla ruled eight-hundred ninety five years. His son Virada rulled 160 years. His son Hamuka was devoted to Lord Vishnu, and offering oblations of fruits he achieved salvation. He ruled 365 years and went to heaven with the same body being engaged in mleccha-dharma.
having good behavior, wisdom, qualities like a brahmana and worship of God, these things are called mleccha-dharma. The great souls have declared that the dharma of the mleccha is devotion to God, worship of fire, nonviolence, austerity and control of the senses. The son of Hamuka was Matocchila. He ruled for 970 years. His son Lomaka ruled 777 years and went to heaven. His son Nyuha (Noah) ruled for 500 years. He had three sons named Sima, Sama and Bhava. Nyuha was a devotee of Lord Vishnu.
Once the Lord appeared in his dream and said: “My dear Nyuha, please listen, there will be devastation on the seventh day. Therefore, you have to be very quick that you make a big boat and ride in it. O chief of the devotees, you will be celebrated as a great king”.
Then he made a strong boat which was 300 feet long, 50 feet wide and 30 feet high. It was beautiful and all the living entities could take shelter in it. He then himself rode in it, engaged in meditating on Lord Vishnu.
Lord Indra called the devastating cloud named Sambartaka and poured heavy rain continuously for 40 days. The whole earth, Bharat-varsa, had merged in the water and four oceans came up together. Only Visala or Badarikasrama was not submerged. There were 80,000 great transcendentalists in Visala who joined with king Nyuha and his family. All of them were saved and everything else was destroyed.
At that time all the sages praised the eternal energy of Lord Vishnu. Being pleased by the prayers of the sages, the Vishnu-maya reduced the waters of devastation. After one year gradually the earth become visible. Under the hill there is a place named Sisina and the king was situated in that place with his other people. When the water completely dried up, king Nyuha came back to his place.
Suta Goswami continued: The mleccha, king Nyuha became attached to Lord Vishnu and as a result Lord Vishnu increased his generation. Then he created a language fit for the mlecchas, unfavorable to the Vedas. He named it as brahmi-bhasha, or brahmi language, full of bad words, for increasing the degradation of Kali-yuga. The Lord who is Himself the master of intelligence gave this language to Nyuha. Nyuha named his tree sons opposite. They were known as Sima, Hama, Yakuta and also Yakuta, Sapta putra, Jumara and Majuya. The name of their countries were known as Madi, Yunana, Stuvaloma, Tasa and Tirasa.
Hama who was the second son of his father, had four sons know as Kusa, Misra, Kuja and Kanaam. Kusa had six sons – Havila, Sarva, Toragama, Savatika, NimaruhaI and Mahavala. Their sons were known as Kamala, Sinara and Uraka. And their countries names are Akvada, Bavuna and Rasana.
After telling this story Suta Goswami influenced by Yoga-nidra entered mystic slumber. He woke up after two thousand years and thereupon he said: “Now I’m going to say about the generation of Sima. Because he was the first son of his father he became the king. This mleccha king ruled over the country for 500 years. His son Arkansoda ruled for 434 years. His son Sihla ruled for 460 years. His son Iratasya ruled the same length as his father. His son Phataja ruled for 240 years. His son Rau ruled for 237 years. His son Juja ruled the same length as his father. His son Nahura ruled for 160 years, and he destroyed his many inimical kings. His son Tahara ruled the same length as his father. He had three sons: Avirama, Nahura and Harana. Thus I have explained the generation of mlecchas with the indication of their names only. The mleccha language is considered the lowest language because it bears the curse of goddess Sarasvati. Thus I have summarily narrated the rise of the mlecchas in Kali-yuga.
Sanskrt is the language by which the whole Bharata-Varsa is being praised and glorified. The same language, after going to another country became the mleccha language and mlecchas took advantage of it.
After hearing all this, the sages situated in Badarikashrama, worshipped Lord Nara-Narayana and meditated upon them for 200 years. When they woke up from their meditation, they inquired from their teacher Suta Goswami:
“O disciple of Sri Vyasa, you are so fortunate and greatly intelligent, may you live long. Now please tell us who is the king at the present time?”
Suta Goswami said: “At the present time, the Kali-yuga has already passed its 3000 years. Now the king Sankha is ruling the earth and in the mleccha countries the king named Sakapat is ruling. Please hear about how they came up.”
When the Kali-yuga passed 2000 years, the dynasty of mlecchas increased. They created many paths to grow and gradually the whole earth become full of mlecchas. The spiritual master and teacher of the mlecchas was named Musa. He was residing on the bank of the river Sarasvati, and he spread his doctrince throughout the whole world. As soon as Kali-yuga started, the devotion to the Lord and the language of the Vedas were destroyed. There are four kinds of mleccha languages: Vraja-bhasa, Maharastri, Yavani and Garundika. In this way there are four million kinds of other languages.
For example: paniyam (water) is called pani, bubhuksa-hunger is called bhukh. Paniyam-drinking is called papadi and bhojanam-eating si called kakkanam. Isti is called suddharava, istini is called masapavani, ahuti is called aju and dadati is called dadhati. The word pitri is called paitara and bhrata is bather and also pati. This is the yavani lanugage in which the asva is called aspa, Janu is jainu and sapta-sindhu is called sapta-hindu.
Now you hear about Gurundika language. Ravi-vara (the first day of the week) is called sunday, phalguna and chaitra months are called pharvari (February). Sasti is called sixty, these kinds of examples are there.
Crime is becoming prominent in the holy place of Sapta-puri. Gradually the people of Aryavata are becoming theives, hunters, bhillas and fools. The followers of mleccha-dharma in foreign countries are intelligent and having good qualities, whereas the people of Aryavarta are bereft of good qualities. Thus the ruling of mlecchas is also in Bharata (India) and its islands. Knowing all this, O great and intelligent sage, you should just perform the devotional service to Lord Hari.
The great sage Saunaka inquired: “Please tell us, what was the reason that the mlecchas did not arrive in Brahmavarta.
Suta Goswami said: That was by the influence of goddess Sarasvati that they could not enter that place. By the order of the demigods, when the Kali-yuga pursued his 1,000 years, a brahmana named Kasyapa come down to earth from the heavenly planets with his wife Aryavatil. They had ten spotless sons who are known by the names: Upadhayaya, Diksita, Pathaka, Sukla, Misra, Agnihotri, Dvi-vedi, Tri-vedi, Catur-vedi and Pandey. Among them was the learned one full of knowledge. He went to Kashmir and worshipped goddess Sarasvati with red flowers, red akshata (rice), incense, lamps, naivedya (food offerings) and puspanjali (flower offerings). To please her he praised her with some prayers, asking her for better knowledge of Sankrt to put mlecchas into illusion. Being pleased by his prayers she remainded situated in his mind and blessed him with knowledge. Then the sage went to the country known as Misra and put all the mlecchas into illusion by the greace of goddess Sarasvati.
Then he made 10,000 people as dvijas or twice born brahmanas; he made 2,000 people into vaishyas; and the rest of them as shudras. He came back with them and staying in Arya-desha (India) he engaged in the activites of the sages. They were known as Aryans and by the grace of goddess Sarasvati their generation gradually increased upto 4 million, both the men and women with their sons and grandsons. Their king, Kasyapa muni, ruled the earth for 120 years.
There were 8,000 sudras in the county known as Rajputra (Rajput) and their king was Arya-prithu. His son was Magadha. The sage made him a king and left.
Saunaka inquired: “O disciple of Vyasa, O Lomaharsana, please tell us who were the kings to rule the earth in Kali-yuga, after Magadha?”
Suta Goswami said: When king Magadha, the son of Kasyapa was ruling the earth, he remembered his father’s administration and he separated the Arya-desha (India) into many states. The state which is on the eastern side of Pancala is known as Magadha, the state of Kalinga is on the east-south side, the state of Avanta is in the south, Amarta-desha is to the south-west, Sindhu-desha is on the western side, Kaikaya is to the north-west, Madra-desha is in the north, and Koninda-desha is to the north-east. These states are named according to his sons’ names. After performing a sacrifice he gave the states to his sons. Lord Balabhadra became pleased with his sacrifice, and Sisunaga appeared from the sacrifice as his son. He ruled for 100 years and his son Kakavarma ruled for 90 years. His son Kshemadharma ruled for 80 years and his son ruled for 70 years. His son Vedamisra ruled for 60 years. His son Ajata-nipu ruled for 50 years. His son Darbhaka ruled for 40 years, his son Udayasva ruled for 30 years, his son Nanda-Vardhana ruled for 20 years, his son Nanda-suta, who was born from the womb of a sudri or a low class lady, also ruled for 20 years. His son Pranancala ruled for 10 years. His son Parananda also ruled 10 years. His son Samananda ruled for 20 years. His son Priyananta ruled for 20 years, his son Devananda also ruled for 20 years. his son Yajna-bhanga ruled for 10 years. His son Mauryananda ruled for 10 years. And his son Mahananda fuled for 10 years.
At this time Lord Hari was remembered by Kali. At that time the great and famous Gautama, the son of Kasyapa introduced the Buddhist religion, and attained Lord Hari in Pattana.
Gautama ruled over 10 years. From him Shakya muni was born, who ruled 20 years. His son Shuddhodana ruled 30 years. His son Shakyasimha became the king on Satadri after 2000 years and he ruled for 60 years, by which time all the people were Buddhists. This was the first position of Kali-yuga and the Vedic religion was destroyed.
If Lord Vishnu becomes a king then all the people would follow Him. The activities of the world are carried out by the prowess of Lord Vishnu. He is the master of maya or the illusory energy and whoever takes shelter of that Lord Hari, though he may be a sinful and abominable person, will become liberated.
Buddha-simha was born from Shakyasimha and he ruled for only 30 years. Buddha-simha’s son was Chandra-gupta, who married with a daughter of Suluva, the Yavana king of Pausasa. Thus he mixed the Buddhists and yavanas. He ruled for 60 years. From him Vindusara was born and ruled for the same number of years as his father. His son was Ashoka. At this time the best of the brahmanas, Kanyakubja, performed sacrifice on the top of a mountain named Arbuda. By the influence of Vedic mantras, four Kshatriyas appeared form the yajna. Among these four Pramara was samavedi, Chapahani was yajurvedi, Shukla was trivedi and Pariharaka was the Atharvavedi. They were accustomed to ride on elephants. They kept Ashoka under their control and annihilated all the Buddhists. It is said there were 4 million Buddhists and all of them were killed by uncommon weapons. After that Pramara became king in Avanta and he constructed a large city called Ambavati for his happiness. It was as big as 4 yojanas or about 32 miles.
Then Suta Goswami said: “My dear brahmanas I’m being influenced by yoga-nidra, therefore, please go to your respective ashramas and meditate on Lord Vishnu.”
After the completion of 2,000 years, Suta Goswami said: When the kali-yuga had passed his 3,710 years, at that time the king was Pramara who rulled 6 years, from him Mahamada was born. He ruled 3 years and his son Devapi did the same. His son Devaduta also did the same. From him Gandharva-sena was born, who went to the forest after ruling for over 50 years and having given his kingdom to his son Shankha. Shankha ruled for over 30 years. Lord Indra sent a heavenly girl to Gandharva-sena named Viramati. A jewel like son was born form her womb. At the time of his birth, there were flowers raining from the sky, many auspicious instruments were played and the wind was blowing pleasingly. The name of the baby was Siva-drishti, who later left for the jungle with his disciples. After 20 years he became perfect in Karma-yoga. When kali-yuga copmleted 3,000 years, the terrible symptoms of kali had appeared. That baby took birth in the secret place of Kailasa, by the benediction of Lord Shiva, to destroy the shakas and to increase the Arya-dharma or the Vedic reigion. His father Gandharva-sena named his son as Vikramaditya and become happy. This child was very intelligent and very pleasing to his parents. When he was 5 years old, he left for the forest to perform austerities and he continued it upto 12 years. After 12 years he went to the holy city named Ambavati with all the opulence and accepted the transcendental throne sent by Lord Shiva. For his security goddess Parvati created a Vetala (a king of ghosts) and sent it to king Vikramaditya’s palace. Once the powerful king went to the temple of Lord Shiva named as Mahakaleshvara, who is the chief of the devas, and who has a bow named Pinaka. There he worshipped Lord Shiva. In that place he built a religious council hall with the pillars made of various metals and decorated with many kinds of jewels and covered with so many plants and creepers and flowers. In that hall he kept a celestial throne. He invited the foremost brahmanas who are well-versed in Vedic knowledge, worshipped them with proper hospitality and heard many religious histories from them. After that one demigod named Vitala come there having a form of a brahmana. Glorifying and blessing the king, he sat down on the seat and said: O master of this earthly planet, king Vikramaditya, if you are very eager to hear them I will describe the stories and histories to you.
Thus ends the seventh chapter of the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Purana.

Prameya Ratnavali of Baladeva Vidyabhushana

Table of Contents:

Prameya 1: Maggalacaranam, The disciplic succession, Madhvacarya’s Nine Philosophical Truths, Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Prameya 2: The Supreme Personality of Godhead Is Known By Study of the Vedas
Prameya 3: The Material World Is Real
Prameya 4: The Jivas (Living Entities) Are Different From Lord Visnu
Prameya 5: The Jivas (Living Entities) Are By Nature the Servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Prameya 6: In Both Conditioned and Liberated States, the jivas Are Situated in Higher and Lower Statuses
Prameya 7: Liberation Does Not Mean an Impersonal Merging,But the Attainment of Direct Association With Lord Krsna
Prameya 8: Pure Devotional Service Grants Liberation
Prameya 9: Direct Perception, Logic and Vedic Revelation Are Three Sources of Actual Knowledge
First Prameya
jayati sri-govindo gopinathah sa madana-gopalah vaksyami yasya krpaya prameya-ratnavalim suksmam
jayati – all glories; – sri-govindah – to Lord Govinda; – gopinathah – to Lord Gopinatha; – sah – to Him; – krpaya – by the mercy; – prameya – of philosophy; – ratna – of jewels; – avalim – the series; – suksmam – subtle and excellent;
All glories to Lord Govinda, who is known as Gopinatha and Madana-Gopala. By His mercy, I shall now speak this excellent and subtle book Prameya-ratnavali (Jewels of the Vaisnava Philosophy).
bhakty-abhasenapi tesam dadhane dharmadhyakse visva-nistari-namni nityanandadvaita-caitanya-rupe tattve tasmin nityam astam ratir nah
bhakti – of devotional service; – abhasena – ty the dim reflection; – api – even; – tosam – satisfaction; – dadhane – experience; – dharma – of religious activities; – adhyakse – the controllers; – visva – the universe; – nistari – delivering; – namni – the chanting of their holy names; – nityananda – Lord Nityananda; – advaita – Lord Advaita; – caitanya – Lord Caitanya; – rupe – consisting of; – tattve – truths; – tasmin – to them; – nityam – constantly; – astam – let there be; – ratih – intense devotion; – nah – on our part.
We pray that we may develop intense constant devotion for Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Lord Nityananda Prabhu, and Lord Advaita Prabhu, the controllers of all religious activities. They are pleased even with the dim reflection of devotional service. The chanting of Their holy names delivers the entire universe.
anandatirtha-nama sukha- maya-dhaama yatir jiyat samsararnava-taranim yam iha janah kirtayanti budhah anandatirtha-nama – Madhvacarya, who is known as Anandatirtha; – sukhamaya – consisting of transcendental bliss; – dhama – abode; – yatih – sannyasi; – jiyat – all glories; – samsara – of material existence; – arnava – the ocean; – taranim – the boat for crossing; – yam – whom; – iha – in this world; – janah – persons; – kirtayanti – glorify; – budhah – intelligent and learned.
All glories to Srila Madhvacarya Svami, the abode of transcendental happiness. Those who are learned and intelligent glorify him, for he is like a boat which enables the conditioned souls to cross beyond this realm of repeated birth and death.
bhavati vicintya vidusa niravakara guru-paramapara nityam ekantitvam sidhyati yayod- ayati yena hari-tosam
bhavati – there is; – vicintya – should be considered; – vidusa – free from fault; – niravakara – free from impurity; – guru – of spiritual masters; – parampara – disciplic succession; – nityam – always; – ekantitvam – exclusive and unalloyed devotional service; – sidhyati – becomes perfect; – yaya – by which; – udayati – arises; – yena – by whom; – hari – of Lord Hari; – tosam – the satisfaction.
A discriminating person pleases Lord Hari by remembering the faultless disciplic succession of bona-fide spiritual masters, who enable one to attain the perfection of unalloyed devotional service.
yad uktam padma-purane— sampradya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah atahh kalau bhavisyanti catvarah sampradayinah
sri-brahma-rudra-sanaka vaisnavah ksiti-pavanah catvaras te kalau bhavya hy utkale purusottamat
yat – which; – uktam – is spoken; – padma-purane – in the Padma Purana; – sampradaya-vihinah – those who are not connected to the bona-fide disciplic succession; – ye – those who; – mantrah – mantras; – te – they; – nisphalah – without result; – matah – are considered; – atah – for this reason; – kalau – in the age of Kali; – bhavisyanti – there will be; – catvarah – four; – sampradayah – bona- fide disciplic successions; – sri – from Laksmi-devi; – brahma – from Lord Brahma; – rudra – from Lord Siva; – sanakah – and from Sanaka and the Kumara sons of Brahma; – vaisnavah – in relation to Lord Visnu; – ksiti – the world; – pavanah – purifying; – catvarah – four; – te – they; – kalau – in the age of kali; – bhavyah – will be; – hi– indeed; – utkale – in Orissa; – purusottamat – from Jagannatha Puri.
The Padma Purana explains: “Unless one is initiated by a bona-fide spiritual master in the disciplic succession, the mantra he might have received is without any effect. For this reason four Vaisnava disciplic successions, inaugurated by Laksmi-devi, Lord Brahma, LordSiva, and the four Kumaras, will appear in the holy place of Jagannatha Puri, and purify the entire earth during the age of Kali.”
ramnujam srih svi-cakre madhvacryam caturmukhah
sri-visnu-svaminam rudro nimbadityam catuhsanah
ramanujam – Ramanuja; – srih – Laksmi-devi; – svi-cakre – selected; – madvacaryam – Madhvacarya; – caturmukah – Lord Brahma; – sri-visnu- svaminam – Visnu Svami; – rudrah – Lord Siva; – nimbadityam – Nimbarka; – catuhsanah – the four Kumaras.
Laksmi-devi chose Ramanujacarya to represent her disciplic succession. In the same way Lord Brahma chose Madhvacarya, Lord Siva chose Visnu Svami, and the four Kumaras chose Nimbarka.
tatra guru-parampara yatha—
sri-krsna-brahma-devarsi- badarayana-samjvakan sri-madhva-sri-padmanabha- sriman-nrhari-madhavan
aksobhya-jayatirtha-sri- jvanasindhu-dayanidhin sri-vidyanidhi-rajendra- jayadharman kramad vayam
purusottama-brahmanya- vyasatirthams ca samstumah tato laksmipatim sriman- madhavendram ca bhaktitah
tac-chisyan srisvaradvaita- nityanandan jagad-gurun devam isvara-sisyam sri- caitanyam ca bhajamahe sri-krsna-prema-danena yena nistaritam jagat
tatra – in this connection; – guru – of bona-fide spiritual masters; – parampara – the disciplic succession; – yatha – just as; – sri-krsna – Lord Krsna; – brahma – Brahma; – devarsi – Narada; – badarayana – Vyasa; – samjvakan – named; – sri- madhva – Madhvacarya; – sri-padmanabha – Padmanabha; – srimat-nrhari – Nrhari; – madhavan – Madhava; – aksobhya – Aksobhya; – jayatirtha – Jayatirtha; – sri- jvanansindhu – Jvanasindhu; – dayanidhin – Dayanidhi; – sri- vidyanidhi – Vidyanidhi; – rajendra – Rajendra; – jayadharman – Jayadharma; – kramat- one after another; – vayam – we; – purusottama – Purusottama; – brahmanya – Brahmanya; – vyasatirtha – Vyasatirtha; – ca – and; – samstumah – offer prayers; – tatah – then; – laksmipatim – Laksmipati; – srimat-madhavendram – Madhavendra Puri; – ca – and; – bhaktitah – with devotion; – tat – his; – sisyan – disciples; – sri- isvara – Isvara Puri; – Advaita- Advaita Prabhu; – nityanandan – Nityananda Prabhu; – jagat – of the entire universe; – gurun – spiritual masters; – devam – the disciple; – sri-caitanyam – Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; – ca – and; – bhajamahe – we worship; – sri- krsna – of Sri Krsna; – prema – of pure love; – danena – by the gift; – yena – by whom; – nistaritam – delivered; – jagat – the universe.
With great devotion we glorify the spiritual masters in the Gaudiya Vaisnava disciplic successions. A list of their names follows: 1) Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 2) Brahma, 3) Narada, 4) Vyasa, 5) Madhvacarya, 6) Padmanabha, 7) Nrhari, 8) Madhava, 9) Aksobhya, 10) Jayatirtha, 11) Jnanasindhu, 12) Dayanidhi, 13) Vidyanidhi, 14) Rajendra, 15) Jayadharma, 16) Purusottama, 17) Brahmanya, 18) Vyasatirtha, 19) Laksmipati, 20) Madhavendra Puri, and 21) Isvara Puri, Advaita Prabhu and Nityananda Prabhu (who were all disciples of Madhavendra Puri). We worship Isvara Puri’s disciple, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who delivered the entire universe by granting the gift of krsna-prema (pure love of Krsna).
atha prameyany uddisante—
sri-madhvah praha visnum paratamam akhilamnya-vedyam ca visvam
satyam bhedam ca jivam hari-carana-jusas taratamyam ca tesam
moksam visnv-agghri-labham tad-amala-bhajanam tasya hetum pramanam
pratyaksadi-trayam cety upadisati harih krsna- caitanyacandrah
atha – now; – prameyani – philosophical truths; – uddisante – delineate; – sri-madhvah – Madhvacarya; – praha – said; – visnum – Lord Visnu; – paratamam – is the Supreme Absolute truth; – akhila – all; – amnaya – by the Vedic scriptures; – vedyam – knowable; – ca – and; – visvam – the material universe; – satyam – is real; – bhedam – distinction; – ca – and; – jivan – the living entities; – hari – of Lord Hari; – carana – of the lotus feet; – jusah – servants; – taratamyam – distinction (in that some are liberated and some conditioned); – ca – and; – tesam – of them; – moksam – liberation; – visnu – of Lord Visnu; – agghri – of the lotus feet; – labham – the attainment; – tat – of the Lord; – amala – pure; – bhajanam – devotional service; – tasya – of that hetum – the cause; – pramanam – evidence; – pratyaksa – by direct perception; – adi – headed; – trayam – group of three; – ca – and; – iti – thus; – upadisati – teaches; – harih – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – see pg nine – Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
A summary of the Vaisnava philosophy follows—
Madhvacarya taught that 1) Lord Visnu is the Absolute Truth, than whom nothing is higher, 2) He is known by study of the Vedas, 3) the material world is real, 4) the jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Visnu 5) the Jivas are by nature servants of Lord Visnu’s lotus feet, 6) In both the conditioned and liberated condition, the jivas are situated in higher and lower statuses, 7) liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the attainment of Lord Visnu’s lotus feet, 8) Pure devotional service grants liberation, 9) direct perception, logic, and Vedic authority are the three sources of actual knowledge. These same truths are also taught by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself in His appearance as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TEXT 9(a)
paratamya prakaranam— sri-visnoh paramatvam— yatha sri-gopalopanisadi—
tasmat krsna eva paro devam tam dhyayet tam raset tam bhajet tam yajet. iti.
paratamya – about Lord Visnu’s supremacy; – prakaranam – chapter; – sri-visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – paramatvam – the position of the Absolute Truth; – yatha – just as; – sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad; – tasmat – therefore; – krsnah – Krsna; – eva – certainly; – parah – is the Supreme; – devam – that Supreme Lord; – tam – upon Him; – dhyayet – one should meditate; – tam – Him; – raset – one should chant the holy name; – tam – Him; – bhajet – one should serve; – tam – Him; – yajet – one should worship; – iti – thus.
1. Lord Visnu is the Absolute Truth, than whom, nothing is higher—
Lord Visnu’s supremacy is described in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad: “Therefore, Krsna is the Supreme Absolute Truth, and nothing is higher than Him. One should meditate upon Him, chant His holy names, serve, and worship Him.”
TEXT 9 (b)
svetasvataropanisadi ca—
jvatva devam sarva-pasapahanih ksinaih klesair janma-mrtyu-prahanih tasyabhidhyanat trtiyam deha-bhede visvaisvaryam kevalam apta-kamah etaj jneyam nityam evatma-sastham natah param veditavyam hi kivcit
svetasvatara-upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – ca- and; – jvatva – having understood; – devam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – sarva – all; – pasa – ropes; – apahanih – removed; – ksinaih – destroyed; – klesaih – with material sufferings; – janma – of birth; – mrtyuh – and death; – prahanih – destruction; – tasya – of Him; – abhidhyanat – from constant remembrance; – trtiyam – the spiritual world; – deha – of the gross and subtle material body; – bhede – on the destruction; – visva – complete; – aisvaryam – with opulence; – devalam – beyond the touch of material energy; – apta – attained; – kamah – all desires; – etat – this; – jveyam – knowable; – nityam – eternal; – atma-samstham – the Absolute Truth; – na – not; – atah – than Him; – param – superior; – veditavyam – may be known; – hi – indeed; – kincit – at all.
This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad—“When one understands the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then the ropes of illusion which bind one to this material world become cut, the material miseries end, and the repetition of birth and death in the cycle of transmigration also ends. By constantly remembering the Supreme Lord, at the time of death one attains the fully opulent spiritual world, far beyond the touch of matter, and all his desires become fulfilled. In this way he directly perceives the Supreme Personality of Godhead, than whom there is nothing higher to be known.” (1.11)
TEXT 9 ©
gitasu ca—
mattah parataram nanyat kivcid asti dhanavjaya
gitasu – in the Bhagavad-gita; – ca – and; – mattah – beyond Myself; – parataram – superior; – na – not; – anyat – anything; – kivcit – something; – asti – there is; – dhanavjaya – O conqueror of wealth.
This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (7.7), where Krsna says—“O conqueror of wealth (Arjuna), there is no truth superior to Me.”
hetutvad vibhu-caitanya- nandatvadi-gunasrayat nitya-laksmy-adimatvac ca krsnah paratamo matah hetutvat – because of being the original cause of everything; – vibhu – all powerful; – caitanya – consciousness; – ananda – of bliss; – tva – because of the state; – adi – etc.; – guna – of all transcendental qualities; – asrayat – because of being the reservoir; – nitya – eternally; – laksmi – by the goddess of fortune; – adi – and others; – matvat – because of being served with great reverence; – ca – and; – krsnah – Krsna; – paratamah – the ultimate; – matah – is considered.
Krsna is accepted as the highest truth because He is the origin of both the material and spiritual worlds, because His spiritual form is all-powerful, all-cognisant, and full of transcendental bliss, because He is the reservoir of all auspicious spiritual qualities, and because He is served with great reverence and affection by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune, and uncountable millions of other devotees as well.
TEXT 11 (a)
sarva-hetutvam, yathahuh svetasvatarah—
ekah sa devo bhagavan varenyo yoni-svabhavan adhitisthaty ekah yac ca svabhavam pacati visva-yonih pacyams ca sarvan parinamayed yah
sarva – of everything; – hetutvam – the state of being the origin; – yatha – just as; – ahuh – explains; – svetasvatarah – the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – ekah – one; – sah – He; – devah – Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhagavan – full of all opulences; – varenyah – worshipable; – yoni-svabhavan – all material elements; – adhitisthati – he establishes; – ekah – alone; – yat – which; – ca – and; – sva-bhavam – nature of the living entity; – pacati – creates; – visva – of the universe; – yonih – the origin; – pacyan – developed; – ca – and; – sarvan – all; – parinamayet – transforms; – yah – who.
The Supreme Lord is the source of everything. This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (5.4-5): “The one supremely opulent and worshipable Personality of Godhead is the origin of the entire universe. He creates the material elements and their attributes, and He also transforms those elements.”
TEXT 11 (b)
vibhu-caitanyanandatvam, yatha kathake—
mahantam vibhum atmanam matva dhire na socati
vibhu – all powerful; – caitanya – conscious of everything; – ananda – of bliss; – tvam – the state; – yatha – just as; – kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – mahantam – supremely worshipable; – vibhum – full of all powers and opulences; – atmanam – Supreme Person;matva – having understood; – dhirah – an intelligent person who knows the distinction between material bondage and liberation; – na – does not; – socati – lament for any material distress.
That the Lord is all powerful, all-cognisant, and all-blissful is confirmed in the following verse from the Katha Upanisad (1.2.22)—“An intelligent person, who understands the distinction between material bondage and liberation, ends all material bondage when he understands the supremely worshipable Personality of Godhead, who is full of all powers and opulences.”
TEXT 11 ©
vijvana-sukha-rupatvam atma-sabdena bodhyate anena mukta-gamyatvam vyutpatter iti tad-vidah
vijvana – of transcendental knowledge; – sukha – and bliss; – rupatvam – the state of having a form; – atma – “atma”; – sabdena – by the word; – bodhyate – is understood; – anena – by this; – mukta – by the liberated souls; – gamyatvam – understandable; – vyutpatteh – derivation; – iti – thus; – tat – the truth; – vidah – those who know.
Those learned in spiritual matters know that the word “atma” means “that which is full of spiritual knowledge and bliss”. This knowledge and bliss is possessed both by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the liberated individual living entities.
TEXT 12 (a)
vajasaneyis cahuh—
vijvanam anandam brahma ratir datum parayanam
vajasaneyih – The Vajasaneya-brahmana; – ca – and; – ahuh–explains; – vijvanam – full of knowledge; – anandam – and bliss; – brahma – the supreme spirit; – ratih – giving the result of sacrifice; – datum – to the worshipper; – parayanam – the Absolute Truth.
The Vajasaneya-brahmana (3.9.28) also explains: “The Supreme Spirit, who is full of knowledge and bliss, grants the results to those who worship Him with sacrifice.”
TEXT 12 (b)
sri-gopalopanisadi ca—
tam ekam govindam sac-cid-ananda-vigraham
sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-Tapani Upanisad; – ca – also; – tam – to Him; – ekam – one; – govindam – Govinda; – sat – eternal; – cit – full of knowledge; – ananda – and bliss; – vigraham – form.
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.35) also confirms: “Lord Govinda is beyond the duality of the material world, and He is not different from His form which is eternal, full of knowledge and bliss.”
TEXT 12 ©
murtatvam pratipattavyam cit-sukhasyaiva ragavat vijvana-ghana-sabdadi- kirtanac capi tasya tat deha-dehi-bhida nastity etenaivopadarsitam
murtatvam – the state of having a form; – pratipattavyam – may be understood; – cit – spiritual; – sukhasya – of bliss; – eva – certainly; ragavat – just as a melody; – vijvana – of the Lord’s supreme knowledge; – ghana – “ghana”; – sabda – with the word; – adi – the mantra which begins with; – kirtanat – from the description; – ca – and; – api – also; – tasya – of Him; – tat – that; – deha – of the body; – dehi – of the possessor of the body; – bhida – difference; – na – not; – asti – is; – iti – thus; – etena – by this; – eva – certainly; – upadarsitam – is revealed.
Lord Govinda possesses a form of spiritual bliss, just as a melody, although apparently formless, actually possesses a subtle form within the mind. The mantra beginning “vijnana-ghana” confirms that the Lord’s form is not material, but a spiritual manifestation which is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, and that there is no difference between the Lord and His spiritual form.
TEXT 13 (a)
murtasyaiva vibhutvam, yatha mundake—
vrksa iva stabdho divi tisthaty ekas tenedam purnam purusena sarvam.
murtasya – of the form; – eva – certainly; – vibhutvam – the state of being all-powerful and opulent; – yatha – just as; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – vrksah – a tree; – iva – just as; – stabdhah – fixed; – divi – in the spiritual sky; – tisthati – is situated; – ekah – one; – tena – by Him; – idam – this; – purnam – perfect and complete; – purusena – by the person; – sarvam – everything.
The Mundaka Upanisad confirms that the Lord’s form possesses unlimited potency: “The Supreme Person appears like a tree situated in the spiritual sky. From that tree the perfect and complete spiritual and material worlds have become manifested.”
TEXT 13 (b)
dyu-stho ‘pi nikhila-vyapity
akhyanan murtiman vibhuh yugapad dhyatr-vrndesu saksat-karac ca tadrsah
dyu – in the spiritual sky; – stah – remaining; – api – although; – nikhila – everywhere; – vyapi – pervading; – iti – thus; – akhyanam – from the description of the Vedas; – murtiman – possessing a form; – vibhuh – all-powerful; – yugapat – simultaneously; – dhyatr – to the perfect living beings; – vrndesu – to the community; – saksat-karat – by direct perception; – ca – and; – tadrsah – the same.
The Vedic mantras explain that the all-powerful Absolute Truth possesses a spiritual form, and although He remains in the spiritual sky, He is simultaneously present everywhere. He personally appears within the heart of the perfect devotees who constantly meditate upon Him.
TEXT 14 (a)
sri-dasame ca—
na cantar na bahir yasya na purvam napi caparam purvaparam bahis cantar jagato yo jagac ca yah
sri-dasame – in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam; – ca – also; – na – not; – ca – also; – antah – interior; – na – nor; – bahih – exterior; – yasya – whose; – na – neither; – purvam – beginning; – na – nor; – api – indeed; – ca – also; – aparam – end; – purva-aparam – the beginning and the end; – bahih ca antah – the external and the internal; – jagatah – of the whole cosmic manifestation; – yah – one who is; – jagat ca yah – and who is everything in creation in total.
This is confirmed in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.13): “The Supreme Personality of Godhead has no beginning and no end, no exterior and no interior, no front and no rear. In other words, He is all-pervading. Because He is not under the influence of the element of time, for Him there is no difference between past, present and future; – He exists in his own transcendental form at all times. Being absolute, beyond relativity, He is free from distinctions between cause and effect, although He is the cause and effect of everything.”
TEXT 14 (b)
sri-gitasu ca—
maya tatam idam sarvam jagad avyakta-murtina mat-sthani sarva-bhutani na caham tesv avasthitah
na ca mat-sthani bhutani pasya me yogam aisvaram
sri-gitasu – in the Bhagavad-gita; – ca – also; – maya – by Me; – tatam – spread; – idam – all these manifestations; – sarvam – all; – jagat – cosmic manifestation; – avyakta-murtina – unmanifested form; – mat-sthani – unto Me; – sarva-bhutani – all living entities; – na – not; – ca – also; – aham – I; – tesu – in them; – avasthitah – situated; – na – never; – ca – also; – mat-sthani – situated in Me; – bhutani – all creation; – pasya – just see; – me – My; – yogam aisvaram – inconceivable mystic power.
The Lord confirms in the Bhagavad-gita (9.4-5): “By Me, in My unmanifested form, this entire universe is pervaded. All beings are in Me, but I am not in them. And yet everything that is created does not rest in Me. Behold my mystic opulence!”
TEXT 14 ©
acintya-saktir astise yoga-sabdena cocyate virodha-bhavjika sa syad iti tattva-vidam matam
acintya – inconceivable; – saktih – potency; – asti – there is; – ise – in the supreme Personality of Godhead; – yoga – “yoga”; – sabdena – by the word; – ca – and; – ucyate – is explained; – virodha – contradiction; – bhavjika – resolving; – sa – that potency; – syat – is; – iti – thus; – tattva – the truth; – vidam – of those who understand; – matam – the opinion.
The fact that the Supreme Personality of Godhead possesses inconceivable potency (yogam aisvaram) resolves the apparent contradiction in this statement by the Lord. This is the opinion of those who know the truth.
TEXT 15 (a)
adina sarva-jvatvam, yatha mundake— yah sarva-jvah sarva-vit
adina – by the word adi (etc.) (found in verse 10); – sarva- jvatvam – omniscience; – yatha – just as; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – yah – who; – sarva – eerything; – jvah – knows; – sarva – all; – vit – perceives.
By the use of the word “adi” (etc.) in text 10, the Lord’s omniscience may be inferred. This is confirmed in the Mundaka Upanisad (2.2.7): “The Supreme Personality of Godhead is omniscient.”
TEXT 15 (b)
ananditvam ca, taittiriyake—
anandam brahmano vidvan na vibheti kutascana
ananditvam – the state of being full of transcendental bliss; – ca – also; – taittiriyake – in the Taittiriya Upanisad; – anandam – spiritual bliss; – brahmanah – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – vidvan – a person who knows; – na – does not; – bibheti – fear; – kutascana – anything.
That the Lord is full of transcendental bliss is confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanisad (2.4.1): “One who understands the transcendental bliss of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, no longer fears anything.”
TEXT 15 ©
prabhutva-suhrttva-jvanadatva-mocakatvami ca, svetasvatara-srutau—
sarvasya prabhum isanam sarvasya saranam suhrt prajva ca tasmat prasrta purani samsara-bandha-sthiti-moksa-hetuh
prabhutva – the state of being the supreme master; – suhrttva – the state of being the supreme friend; – jvanadatva – the state of being the supreme teacher; – mocakatvani – the state of being the ultimate deliverer; – ca – and; – svetasvatara-srutau – in the following quotes from the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – sarvasya – of everyone; – prabhum – the master; – isanam – the controller; – sarvasya – of everyone; – saranam – the shelter; – suhrt–and friend; – prajva – spiritual knowledge; – ca – and; – tasmat – from Him; – prasrta – becomes manifest; – purani – eternal; – samsara – of material existance; – bandha – of the bondage; – sthiti – from the situation; – moksa – of liberation; – hetuh – the cause.
That the Lord is the supreme master, friend, teacher, and deliverer is confirmed in the following quotes from the Svetasvatara Upanisad:
“The Personality of Godhead is everyone’s supreme master, controller, shelter and friend.” (3.17)
“The Personality of Godhead is the teacher who reawakens the eternal spiritual knowledge of the conditioned souls.” (4.18)
“The Personality of Godhead delivers the conditioned souls from the bondage of repeated birth and death.” (6.16)
TEXT 15 (d)
madhuryam ca sri-gopalopanisadi—
sat-pundarika-nayanam meghabham vaidyutambaram dvi-bhujam mauna-mudradhyam vana-malinam isvaram
madhuryam – the charming beauty of the Lord; – ca – and; – sri- gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad; – sat – manifested; – pundarika – like lotus flowers; – nayanam – eyes; – megha – of a fresh rain-cloud; – abham – splendor; – vaidyuta – as splendid as lightning; – ambaram – garments; – dvi – with two; – bhujam – arms; – mauna-mudradhyam – full of transcendental knowledge; – isvaram – the Supreme Controller.
The Lord’s charming beauty is described in the Gopala- tapani Upanisad (1.13): “The Supreme Personality of Godhead appears as splendid as a fresh rain-cloud, and His eyes are as beautiful as lotus flowers. He has two arms and wears garments as yellow as lightning. He is decorated with a garland of forest flowers, and He is full of transcendental knowledge.”
na bhinna dharmino dharma bheda-bhanam visesatah yasmat kalah sarvadastity adi-dhir vidusam api
na – not; – bhinnah – different; – dharminah – from the possessor of qualities; – dharmah – qualities; – bheda – distinction; – bhanam – appearance; – visesatah – specifically; – yasmat – from whom; – kalah – time; – sarvada – eternally; – asti – exists; – iti – thus; – adi – original; – dhih – intelligence; – vidusam – among the learned philosophers; – api – and.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not different from His transcendental form and attributes, and any apparent distinction is an illusion. He is the original learned philosopher, and He is the source of eternal time.
evam uktam narada-pavcaratre—
nirdosa-purna-guna-vigraha atma-tantro niscetanatmaka-sarira-gunais ca hinah ananda-matra-kara-pada-mukhodaradih sarvatra ca svagata-bheda-vivarjitatma
evam – in this way; – uktam – described; – narada-pavcaratre – in the Narada Pavcaratra; – nirdosa – without fault; – purna – full; – guna – of transcendental attributes; – vigrahah – form; – atma- tantrah – independant; – niscetana – material; – atmaka – mind; – sarira – body; – gunaih – and attributes; – ca – and; – hinah – without; – ananda – spiritual bliss; – matra – exclusively consisting of; – kara – hands; – pada – feet; – mukha – face; – udara – belly; – adih – etc.; – sarvatra – in every respect; – ca – and; – svagata – from Himself; – bheda – with a difference; – vivarjita – devoid of; – atma – Supreme Personality of Godhead.
This is described in the Narada Pavcaratra: “The independent Supreme Personality of Godhead possesses a spiritual form full of perfect and faultless qualities. He is not different from the hands, feet, face, belly, or other parts of his form, which are all made exclusively of transcendental bliss.”
TEXT 18 (a)
atha nitya-laksmikatvam, yatha visnu-purane—
nityaiva sa jagan-mata visnuh srir anapayini yatha sarvagato visnus tathaiveyam dvijottama
atha – now; – nitya – eternal; – laksmikatvam – position of Laksmi-devi; – yatha- just as; – visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – nitya – eternal; – eva – certainly; – sa – she; – jagat – of the universe; – mata – the mother; – visnoh – to Lord Visnu; – srih – Srimati Laksmidevi, the goddess of fortune; – anapayini – eternally faithful; – yatha – just as; – sarva-gatah – all-pervading; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – tatha – in the same way; – eva – certainly; – iyam – she; – dvija – of brahmanas; – uttama – O best.
The eternal transcendental position of Srimati Laksmi-devi is described in the Visnu Purana: “O best of the brahmanas, Lord Visnu’s transcencental potency, Srimati Laksmidevi, is His constant faithful companion. She is eternal, and she is the mother of the entire material universe. She is all-pervading, just as Lord Visnu is.”
TEXT 18 (b)
visnoh syuh saktayas tisras tasu ya kirtita para saiva sris tad-abhinneti praha sisyan prabhur mahan
visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – syuh – there are; – saktayah – potencies; – tisrah – three; – tasu – among them; – ya – that which; – kirtita – is glorified; – para – as the transcendental and superior; – sa – she; – eva – certainly; – srih – Srimati Laksmi-devi; – tat – with the Lord; – abhinna – not different; – iti – thus; – praha – spoke; – sisyan – to His students; – prabhuh mahan – Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed His disciples in the following way: “Srimati Laksmi-devi is the best of Lord Visnu’s three potencies, and She is not different from the Lord Himself.”
TEXT 18 ©
tatra trisakti-visnuh, yatha svetasvataropanisadi—
parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate svabhaviki jvana-bala-kriya ca
pradhana-ksetrajva-patir gunesah
tatra – in this connection; – tri-sakti – possessing three potencies; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – yatha – just as; – svetasvatara- upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – para – supreme; – asya – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – saktih – potency; – vividha – various; – eva – certainly; – sruyate – is heard; – svabhaviki – according to nature; – jvana – potency of knowledge; – bala – potency of eternal existence; – kriya – potency of spiritual bliss; – ca – and; – pradhana – the unmanifested material nature; – ksetrajva – and the individual living entities; – patih – the master; – guna – of the three modes of material nature; – isah – the master.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.8) describes the three energies of Lord Visnu: “It has been heard in the Vedas that Lord Visnu possesses multifarious potencies, which may be divided into three categories: 1. the potency of transcendental knowledge, 2. the potency of eternal existence, and 3. the potency of spiritual bliss. Lord Visnu is also the master of all living entities, and the controller of the material cosmos both in its unmanifested stage, and its developments of the three modes of nature.”
TEXT 19 (a)
sri-visnu-purane ca—
visnu-saktih para prokta ksetrajnakhya tatha paraa avidya-karma-samjnanya trtiya saktir isyate
sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – ca – and; – visnu-saktih – the potency of Lord Visnu; – para – spiritual; – prokta – it is said; – ksetrajna-akhya – the potency known as ksetrajna; – tatha – as well as; – para – spiritual; – avidya – ignorance; – karma – fruitive activities; – samjna – known as; – anya – other; – trtiya – third; – saktih – potency; – isyate – known thus.
The Visnu Purana explains: “The potency of Lord Visnu is summarised in three categories: namely, the spiritual potency, the living entities and ignorance. The spiritual potency is full of knowledge; – the living entities, although belonging to the spiritual potency, are subject to bewilderment; – and the third energy, which is full of ignorance, is always visible in fruitive activities.”
TEXT 19 (b)
paraiva visnv-abhinna srir ity uktam. tatraiva—
kala-kastha-nimesadi- kala-sutrasya gocare yasya saktir na suddhasya prasidatu sa no harih
para – transcendental potency; – visnu – than Lord Visnu; – abhinna – not different; – srih – Srimati Laksmi-devi; – iti – thus; – uktam – spoken; – tatra – there; – eva – certainly; – kala – seconds; – kastha – seconds; – nimesa – moment; – adi – etc; – kala – of time; – sutrasya – of the measuring string; – gocare – within the perception; – yasya – of whom; – saktih – potency; – na – not; – suddhasya – free from all material impurity; – prasidatu – may be merciful; – sah – He; – nah – to us; – harih – Lord Hari.
Srimati Laksmi-devi, the supreme spiritual potency, is non-different from Lord Visnu:
The spiritual potencies of the Lord are described in the following verses from Visnu Purana: “Lord Hari’s transcendental potency cannot be measured by the string of time, calibrated in minutes and seconds. May that supremely pure Personality of Godhead be merciful to us.
TEXT 19 ©
procyate parameso yo yah suddho ‘py upacaratah prasidatu sa no visnur atma yah sarva-dehinam
procyate – is described; – parama-isah – the supreme controller; – yah – who; – yah – who; – suddhah – pure; – api – and; – upacaratah – served; – prasidatu – may be merciful; – sah – He; – nah – to us; – visnuh – Visnu; – atma – Supersoul; – yah – who; – sarva – of all; – dehinam – living entities in the material world.
“Lord Visnu is described as the supreme controller, free from all material impurity. He is the object of Srimati Laksmi-devi’s service, and He is the Supersoul of all conditioned living entities. May He be merciful to us.”
TEXT 19 (d)
esa paraiva tri-vrd ity uktam tatraiva—
hladini sandhini samvit
tvayy eka sarva-samsthitau hlada-tapakari misra tvayi no guna-varjite
esa – this; – para – superior potency; – eva – certainly; – tri- vrt – three-fold; – iti – thus; – uktam – described; – tatra – there; – eva – indeed; – hladini – pleasure potency; – sandhini – existence potency; – samvit – knowledge potency; – tvayi – in You; – eka – one; – sarva-samsthitau – who are the basis of all things; – hlada – pleasure; – tapa – and misery; – kari – causing; – misra – a mixture of the two; – tvayi – in You; – no – not; – guna-varjite – who are without the three modes of material nature.
The Visnu Purana explains that the Lord’s spiritual potency has three aspects: “O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hladini (pleasure potency), sandhini (existence potency), and samvit (knowledge potency) exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities.”
TEXT 20 (a)
eko ‘pi visnur ekapi laksmis tad-anapayini sva-siddhair bahubhir vesair bahur ity abhidhiyate
ekah – one; – api – although; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – eka – one; – api – although; – laksmi – Laksmi-devi; – tat – of Him; – anapayini – the constant associate; – sva-siddhaih – spiritually perfect; – bahubhih – by many; – vesaih – appearances; – bahuh – many; – iti – thus; – abhidhiyate – is described.
Lord Visnu is one, and His constant associate Laksmi- devi is also one. Assuming many different spiritual forms, they appear to have become many.
TEXT 20 (b)
tatraikatve satyeva visnor bahutvam, sri-gopalopanisadi—
eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya eko ‘pi san bahudha yo ‘vabhati tam pithastham ye tu yajanti dhiras te sam sukham sasvatam netaresam
tatra – in this connection; – ekatve – in the oneness; – satya – the truth; – iva – as if; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – bahutvam – the state of being many; – sri-gopala- upanisadi – in the Gopala Tapani Upanisad; – ekah – one; – vasi – the supreme controller; – sarvagah – all-pervading; – krsnah – Lord Krsna; – idyah – supremely worshipable; – ekah – one; – api – although; – san – being; – bahudha – in many forms; – yah – who; – avabhati – manifests; – tam – Him; – pithastham – in His transcendental abode; – ye – those who; – yajanti – worship; – dhirah – intelligent persons; – tesam – of them; – sukham – happiness; – sasvatam – eternal; – na – not; – itaresam – of others.
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.21) confirms that Lord Visnu is one, although He manifests in many forms: “Lord Krsna is the worshipable, all-pervading supreme controller, and although He is one, Hi manifests in many forms. Those who are intelligent worship that Supreme Lord, who remains in His spiritual abode. Those persons attain the eternal transcendental happiness which is not available for others.”
TEXT 20 ©
atha laksmyas tad yatha—
parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate. ity adi.
atha – now; – laksmyah – of Laksmi-devi; – tat – that; – yatha – just as; – para – supreme; – asya – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – saktih – potency; – vividha – various; – eva – certainly; – sruyate – is heard; – iti – thus; – adi – etc.
Srimati Laksmi-devi also manifests in many forms. This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.8): “It has been heard in the Vedas that Lord Visnu’s transcendental potency manifests in many forms.”
TEXT 21 (a)
purtih sarvatriki yady apy avisesa tathapi hi taratamyam ca tac-chakti- vyakty-vyakti-krtam bhavet
purtih – perfection and completeness; – sarvatriki – at all times and circumstances; – yadi api – although; – avisesa – without any distinction; – tatha api – nevertheless; – hi – indeed; – taratamyam – distinction of superiority and inferiority; – ca – and; – tat – of Him; – sakti – of the potency; – vyakti – manifest; – avyakti-krtam – and unmanifest; – bhavet – may be.
Although all of the transcendental forms of Visnu and Laksmi are always equally perfect and complete in all circumstances, these forms are considered higher and lower according to the different qualities and potencies which they manifest or refrain from manifesting.
TEXT 21 (b)
tatra nisnoh sarvatriki purtir yatha vajasaneyake—
“purnam adah purnam idam purnat purnam udacyate purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate”
tatra – in this connection; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – sarvatriki – in all circumstances; – purtih – perfection and completeness; – yatha – just as; – vajasaneyike – in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad;om – the complete whole; – purnam – perfectly complete; – adah – that; – purnam – perfectly complete; – idam – this phenomenal world; – purnat – from the all-perfect; – purnam – complete unit; – udacyate – is produced; – purnasya – of the complete whole; – purnam – completely, all; – adaya – having been taken away; – purnam – the complete balance; – eva – even; – evasisyate – is remaining.
Lord Visnu is always perfect and complete. This is described in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad (5.1.1): “The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced of the complete whole is also complete in itself. Because He is the complete whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance.”
TEXT 21 ©
maha-varahe ca—
sarve nityah sasvatas ca dehas tasya paratmanah hanopadana-rahita naiva prakrtijah kvacit
maha-varahe – in the Maha-varaha Purana; – ca – and; – sarve – all; – nityah – eternal; – sasvatah – imperishable; – ca – and; – dehah – forms; – tasya – of Him; – para-atmanah – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – hana – destruction; – upadana – origin; – rahitah – devoid of; – na – not; – eva – certainly; – prakrti-jah – produced from the material energy; – kvacit – at any time.
The Maha-varaaha Purana also explains: “The transcendental forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are eternal and imperishable. They were not created at a certain point, and they are never to be destroyed. They are not products of the material energy.
TEXT 21 (d)
paramananda-sandoha jnana-matras ca sarvatah
sarve sarva-gunaih purnah sarva-dosa-vivarjitah
parama – transcendental; – ananda – of bliss; – sandohah – the great abundance; – jvana – of knowledge; – matrah – exclusively; – ca – and; – sarvatah – all; – sarve – all; – gunaih – auspicious transcendent qualities; – purnah – filled; – sarva – all; – dosa – of defects; – vivarjitah – devoid.
“All the forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are completely filled with transcendental bliss, knowledge and all auspicious qualities. These spiritual forms of the Lord are free from all material defects.”
TEXT 22 (a)
atha sriyah sa yatha sri-visnu-purane—
evam yatha jagat-svami deva-devo janardanah avatram karoty esa tatha sris tat-sahayini
atha–now; – sriyah – of Srimati Laksmi; – sa – she; – yatha – just as; – sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – evam – in the same way; – yatha – just as; – jagat – of the universe; – svami – the lord; – deva – of all demigods; – devah – the master; – janardanah – Lord Janardana; – avataram – incarnation; – karoti – manifests; – esah – He; – tatha – in the same way; – srih – Srimati Laksmi-devi; – tat – His; – sahayini – eternal companion.
Srimati Laksmi-devi is described in the same way in the Visnu Purana: “Just as Lord Janardana, the controller of the universe and master of the demigods incarnates in different forms, so also does His eternal consort, Srimati Laksmi- devi.
TEXT 22 (b)
punas ca padmad udbhuta adityo ‘bhud yada harih yada ca bhargavo ramas tadabhud dharini tv iyam
punah – again; – ca – and; – padmat – from the lotus; – udbhuta – born; – adityah – as the son of Aditi (Lord Vamana); – abhut – became manifest; – yada – when; – harih – Lord Hari; – yada – when; – ca – and; – bhargavah – in the dynasty of Bhrgu; – ramah – Lord Parasurama; – tada – then; – abhut – appeared; – dharini – as Dharini; – tu – indeed; – iyam – she.
“When Lord Hari appeared as Vamana, the son of Aditi, Laksmi-devi appeared as Padma, and when the Lord appeared as Parasurama, she appeared as Dharini.
TEXT 22 ©
raghavatve ‘bhavat sita rukmini krsna-janmani anyesu cavataresu visnor esa sahayini
raghavatve – in the appearance of Lord Ramacandra; – abhavat – she became; – sita – Sita-devi; – rukmini – Princess Rukmini; – krsna – of Lord Krsna; – janmani – in the incarnation; – anyesu – in others; – ca – and; – avataresu – during the incarnations; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – esa – she; – sahayini – the consort.
“When the Lord appeared as Ramacandra, she became Sita- devi, and when He descended in His original form as Lord Krsna, she was Princess Rukmini. In Lord Visnu’s many other incarnations, she always appeared as the Lord’s consort.
TEXT 22 (d)
devatve deva-deheyam manusatve ca manusi visnor dehanurupam vai karoty esatmanas tanum syat svarupa-sati purtir ihaikyas iti vin-matam
devatve – when the Lord appears as a demigod; – deva – of demigod; – deha – assuming the form; – iyam – she; – manusatve – when the Lord incarnates as a human being; – ca – and; – manusi – in the form of a human; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – deha – of the form; – anurupam – corresponding; – vai – certainly; – karoti – manifests; – esa – she; – atmanah – of Herself; – tanum – the form; – syat – there is; – sva-rupa-sati – related to her transcendental form; – purtih – perfection and completeness; – iha – in this connection; – aikyat – because of non-difference; – iti – thus; – vit – of the transcendental scholars; – matam – the opinion.
“Laksmi-devi appears in different forms, corresponding to the forms of Lord Visnu. When the Lord appears as a demigod, she assumes a demigod-like form, and when He appears in a human- like form, she assumes a human-like form also. As the Lord’s transcendental potency, she is not different form Him, and her spiritual forms are all perfect and complete. This is the opinion of the learned transcendentalists.”
TEXT 23 (a)
atha tathapi taratamyam
atha sri-visnos tad yatha sri-bhagavate (1.3.28)—
ete camsa-kalah pumsah krsnas tu bhagavan svayam
atha – now; – tatha api – nevertheless; – taratamyam – distinction of superior and inferior; – atha – now; – sri- visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – tat – that; – yatha – just as; – sri-bhagavate – in the Srimad-Bhagavatam; – ete – all these; – ca – and; – amsa – plenary portions; – kalah – portions of the plenary portions; – pumsah – of the Supreme; – krsnah – LOrd Krsna; – tu – but; – bhagavan – the Personality of Godhead; – svayam – in person.
Some forms of the Lord are considered superior to other forms of the Lord. In this connection the Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28) explains: “All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead.”
TEXT 23 (b)
astamas tu tayor asit svayam eva harih kila
astamah – the eighth; – tu – indeed; – tayoh – of Vasudeva and Devaki; – asit – was; – svayam – personally; – eva – indeed; – harih – Lord Hari; – kila – certainly.
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared in His original form as the eighth son of Vasudeva and Devaki.”
TEXT 24 (a)
atha sris tad yatha purusa-bodhinyam atharvopanisadi—
“gokulakhye mathuramandale” ity upakramya “dve parsve candravali radhika ca” ity abhidhaya paratra “yasya amse laksmi-durgadika-saktih” iti.
atha – now; – srih – the goddess of fortune; – tat – that; – yatha – just as; – purusa-bodhinyam – in the Purusa-bodhini; – atharva – of the Atharva Veda; – upanisadi – in the Upanisad; – gokula – Gokula; – akhye – in the place named; – mathura – of Mathura; – mandale – in the district; – iti – thus; – upakramya – having begun; – dve – two; – parsve – at the sides; – candravali – Candravali; – radhika – Srimati Radharani; – ca – and; – iti thus; – abhidhaya – describing by name; – paratra – in another place; – yasyah – of Her; – amse – as parts; – laksmi – Laksmi; – durga – Durga; – adika – beginning with; – saktih – the Lord’s potencies; – iti – thus.
The same differing importance of forms applies to Srimati Laksmi-devi. The Purusa-bodhini Upanisad of the Atharva Veda explains:
“In the supreme abode of Gokula in the district of Mathura, Srimati Radharani and Srimati Candravali-devi stand at the left and right side of Lord Krsna.”
“Srimati Radharani expands Herself as Laksmi, Durga, and many other potencies of the Lord which are all her incarnations.”
TEXT 24 (b)
gautamiya-tantre ca—
devi krsnamayi prokta radhika para-devata sarva-laksmimayi sarva- kantih sammohini para
gautamiya-tantre – in the Gautamiya Tantra; – ca – and; – devi – who shines brilliantly; – krsna-mayi – nondifferent from Lord Krsna; – prokta – called; – radhika – Srimati Radharani; – para-devata – most worshipable; – sarva-laksmi- mayi – presiding over all the goddesses of fortune; – sarva- kantih – in whom all splendor exists; – sammohini – whose character completely bewilders Lord Krsna; – para – the superior energy. This is also confirmed in the Gautamiya Tantra: “The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krsna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. she possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.”
TEXT 25 (a)
atha nitya-dhamatvam adi-sabdat, yatha chandogye—
sa bhagavah kasmin pratisthitah. iti. sve mahimni. iti
mundake ca— divye pure hy esa samvyomny atma pratisthitah. iti
atha – now; – nitya – eternal; – dhamatvam – the state of the abode; – adi – “adi”; – sabdat – from the word; – yatha – just as; – chandogye – in the Chandogya Upanisad; – sah – He; – bhagavah – O Sanat-kumara; – kasmin – where?; – pratisthitah – is situated; – iti – thus; – sve – in His own; – mahimni – glorious abode; – iti – thus; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – divye – splendid; – pure – in the abode; – hi – certainly; – esah – He; – samvomni – in the spiritual sky; – atma – the supreme Personality of Godhead; – pratisthitah – is situated; – iti – thus.
The Lord’s eternal abode may be understood by the use of the word “adi” (etc.) in the quote from the Purusa-bodhini Upanisad. In this connection, the following question and answer are found in the Chandogya Upanisad:
“O Sanat-kumara, where does the Supreme Personality of Godhead reside?” “He resides in His own splendid abode.”
The Mundaka Upanisad also confirms: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead resides in His own splendid abode in the spiritual sky.”
TEXT 25 (b)
rksu ca— tam vam vastuny usmasi gamadhye yatra gavo bhuri-srnga ayasah.
atraha— tad urugayasya krsnah paramam padam avabhati bhuri. iti.
rksu – in the Rg Veda; – ca – and; – tam – that; – vam – of the divine couple (Sri Sri Radha and Krsna); – vastuni – the transcendental abodes; – usmasi – we desire; – gamadhye – to attain; – yatra – where; – gavah – surabhi cows; – bhuri – with excellent; – srggah – horns; – ayasah – move about; – atra – in the same scripture; – aha – the seer describes; – tat – that; – urugayasya – of Lord Krsna, who is glorified by the liberated souls; – vrsnah – and who fulfills all the desires of the devotees; – paramam – transcendental; – padam – abode; – avabhati – is splendidly manifest; – bhuri – unlimitedly; – iti–thus.
The Rg Veda (1.154.6) explains: “We desire to attain the transcendental abode of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna, which is full of splendid surabhi cows.” The Sruti also explains: “Unlimited Vaikuntha planets are the abode of Lord Krsna, who is glorified by the liberated souls and who fulfills all the desires of the devotees.”
TEXT 26 (a)
sri-gopalopanisadi ca— tasam madhye saksad brahma gopala-puri hi. iti.
sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala Tapani Upanisad; – ca – and; – tasam – of the seven holy cities of Bharata-varsa; – madhye – in the midst; – saksat – directly; – brahma – the spiritual world; – gopala – of Lord Gopala; – puri – the city; – hi – ertainly; – iti – thus.
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad explains: “Among the seven sacred cities of Bharata, the city of Mathura, where Lord Gopala resides, is a direct manifestation of the spiritual world.”
TEXT 26 (b)
jitante tantre ca—
lokam vaikuntha-namanam divyad-sad-gunya-samyutam avaisnavanam aprapyam guna-traya-vivarjitam
jitante tantre – in the Jitanta Tantra; – ca – and; – lokam – world; – vaikuntha – Vaikuntha; – namanam – named; – divyat – spiritual; – sat – six; – gunya – attributes; – samyutam – endowed; – avaisnavanam – by the non-devotees; – aprapyam – unattainable; – guna – modes of material nature; – traya – ot the three; – vivarjitam – devoid.
The Jitanta Tantra explains: “Unattainable by the non- devotees, free from the influence of the three modes of material nature, and filled with the six spiritual opulences, the supreme abode of the Personality of Godhead is known as Vaikuntha.
TEXT 26 ©
nitya-siddhaih samakirnam tan-mayaih panca-kalikaih sabha-prasada-samyuktam vanais copavanaih subham
nitya-siddhaih_with the eternally liberated souls; – samkirnam – filled; – tat-mayaih – by the Lord’s spiritual associates; – pavca-kalikaih – engaged in the five activities of approaching the Lord, accepting things from Him, worshipping Him, hearing about and remembering Him; – sabha – great halls; – prasada – and palaces; – samyuktam – endowed; – vanaih – with forests; – ca – and; – upavanaih – gardens; – subham – very splendid.
“Appearing very splendid with gardens, forests, halls and great palaces, that Vaikuntha world is inhabited by the Supreme Lord’s liberated associates who are always engaged in the devotional activities of approaching the Lord, asociating with Him, worshipping, hearing about and remembering Him at every moment.
TEXT 26 (d)
vapi-kupa-tadagais ca vrksa-sandaih sumanditam aprakrtam surair vandyam ayutarka-sama-prabham
vapi – with lakes; – kupa – wells; – tadagaih – ponds; – ca – and; – vrksa – of desire-trees; – sandaih – with multitudes; – sumanditam – nicely decorated; – aprakrtam – beyond the influence of material nature; – suraih – by the demigods; – vandyam – worshipable; – ayuta – millions; – arka – of suns; – sama – equal; – prabham – splendor.
“That Vaikuntha world is beyond the reach of the material nature, and it is worshipped by the demigods. It is nicely decorated with wells, ponds, lakes, and various desire-trees, and it is as effulgent as millions of suns.”
TEXT 26 (e)
brahma-samhitayam ca—
sahasra-patram kamalam gokulakhyam mahat-padam tat-karnikaram tad-dhama tad-anantamsa-sambhavam
brahma-samhitayam – in the Brahma-samhita; – ca – and; – sahasra – thousands; – patram – of petals; – kamalam – lotus flower; – gokula – Gokula; – akhyam – named; – mahat – great; – padam – abode; – tat – of that; – karnikaram – the whorl; – tat – that; – dhama – abode; – tat – that; – ananta – unlimited; – amsa – parts; – sambhavam – born.
The Brahma-samhita (verse 2) presents the following description: “The superexcellent station of Krsna, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinatary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Krsna.”
TEXT 27 (a)
prapavce svatmakam lokam avatarya mahesvarah avirbhavati tatreti matam brahmadi-sabdatah
prapavce – in the jurisdiction of the material energy; – sva – atmakam – own; – lokam – abode; – avatarya – having caused to descend; – mahesvarah – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; avirbhavati – manifests; – tatra – there; – iti- thus; – matam – the opinion; – brahma – of Brahma- adi – and others; – sabdatah – from the words.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead brings His own spiritual realm within the jurisdiction of the material world, and then personally appears there. This is the opinion of Lord Brahma and the other learned spiritualists.
TEXT 27 (b)
govinde sac-cid-anande nara-darakata yatha ajvair nirupyate tadvad
dhamni prakrtita kila
govinde – for Lord Govinda; – sat – whose form is eternal; – cit – full of knowledge; – anande – and bliss; – nara – human; – darakata – the state of being a child; – yatha – just as; – ajvaih – by the ignorant; – nirupyate; – is considered; – tadvat – to that extent; – dhamni – to the Lor’s spiritual abode; – prakrtita – the state of being material; – kila – indeed.
Just as they consider the eternal, omniscient and blissful spiritual form of Lord Krsna to be only the form of an ordinary human child, the foolish also consider the Lord’s spiritual abodes to be simply a manifestation of material energy.
TEXT 28 (a)
atha nitya-lilatvam ca. tathahi srutih— yad gatam bhavac ca bhavisyac ca. iti.
eko devo nitya-lilanurakto bhakta-vyapi bhakta-hrdy antaratma. iti ca.
atha – now; – nitya – eternal; – lilatvam – the state of performing pastimes; – ca – and; – tatha hi – furthermore; – srutih – in the Vedas; – yat – which; – gatam – happened in the past; – bhavat – happens at present; – bhavisyat – will occur in the future; – ca – and; – iti – thus; – ekah – one; – devah – Supreme Personality of Godhead; – nitya – eternal; – lila – by pastimes; – anuraktah – delighted; – bhakta – for the devotees; – vyapi – all-pervading; – bhakta – of the devotees; – hrdi – within the heart; – antaratma – the Supersoul.
The Supreme Lord Performs eternal pastimes. This is confirmed in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad: “The Supreme Lord performs pastimes eternally: in the past, present and future.” The Atharva Veda explains: “The one supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally engaged in many, many transcendental forms in relationships with His unalloyed devotees.”
TEXT 28 (b)
smrtis ca—
janma karma ca me divyam evam yo etti tattvatah tyktva deham punar janma naiti mam iti so’rjuna
smrtih – the smrti; – ca – and; – janma – birth; – karma – work; – ca – also; – me – of Mine; – divyam – transcendntal; – evam – like this; – yah – anyone who; – vetti – knows; – tattvatah – in teality; – tyaktva – leaving aside; – deham – this body; – punah – again; – janma – birth; – na – never; – eti – does attain; – mam – unto Me; – eti – does attain; – sah – he; – arjuna – O Arjuna.
The Lord Himself expains in Bhagavad-gita (4.9): “One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna.”
rupanantyaj jananantyad dhamanantyac ca karma tat nityam syat tad-abhedac cety uditam tattva-vittamaih
rupa – of the Lord’s spiritual forms; – anantyat – because of the numberlessness; – jana – of the Lord’s associates; – anantyat – because of the numberlessness; – dhama – of the Lord’s abodes; – anantyat – because of the infinite extent; – ca – and; – karma – pastimes; – tat – these; – nityam – eternal; – syat – are; – tat – from them; – abhedat – because Hi is not different; – ca – and; – iti – thus; – uditam – described; – tattva – vittamaih – by the learned transcendentalists, who know the truth.
Because the Lord’s forms, followers, and abodes are all unlimited, and because the Lord’s forms and abodes are not different from Him, the learned transcendentalists have described that the Lord’s pastimes are eternally manifest.
Second Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
athakhilamnaya-vedyatvam. yatha sri-gopalopanisadi— yo ‘sau sarvair vedair giyate. iti.
kathake ca- – sarve veda yat-padam amananti tapamsi sarvani ca yad vadanti
atha – now; – akhila – all; – amnaya – by the Vedas; – vedyatvam – the state of being known; – yatha – just as; – sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad; – yah – who- asau – He; – sarvaih – by all; – vedaih – the Vedas; – giyate – is glorified; – iti – thus; – kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – sarve – all; – vedah – the Vedas; – yat – whose; – padam – lotus feet; – amananti – worship; – tapamsi – austerities; – sarvani – all; – ca – and; – yat – whom; – vadanti – glorify.
2. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is known by study of the Vedas:
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad confirms this: “All the Vedas proclaim the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” And the Katha Upanisad (1.2.15) also confirms it: “All the Vedas worship the Supreme Lord’s lotus feet, and all austerities proclaim His glories.”
TEXT 1 (b)
sri-hari-vamse ca—
vede ramayane caiva purane bharate tatha adav ante ca madhye ca harih sarvatra giyate
sri-hari-vamse – in the Hari-vamsa; – ca – and; – vede – in the Vedas; – ramayane – in the Ramayana; – ca – and; – eva – certainly; – purane – in the Puranas; – bharate – in the Mahabharata; – tatha – in the same way; – adau – in the beginning; – ante – in the middle; – ca – and; – madhye – in the middle; – ca – and; – harih – the supreme Personality of Godhead; – sarvatra – everywhere; – giyate – is glorified.
The Hari-vamsa states: “In the Vedic literature, including the Ramayana, Puranas ad Mahabharata, from the very beginning (adau), to the end (ante ca), as well as within the middle (madhye ca), only Hari, the supreme Personality of Godhead, is explained.”
saksat paramparabhyam veda gayanti madhavam sarve vedantah kila saksad apare tebhyah paramparaya
saksat – directly; – paramparabhyam – systematically; – vedah – the four Vedas; – gayanti – glorify; – madhavam – Lord Madhava; – sarve – all; – vedantah – the Vedanta-sutras; – kila – indeed; – saksat – directly; – apare tebhyah – other Vedic literatures; – paramparaya – systematically.
The four Vedas, Vedanta-sutras, and supplementary Vedic literatures, all directly and systematically glorify the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Madhava.
kvacit kvacid avacyatvam yad vedesu vilokyate kartsnena vacyam na bhaved iti syat tatra sangatih anyatha tu tad arambhe vyarthah syad iti me matih
kvacit kvacit – here and There; – avacyatvam – indescribableness; – yat – which; – vedesu – in the Vedas; – vilokyate – is observed; – kartsnena – with completeness; – vacyam – able to be described; – na – not; – bhavet – may be; – iti – thus; – syat – is; – tatra – there; – saggatih – the appropriate interpretation; – anyatha – otherwise; – tu – indeed; – tat – that; – arambhe – endeavor; – vyarthah – useless and illogical; – syat – is; – iti – thus; – me – my; – matih – opinion.
At different places in the Vedic literatures the absolute truth is said to be indescribeable. This means that His qualities are unlimited and He cannot be adequately described. It is my opinion that any other interpretation of this is illogical and senseless.
sabda-pravrtti-hetunam jaty-adinam abhavatah brahma-nirdharmakam vacyam naivety ahur vipascitah
sabda – of words; – pravrtti – employment; – hetunam – of the causes; – jati – of birth; – adinam – and other things (qualities, activities, manes, etc.); – abhavatah – because of the non- existance; – brahma – of the Supreme; – nirdharmikam – without attributes; – vacyam – description; – na – not; – eva – certainly; – iti – thus; – ahuh – speak; – vipascitah – those who understand the Supreme.
They who understand the actual nature of spirit never say that the supreme never takes birth, or that He is devoid of qualities, pastimes and names, which constitute the realm describable by words. those who are learned do not say that the Supreme cannot be described by words.
sarvaih sabdair avacye tu laksana na bhaved atah laksyam ca na bhaved dharma– hinam brahmeti me matam
sarvaih – by all; – sabdaih – words; – avacye – not describeable; – tu – indeed; – laksana – character; – na – not; – bhavet – is; – atah – therefore; – laksyam – characteriseable; – ca – and; – na – not; – bhavet – may be; – dharma – of attributes; – hinam – devoid; – brahma – the Supreme Absolute; – iti – thus; – me – my; – matam – opinion.
I do not consider that the Absolute Truth is without attributes and therefore beyond the descriptive power of words.
Third Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
atha visva – satyatvam.
sva-saktya srstavan visnur yathartham sarva-vij jagat ity uktah satyam evaitad vairagyartham asad-vacah
atha – now; – visva – of the material world; – satyatvam – the reality; – sva – wwn; – saktya – by the potency; – srstavan – created; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – yatha-artham – real; – sarva-vit – omniscient; – jagat – the material world; – iti – thus; – ukteh – from this statement; – satyam – reality; – eva – certainly; – etat – this; – vairagya-artham – for the purpose of renunciation; – asat-vacah – it is described as asat (temporary) in the Vedas.
3. The Material World is Real
Because omniscient Lord Visnu created this material world with His own potency,therefore it is real. The word asat used to describe the material world in the Vedas should be interpreted to mean temporary, not unreal. Describing the the temporality of this world, the Vedas instruct us in the importance of renunciation.
TEXT 1 (b)
tatha hi svetasvataropanisadi—
ya eko’varno bahudha-sakti-yogad varnan anekan nihitartho dadhati
tatha hi – furthermore; – svetasvatara-upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – yah – who; – ekah – one without a second; – avarnah – without any material qualities; – bahudha – many; – sakti – of potencies; – yogat – because of contact; – varnan – different classes of human beings, demigods, and animals; – anekan – many; – nihita-arthah – desiring to create; – dadhati – created.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.1) explains: “The Absolute Truth, who is one without a second, and who possesses no material attributes, desired to manifest the material world, and created the different classes of human beings, animals and demigods.”
TEXT 1 ©
sri-visnu-purane ca—
ekadesa-sthitastagner jyotsna vistarini yatha parasya brahmanah saktis tathedam akhilam jagat
eka-desa – in one place; – sthitasya – situated; – agneh – of a fire; – jyotsna – the effulgence; – vistarini – spead; – yatha – just as; – parasya – of the supreme; – brahmanah – spirit; – saktih – energy; – tatha – in the same way; – idam – this; – akhilam – entire; – jagat – world.
The Visnu Purana explains: “Whatever we see in this world is simply an expansion of different energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is exactly like a fire which spreads illumination for a long distance, although it is situated in one place.”
TEXT 1 (d)
sa paryagac chukram akayam avranam asnaviram suddham apapa-viddham kavir manisi paribhuh svayambhur yathatathyato ‘rthan vyadadhac chasvatibhyah samabhyah
isopanisadi – in the Isopanisad; – sah – that person; – paryagat – must know in fact; – sukram – the omnipotent; – akayam – unembodied; – avranam – without reproach; – asnaviram – without veins; – suddham – antiseptic; – apapa-viddham – prophylactic; – kavih – omniscient; – manisi – philosopher; – paribhuh – the greatest of all; – svayambhuh – self-sufficient; – yathatathyatah – just in pursuance of; – arthan – desirables; – vyadadhat – awards; – sasvatibhyah – immemorial; – samabhyah – time.
The Isopanisad explains: “Such a person must factually know the greatest of all, who is unembodied, omniscient, beyond reproach, without veins, pure and uncontaminated, the self- sufficient philosopher who has been fulfilling everyone’s desire since time immemorial.”
sri-visnu-purane ca—
tad etad aksayam nityam jagan muni-varakhilam avirbhava-tirobhava janma-nasa-vikalpavat
sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – ca – and; – tat – that; – etat – this; – aksayam – imperishable; – nityam – eternal; – jagat – material world; – muni – of sages; – vara – O best; – akhilam – entire; – avirbhava – manifestation; – tirobhava – dissapearance; – janma – birth; – nasa – destruction; – vikalpavat – only the appearance.
The Visnu Purana explains: “O best of the sages, this entire material world is eternal and imperishable. When it is manifested from the Supreme, it only appears to have begun it’s existence, and when it again enters the Supreme, it only appears to be destroyed.”
mahabharate ca—
brahma satyam tapah satyam satyam caiva prajapatih satyad bhutani jatani satyam bhutam ayam jagat
mahabharate – in the Mahabharata; – ca – and; – brahma – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – satyam – is real; – tapah – austerity; – satyam – is real; – satyam – real; – ca – and; – eva – certainly; – prajapatih – Brahma, the creator of the living beings; – satyat – from the reality; – bhutani – the living entities; – jatani – are born; – satyam – real; – bhutam – manifested; – ayam – this; – jagat – material world.
The Mahabharata explains: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form eternal, full of knowledge and bliss, is real. Austerities are real, and Lord Brahma is also real. Because the living entities and the material world have taken birth from the supreme reality, they are also real.”
atma va idam ity adau vana-lina-vihangavat sattvam visvasya mahtavyam ity uktam veda-vedibhih
atma – the Supreme Absolute; – vai – certainly; – idam – this; – iti – thus; – adau – in the beginning; – vana – in the forest; – lina – disappeared; – vihaggavat – like a bird; – sattvam – reality; – visvasya – of the material world; – mantavyam – should be considered; – iti – thus; – uktam – spoken; – veda – of the Vedas; – vedibhih – by the knowers.
When the Vedas explain that in the beginning only the supreme exists, it may be understood that at that time the material world rests within the supreme in it’s dormant state and remains invisible, just as a bird which has disappeared into a forest. In this way the knowers of the Vedas assert the reality of the material world.
Fourth Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
atha visnuto jivanam bhedah—
tatha hi svetasvatarah pathanti—
dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vrksam parisasvajate tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty anasnann anyo ‘bhicakasiti
atha – now; – visnutah – from Visnu; – jivanam – of the living entities; – bhedah – the distinction; – tatha hi – furthermore; – svetasvatarah – the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – pathanti – reads; – dva – two; – suparna – birds; – sayuja – associated; – sakhaya – friends; – samanam – the same; – vrksam – tree; – parisasvajate – contacting; – tayoh – of the two; – anyah – the other; – pippalam – banyan fruit; – svadu – palatable; – atti – eats; – anasnan – not eating; – anyah – the other; – abhicakasiti – observes.
4. The jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Visnu:
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.6-7) explains: “Two birds reside in the metaphorical banyan tree of the material body. One of them is engaged in eating the material happiness and distress which is the fruit of that tree, while the other does not eat, but only witnesses the actions of his friend. The witness is the Supreme Lord Visnu, and the fruit-eater is the living entity.
TEXT 1 (b)
samane vrkse puruso nimagno hy anisaya socati muhyamanah justam sada pasyaty anyam isam asya mahimanam eti vita-sokah
samane – same; – vrkse – on the tree; – purusah – person; – nimagnah – entered; – hi – certainly; – anisaya – helplessly; – socati – laments; – muhyamanah – bewildered; – justam – happy; – sada – continually; – pasyati – sees; – anyam – the other; – isam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – asya – of Him; – mahimanam – the glories; – eti – goes; – vita – free from; – sokah – lamentation.
“Although the two birds are on the same tree, the eating bird is fully engrossed with anxiety and moroseness as the enjoyer of the fruits of the tree. But if in some way or other he turns his face to His friend who is the Lord and knows His glories_at once the suffering bird becomes free from all anxieties.”
upakramopasamharav abhyaso ‘purvata-phalam artha-vadopapatti ca
lingam tatparya-nirnaye
iti tatparya-lingani sad yany ahur manisinah bhede tani pratiyante tenasau tasya gocarah
brhat-samhitayam – in the Brhat-samhita; – upakrama – beginning; – upasamharau – and end; – abhyasah – repetition; – apurvata-phalam – not known by the material senses; – artha-vada – prayers; – upapatti – and logic; – ca – and; – liggam – characteristic; – tatparya – in determining the meaning; – nirnaye – in the establishment; – iti–thus; – tatparya – of a correct understanding; – liggani – characteristics; – sat – six; – yani – which; – ahuh – describe; – manisinah – philosophers; – bhede – in difference;_tani – they; – pratiyante – are proved; – tena tena – by that; – asau – this tasya – of that; – gocarah – the field of perception.
The Brhat-samhita explains: “Learned philosophers have concluded that the correct interpretation of the Vedic texts is determined by understanding- – their beginning and concluding statements, what is repeatedly stated within them, evidence presented within them which is beyond the power of the limited material senses to perceive, and the prayers and logical arguments presented within them. A correct understanding of these six elements leads to a proper interpretation of the Vedas. By studying in this way one comes to the correct interpretation- – that the living entities are different from the Supreme.”
TEXT 3 (a)
kim ca mundake—
yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim tada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya niravjanah paramam samyam upaiti
kim ca – and furthermore; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – tada – when; – pasyah – the seer; – pasyate – sees; – rukma – of gold; – varnam – the color; – kartaram – the supreme actor; – isam – of Godhead; – purusam – the Personality; – brahma – of the Supreme Brahman; – yonim – the source; – tada – then; – vidvan – the learned devotee; – punya – pious deeds; – pape – s well as sins; – vidhuya – having cleansed; – niravjanah – free from material contact; – paramam – supreme; – samyam – equality; – upaiti – attains.
The Mundaka Upanisad (3.1.3) explains: “One who sees that golden-colored Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, the supreme actor, who is the source of the Supreme Brahman, becomes free from the reactions to past pious and sinful deeds, and becomes liberated, attaining the same transcendental platform as the Lord.”
TEXT 3 (b)
kathake ca—
yathodakam suddhe suddham asiktam tadrg eva bhavati evam mune vijanata atma bhavati gautama
kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – ca – and; – yatha – just as; – udakam – water; – suddhe – in the pure; – suddham – pure; – asiktam – cast; – tadrk – like that; – eva – certainly; – bhavati – becomes; – evam – in this way; – mune – O sage; – vijanatah – of one situated in transcendental knowledge; – atma – the supreme spirit; – gautama – O Naciketa.
The Katha Upanisad (2.1.15) explains: “O Naciketa, when a drop of pure water is thrown into a reservoir of pure water, the drop does not change it’s nature in any way. In the same way, the individual living entity, when situated in transcendental knowledge, does not change his nature when he comes into contact with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but retains his individuality in all respects.”
TEXT 4 (a)
brahmaham eko jivo ‘smi nanye jivo na cesvarah mad-avidya-kalpitas te syur itittham ca dusitam anyatha nitya ity adi- sruty-artho nopapadyate
brahma – the Supreme Brahman; – aham – I; – ekah – one; – jivah – living entity; – asmi – am; – na – not; – anye – others; – jivah – living entities; – na – not; – ca – and; – isvarah – Supreme Personality of Godhead; – mat – of me; – avidya – by ignorance; – kalpitah – imagined; – te – they; – syuh – may come into existance; – iti – thus; – ittham – in this say; – ca – and; – dusitam – the polluted conclusion; – anyatha – otherwise; – nitya-iti-adi – beginning with the word nitya; – sruti – of the Vedas; – artha – the meaning; – na – not; – upapadyate – may be interpreted.
The impersonalist followers of Sankaracarya proclaim:
“I, the living entity, am the only supreme, and other living entities, as well as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, do not actually exist, but are only imagined in the mind when there is ignorance of my actual nature.” This is their polluted conclusion. The following Vedic quotation, beginning with the word nitya, presents the actual truth. It is stated so clearly that the impersonalists cannot twist a different meaning from it.
TEXT 4 (b)
tatha hi kathah pathanti—
nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman tam atmastham ye ‘nupasyanti dhiras tesam santih sasvati netaresam
tatha hi – furthermore; – hi – certainly; – kathah – the Katha Upanisad; – pathanti – reads; – nityah – a single eternal; – nityanam – among the many eternals; – cetanah – a single conscious being; – cetananam – among many conscious beings; – ekah – one; – bahunam – of the many; – yah – who; – vidadhati – grants; – kaman – the desires; – tam – Him; – atmastham – situated within the heart; – ye – those who; – anupasyanti – see; – dhirah – saintly persons; – tesam – of them; – santih – peace; – sasvati – eternal; – na – not; – itaresam – of others.
The Katha Upanisad (2.2.13) explains: “Of all eternals, there is one who is the chief eternal. Of all conscious living entities, there is one who is the chief conscious entity. That supreme living entity, the Personality of Godhead, maintains the others, and fulfills their desires according to their merits. Only saintly persons, who can see, within and without, the same Supreme Lord, can actually attain to perfect and eternal peace.”
ekasmad isvaran nityac cetanat tadrsa mithah bhidyante bahavo jivas tena bhedah sanatanah
ekasmat – one; – isvarat – supreme Personality of Godhead; – nityat – eternal; – cetanat – conscious; – tadrsah – like this; – mithah – mutually; – bhidyante – are distinct entities; – bahavah – the many; – jivah – individual souls; – tena – by this; – bhedah – distinction; – sanatanah – eternal.
This verse states that both the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual loving entities are eternal and conscious. By affirming the eternality of both the one and the many, the distinction between them is described as eternal.
1Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura remarks in this connection that the impersonalists may object that the distinction between the living entity (jiva) and the Supreme (isvara) is not an eternal distinction. To support their view they may quote many verses from the Upanisads, such as sarvam khalv idam brahma (everything is brahman), and tat tvam asi svetaketo (O Svetaketu, you are that). Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana replies to their objections in the following way:
TEXT 6 (a)
pranaikadhina-vrttitvad ragadeh pranata yatha tatha brahmadhina-vrtter jagato brahmatocyate
prana – life force; – eka – exclusively dependent; – vrttitvat – because of the nature; – raga – adeh – of the senses; – pranata – the life force; – yatha – just as; – tatha – in the same way; – brahma – the supreme; – adhina-vrtteh – completely dependent; – jagatah – from the material universe; – brahma – the distinct Supreme; – ucyate – is described.
Just as the life-force is different from the senses of the material body which are completely dependent upon it, in the same way the Supreme Lord is distinct from the material world which is completely dependent upon Him.
TEXT 6 (b)
tatha hi chandogye pathyate
na vai vaco na caksumsi na srotrani na manamsity acaksate. prana ity acaksate. prano hy evaitani sarvani bhavati. iti.
tatha hi – moreover; – chandogye – in the Chandogya Upanisad; – pathyate – it is read; – na – not; – vai – certainly; – vacah – words; – na – nor; – caksumsi – eyes; – na – nor; – srotrani – ears; – na – nor; – manamsi – minds; – iti – thus; – acaksate – names; – pranah – the life- force; – iti – thus; – acaksate – he names; – pranah – the life-force; – hi – indeed; – eva – certainly; – etani – them; – sarvani – all; – bhavati – is; – iti–thus.
The Chandogya Upanisad (5.1.15) explains in this connection: “The different senses, such as the voice, sense of sight, sense of hearing, and the mind, are all known as the life- force, but the actual life-force is different from all these senses, which are dependent upon it. They are named after the life-force, although it is actually different from them.”
1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains in this connection that the mayavadis may argue that the Vedas say: “sarvam khalv idam brahma (everything is brahman)” and “tat tvam asi svetaketo (O Svetaketu, you are that)”, and therefore the only thing in existance is impersonal brahman, and everything else is an illusion. To counter this argument, Baladeva Vidyabhusana quotes this verse from the Chandogya Upanisad, where there is an explanation of how everything is brahman. The various senses are dependent upon the life-force, and therefore, they are collectively known as the life-force, although the actual life-force is different from them. In this way the senses are designated as the life-force because they are manifested from the life-force, although they are actually different from it. In the same way, the individual living entities have emanated from the Supreme Brahman, and they are therefore designated Brahman to show their source of origin, although they are actually different from the Supreme Brahman.
brahma-vyapyatvatah kaiscij jagad brahmeti manyate. yad uktam sri-visnu-purane—
yo ‘yam tavagato deva samipam devata-ganah satyam eva jagat-srasta yatah sarvagato bhavan
brahma – by the Absolute Truth; – vyapyatvatah – because of being present everywhere; – kaiscit – by some; – jagat – the material universe; – brahma – identical with the Supreme; – manyate – is considered; – yat – which uktam – spoken; – sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – yah – who; – ayam – this; – tava – to You; – agatah – approached; – deva – O Lord; – samipam – near; – devata – of demigods; – ganah – the host; – satyam – the eternally real Supreme Personality of Godhead; – eva – certainly; – jagat – of the material world; – srasta – the creator; – yatah – because; – sarvagatah – all- pervading; – bhavan – You.
Some maintain that because the Supreme is all-pervading, the material universe must be identical with Him. The Visnu Purana dispels this misconception: “O Supreme Personality of Godhead, although You have created this material universe, and although You are everywhere present within it, You are nevertheless eternally distinct from it.”
pratibimba-pariccheda- paksau yau svi-krtau paraih vibhutvavisayatvabhyam tau vidvadbhir nirakrtau
pratibimba – a reflected manifestation; – pariccheda – a different manifestation; – paksau – the two parties; – yau – which; – svi-krtau – accepted; – paraih – by others; – vibhutva – because of all-pervasiveness; – avisayatvabhyam – because of being beyond the reach of the material senses; – tau – they; – vidvadbhih – by those who know the truth; – nirakrtau – not accepted.
Some maintain that the universe is identical with the Supreme because the universe is the Supreme’s reflected image, and others say that they are identical because the Supreme has divided Himself into the various pieces that constitute the universe. Those who are wise do not accept these faulty arguments, because they know that the Supreme is simultaneously all-pervading and beyond the reach of the material senses.
1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains the defect in the arguments of these two groups of mayavadis. The first group of mayavadis say that just as the sun or moon may be reflected in various pots or reservoirs of water, in the same way, the Supreme reflects Himself- – the reflections being the individual living entities. This view cannot be maintained because the Supreme is, by His very nature, all-pervading. Something all-pervading cannot be reflected anywhere, just as the all-pervading dimension of space, upon which all the material elements rest, cannot be reflected anywhere. The opinion of the second camp of mayavadis is that the Supreme has cut Himself into many little pieces which are the individual living entities and the material elements. This view cannot be held because the Supreme is avisaya- – spiritual, beyond the reach of the material senses. Because the Supreme is spiritual, imperishable, and without change, He cannot be cut into many pieces as the mayavadis say.
advaitam brahmano bhinnam bhinnam va tvayocyate adye dvaitapattir ante siddha-sadhanata sruteh
advaitam – the Supreme Brahman, who is one without a second; – brahmanah – from the Brahman; – bhinnam – different; – abhinnam – not different; – va – or; – tvaya – by you; – ucyate – spoken; – adye – in the beginning; – dvaita – of difference; – apattih – attainment; – ante – in the end; – siddha – perfection; – sadhanata – attainment; – sruteh – from the Vedas.
O Mayavadis, you insist that the individual living entities and the Supreme are identical, even though this view contradicts all the descriptions found in the Vedic texts.
alikam nirgunam brahma pramanavisayatvatah sraddheyam vidusam naivety ucire tattva-vadinah
alikam – untrue; – nirgunam – without attributes; – brahma – Supreme; – pramana – of evidence; – avisayatvatah – because of the non-perception; – sraddha – faith; – iyam – this; – vidusam – of those who are intelligent and learned in the spiritual science; – na – not; – eva – certainly; – iti – thus; – ucire – said; – tattva – of the truth; – vadinah – the knowers.
There is no evidence to support the erroneous conception that the Supreme is an amorphous mass without any qualities. Those who know the truth declare that those learned in the spiritual science never accept such a conclusion.
1 Note: In this connection, Srila Bhaktisiddhaanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that the three sources of evidence- – direct perception, logic, and scriptural revelation- – tell us that although the Supreme is devoid of material qualities, He possesses innumerable spiritual qualities. That the Supreme possesses spiritual qualities (bhagavan) in the ultimate issue is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11):
vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam yaj jnanam advayam brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate 1 “Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this non-dual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavaan (full of all opulences).”
Fifth Prameya
atha jivanam bhagavad-dasatvam tatha hi svetasvatarah pathanti—
tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram tam daivtanam paramam ca daivatam patim patinam paramam parastat vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam
atha – now; – jivanam – of the individual living entities; – bhagavat – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – dasatvam – the state of being the servants; – tatha hi – furthermore; – svetasvatarah – the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – pathanti – reads; – tam – Him; – isvaram – controller; – tam – Him; – daivatanam – of all the demigods; – paramam – supreme; – ca – and; – daivatam – worshippable deity; – patim – the director; – patinam – of all directors; – paramam – greater; – parastat – than the greatest; – vidama – we understand; – devam – the Supreme Lord; – bhuvana – of the entire world; – isam – the master; – idyam – worshipable.
5. The jivas (living entities) are by nature the servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead:
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.7) explains: “The Supreme Lord is the controller of all other controllers, and He is the greatest of all the diverse planetary leaders. Everyone is under His control. All entities are delegated with particular power only by the Supreme Lord; – they are not supreme themselves. He is also worshipable by all demigods, and is the supreme director of all directors. Therefore, He is transcendental to all kinds of material leaders and controllers and is worshipable by all. There is no one greater than Him, and He is the supreme cause of all causes.”
TEXT 2 (a)
smrtis ca—
brahma sambhus tathaivarkas candramas ca satakratuh evam adyas tathaivanye yukta vaisnava-tejasa
smrtih – the Smrti-sastra; – ca – and; brahma – Brahma; – sambhuh – Siva; – tatha – in the same way; – eva – certainly; – arkah – Surya; – candramah – Candra; – satakratuh – Indra; – evam – in this way; – adyah–beginning with; – tatha – in the same way; – anye – others; – yuktah – engaged; – vaisnava – of Lord Visnu; – tejasa – by the prowess.
The Smrti-sastra declares: “Brahma, Siva Surya, Candra, Indra, and all the other demigods are appointed to their posts by Lord Visnu and given extraordinary powers by Him. They areall the servants of Lord Visnu.”
TEXT 2 (b)
sa-brahmakah sa-rudras ca sendra deva maharsibhih arcayanti sura-srestham devam narayanam harim
sa-brahmakah – with many Brahmas; – sa-rudrah – with many Sivas; – ca – and; – sa-indrah – with many Indras; – devah – demigods; – maha-rsibhih – with the great sages; – arcayanti – worship; – sura – of all the demigods; – srestham – the best; – devam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – narayanam – known as Narayana; – harim – and Hari.
The Sastras explain: “Innumerable Brahmas, Sivas, Indras, sages and demigods, all worship the Supreme Lord Narayana, the best of the demigods.”
TEXT 2 ©
padme ca, jiva-laksane
dasa-bhuto harer eva nanyasyaiva kadacana
padme – in the Padma Purana; – jiva – of the living entities; – laksane – in the description; – dasa-bhutah – a servant; – hareh – of Lord Hari; – eva – certainly; – na – not; – anyasya – of anyone else; – kadacana – at any time.
The Padma Purana describes the nature of the jiva (individual living entity) in the following way: “By nature the living entity is eternally the servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari. He is never the servant of Brahma, Siva, or anyone else.”
Sixth Prameya
atha jivanam taratamyam—
anu-caitanya-rupatva- jnanitvadya-visesatah samye saty api jivanam taratamyam ca sadhanat
atha – now; – jivanam – of the living entities; – taratamyam – gradations of importance; – anu – minute; – caitanya – consciousness; – rupatva – possessing; – jvanitva – the state of possessing knowledge; – adya – geginning with; – visesatah – particularly; – samye – equality; – sati – being so; – api – although; – jivanam – of the living entities; – taratamyam – gradation; – ca – and; – sadhanat – because of activities, or because of advancement in devotional service.
6. In both conditioned and liberated states, the jivas are situated in higher and lower statuses.
Although all living entities are equally conscious and full of knowledge, according to the small capacity of an individual soul, they nevertheless manifest that original spiritual nature in varying degrees. The extent to which that original nature is uncovered is determined by their purity and devotion to the Supreme Lord.
TEXT 2 (a)
tatranuktam uktam svetasvataraihh
balagra-sata-bhagasya satadha kalpitasya ca bhago jivah sa vijneyah sa canantyaya kalpate
tatra – there; – anuktam – not described; – uktam – described; – svetasvataraih – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – bala-agra – the tip of a hair; – sata-bhagasya – of one hundreth; – satadha – into one hundred parts; – kalpitasya – divided; – ca – and; – bhagah – minute portion; – jivah – the living entity; – sah – that; – vijveyah – to be understood; – sah – that; – ca – and; – anantaya – for the unlimited; – kalpate – worthy.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (5.9) describes the individual spirit soul: “When the upper point of a hair is divided into one hundred parts and again each of such parts is further divided into one hundred parts, each such part is the measurement of the dimension of the spirit-soul.”
TEXT 2(b)
caitanya-rupatvam jnanitvadikam ca sat-prasnyam
esa hi drasta sprasta srota ghrata rasayita manta boddha karta vijnanatma purusah. iti.
caitanya-rupatvam – state of being conscious; – jvanitva – state of possessing knowledge; – adikam – beginning with; – ca – and; – sat – six; – prasnyam – in the Prasna Upanisad; – esah – he; – hi – indeed; – drasta – the seer; – sprasta–the one who touches; – srota – the hearer; – ghrata – the one who smells; – rasayita – the one who tastes; – manta – the one who thinks; – boddha – the one who understands; – karta – the doer; – vijvana – full of knowledge; – atma – soul; – purusah – person; – iti – thus.
The Prasna Upanisad (4.9) explains the soul’s consciousness, knowledge and and other qualities: “It is the individual soul who perceives the activities of the senses. It is he who sees, touches, hears, smells, tastes, thinks, and understands.”
TEXT 3 (a)
adina gunena deha-vyapitvam ca. sri-gitasu—
yatha prakasayaty ekah krtsnam lokam imam ravih ksetram ksetri tatha krtsnam prakasayati bharata
adina – beginning with; gunena – qualities; deha – in the body; vyapitvam – omnipresence; ca – and; gitasu – in Bhagavad-gita; – yatha – as; – prakasayati – illuminates; – ekah – one; – krtsnam – the whole; – kam – universe; – imam – this; – ravih – the sun; – ksetra – this body; – ksetri – the soul; – tatha – similarly; – krtsnam – all prakasayati – illuminates; – bharata – son of Bharata.
The soul pervades the material body, as Bhagavad-gita (13.34) explains: “O son of Bharata, as the sun alone illuminates all this universe, so does the living entity, one within the body, illuminate the entire body with consciousness.” TEXT 3 (b)
aha caiva sutrakarah— gunad balarokavad iti. guna-nityatvam uktam vajasaneyibhih avinasi va are ayam atmanuchitti-dharma. iti.
aha – said; – ca – and eva – certainly; – sutrakarah – the author of Vedanta-sutra; – gunat – by spiritual qualities; – bala – newly risen; – arka – sun; – vat – like; – iti – thus; – guna – of the qualities; – nityatvam – eternality; – uktam – described; – vajasaneyibhih – ty Yajvavalkya; – avinasi – without destruction; – va – or; – are – Oh; – ayam – this; – atma – soul; – anucchitti-dharma – cannot be cut.
The author of Vedanta-sutra explains (2.3.14): “Just as the newly risen sun remains in one place and yet fills the entire sky with light, in the same way the individual soul, although remaining in one place, pervades the entire body by consciousness.”
Yajnavalkya Muni (in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad, 4.5.14) describes the eternality of the soul: “O Maitreyi, the soul is imperishable, and can never be cut or changed.”
TEXT 4 (a)
evam samye ‘pi vaisamyam aihikam karmabhih sphutam prahah paratrikam tat tu bhakti-bhedaih su-kovidah
evam – in this way; – samye – in equality; – api – although; – vaisamyam – inequality; – aihikam – in this world; – karmabhih – by activities; – sphutam – manifested; – prahuh – describe; – paratrikam – the spiritual world; – tat – that; – tu – and; – bhakti – of devotion; – bhedaih – by distinctions; – su-kovidah – those learned in the spiritual science.
They who are learned in the spiritual science say that although in one sense all individual souls are equal, they manifest different activities in the material world, and even in the spieitual world, they possess different degrees of pure devotion for the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TEXT 4 (b)
tatha hi kauthumah pathanti—
yatha-kratur asmil loke puruso bhavati tathetah pretya bhavati. iti.
smrtis ca- – yadrsi bhavana samye siddhir bhavati tadrsi. iti.
tatha hi – moreover; – kauthumah – the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas; – pathanti – read; – yatha – according to; – kratuh – sacrifice; – asmin – inthis; – loke – world; – purusah – a person; – bhavati – becomes; – tatha – in the same way; – itah – from that; – pretya – in the next world; – bhavati – becomes; – iti – thus; – smrtih – in the Smrti-sastra; – yadrsi – in whatever extent; – bhavana – devotional meditation; – samye – in equality; – siddhih – perfection; – bhavati – becomes; – tadrsi – like that; – iti – thus.
The following explanation is found in the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas: “The degree to which one engages in devotional activities in this world determines his status in the next world.” The Smrti-sastra also confirms: “The extent to which one is devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead determines the degree of his spiritual perfection.”
TEXT 4 ©
santy-adya rati-paryanta ye bhavah panca kirtitah tair devam smaratam pumsam taratamyam mitho matam
santi – the neutral-rasa; – adya – giginning with; – rati – the madhurya-rasa; – paryanta – culminating in; – ye – those; – bhavah – mellows of loving exchange; – pavca – five; – kirtitah – are described; – taih – by them; – devam – one whould remember; – pumsam – of the living entities; – taratamyam – gradation; – mithah – mutual; – matam – are considered.
Neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parenthood, and conjugal love are described as the five mellows of loving exchange with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who meditate upon the Lord in these different mellows attain the appropriate different destinations. In this way, the living entities possess different gradations of good-fortune.
Seventh Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
atha sri-krsna-prapter moksatvam. yatha—
jnatva devam sarva-pasapahanir ity adi. eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya ity adi ca.
atha – now; – sri-krsna – of Lord Krsna; – prapteh – of the attainment; – moksatvam – the state of liberation; – yatha – just as; – jvatva – having understood; – devam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – sarva – all; – pasa – the ropes of entanglement in material existence; – apahanih – destroyed; – iti – thus; – adi – etc. (The entire verse reads – jnatva devam sarva-pasapahanih, ksinaih klesair janma-mrtyu-prahanih tasyabhidhyanat trtiyam deha-bhede, visvaisvaryam kevala); apta-kamah; – ekah – one; – vasi – all powerful; – sarvagah – all-peravding; – krsnah – Lord Krsna; – idyah – supremely worshipable; – iti – thus; – adi – etc. (The entire verse reads – eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya eko ‘pi san badhudha yo vibhati tam pithastham ye ‘nubhajanti diras tesam sukham sasvatam netaresam).
7. Liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the attainment of direct association with Lord Krsna:
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (1.14) explains: “By understanding the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead from a bona-fide spiritual master, one becomes free from the entangling ropes of identification with the material body, as well as the various miseries and the trap of repeated birth and death which spring from that false-identification. By constantly meditating on the Supreme Lord, he becomes free from the subtle material body of mind, intelligence and false-ego. He attains the form of an eternally liberated associate of the Supreme Lord in the spiritual world, and all his desires become fulfilled.” The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.21) also explains: “Lord Krsna is the all-powerful, all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He is the object of the prayers and worship of the demigods. Intelligent persons worship Him as He resides in His own spiritual abode. They thus attain the eternal transcendental bliss which is not available for others.”
TEXT 1 (b)
bahudha bahubhir vesair bhati krsnah svayam prabhuh tam istva tat-pade nitye sukham tisthanti moksinah
bahudha – in many ways; – bahubhih – with many; – vesaih – forms; – bhati – is manifested; – krsnah – Krsna; – svayam – personally; – prabhuh – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – tam – Him; – istva – having worshipped; – tat – His; – pade – in the spiritual abode; – nitye – eternal; – sukham – bliss; – tisthanti – situated; – moksinah – liberated.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is manifested in many forms- – but His original form is Lord Krsna. Those who worship that original form of Lord Krsna become liberated from this material world, and attain transcendental bliss in the Lord’s eternal abode.
Eighth Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
athaikanta-bhakter moksa-hetutvam—
yatha sri-gopala-tapanyam— bhaktir asya bhajanam tad iha-mutropadhi-nairasyenamusmin manah-kalpanam etad eva naiskarmyam.
atha – now; – eka-anta – unalloyed; – bhakteh – of devotional service; – moksa – of liberation; – hetutvam – the state of being the cause; – yatha – just as; – sri-gopala-tapanyam – in the Gopala- tapani Upanisad; – bhaktih – devotional service; – asya – of Him; – bhajanam- worship; – tat – that; – iha – in this world; – mutra – in the next world; – upadhi – designations; – nairasyena – renunciation; – amusmin – among us; – manah – of the mind; – kalpanam – meditation; – etat – that; – eva – certainly; – naiskarmyam – freedom from the bonds of karma.
8. Pure devotional service grants liberation:
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.15) explains: “Devotional service means worship and meditation directed to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such devotional service frees one from the desire for sense-gratification both in this life and the next, and breaks the bonds of karma.”
TEXT 1 (b)
narada-pavcaratre ca—
sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam hrsikena hrsikesa- sevanam bhaktir ucyate
narada-pavcaratre- – in the Narada-pavcaratra; – ca – and; – sarva-upadhi-vinirmuktam – free from all kinds of material designations, or free from all desires except the desire to render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – tat- paratvena – by the sole purpose of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead. nirmalam – uncontaminated by the effects of speculative philosophical research or fruitive activity; – hrsikena – by purified senses freed from all designations; – hrsikesa – of the master of the senses; – sevanam – the service to satisfy the senses; – bhaktih – devotional service; – ucyate – is called.
The Narada-pavcaratra also explains: “Bhakti, or devotional service, means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the senses. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme, there are two side effects. One is freed from all material designations, and, simply by being employed in the service of the Lord, one’s senses are purified.”
TEXT 2 (a)
navadha caisa bhavati. yad-uktam sri-bhagavate—
sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam
iti pumsarpita visnau bhaktis cen nava-laksana kriyeta bhagavaty addha tan manye ‘dhitam uttamam
navadha – nine-fold; – ca – and; – esa–this; – bhavati – is; – yat – which; – uktam – spoken; – sri – bhagavate – in the Srimad- Bhaagavatam; – sri-prahradah uvaca – Prahlada Maharaja said; – sravanam – hearing; – kirtanam – chanting; – visnoh – o Lord Visnu (not anyone else); – smaranam – remembering; – pada- sevanam – serving the feet; – arcanam – offering wership (with sodasopacara, the sixteen kinds of paraphernalia); – vandanam – offering prayers; – dasyam – becoming the servant; – sakhyam – becoming the best friend; – atma-nivedanam – surrendering everything, whatever one has; – iti – thus; – pumsa arpita – offered by the devotee; – visnau – unot Lord Visnu (not to anyone else); – bhaktih – devotional service; – cet – if; – nava- laksana – possessing nine different precesses; – kriyeta – one should perform; – bhagavati – unto the Supreme Personality ofGodhead; – addha – directly or completely; – tat – that; – manye – I consider; – adhitam – learning; – uttamam – topmost.
The Lord’s devotional service consists of nine parts, as the Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.23-24) explains: “Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Visnu, remembering them, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, offering the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia, offering prayers to the Lord, becoming His servant, considering the Lord one’s best friend, and surrendering everything unto Him (in other words, serving Him with the body, mind and words) – these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional service. One who has dedicated his life to the service of Krsna through these nine methods should be understood to be the most learned person, for he has acquired complete knowledge.”
TEXT 2 (b)
sat-seva guru-seva ca deva-bhavena ced bhavet dadaisa bhagavad-bhaktir labhyate nanyatha kvacit
sat – of the devotees; – seva – servide; – guru – of the spiritual master; – seva – service; – ca – and; – deva – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhavena – with meditation; – cet – if; – bhavet – may be; – tada – then; – esa – this; – bhagavat – of the Supreme Lord; – bhaktih – devotional service; – labhyate – is attained; – na – not; – anyatha – otherwise; – kvacit – under any circumstance.
If one engages in the service of the devotees and the spiritual master, considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then he may attain the devotional service of the Lord. There is no other way in which this service may be obtained.
TEXT 3 (a)
deva-bhavena sat-seva. yatha taittiriyake—
atithi-devo bhava. iti.
deva – as the Supreme Lord; – bhavena – with the conception; – sat – of the devotees; – seva – service; – yatha – just as; – taittiriyake – in the Taittiriya Upanisad; – atithi – as a guest; – devah – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhava – please become; – iti – thus.
That one should serve the devotees, considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, is described in the Taittiriya Upanisad (1.10): “One should serve devotee in the same way as one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.”
TEXT 3 (b)
taya tad-bhaktir yatha sri-bhagavate—
naisam matis tavad urukramanghrim sprsaty anarthapagamo yad-arthah mahiyasam pada-rajo- ‘bhisekam niskincananam na vrnita yavat
taya – by this; tat-bhaktih – this devotional service to Him; yatha – as; – sri-bhagavate_in Srimad-Bhagavatam; na – not; – esam – of these; – matih – the consciousness; – tavat – that long; – urukrama-anghrim – the litus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is famous for performing uncommon activities; – sprsati – does touch; – anrtha – of unwanted things; – apagamah – the disappearance; – yat – of which; – arthah – the purpose; – mahiyasam – of the great sous (the mahatmas, or devotees); – pada-rajah – by the dust of the litus feet; – abhisekam – consecration; – niskincananam – of devotees who have nothing to do with this material world; – na – not; – vrnita – may accept; – yavat – as long as.
The Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.32) confirms that this is the only way to attain the Lord’s devotional service: “Unless they smear upon their bodies the dust of the lotus feet of a Vaisnava completely freed from material contamination, persons very much inclined toward materialistic life cannot be attached to the lotus feet of the Lord, who is glorified for His uncommon activities. Only by becoming Krsna conscious and taking shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord in this way can one be freed from material contamination.”
TEXT 4(a)
deva-bhavena guru-seva yatha taittiriyake— acarya-devo bhava. iti.
deva – as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhavena – considering; – guru – of the spiritual master; – seva – service; – yatha – just as; – taittiriyake – in the Taittiriya Upanisad; – acarya – the spiritual master; – devah – as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhava – please be; – iti – thus.
That one should also serve the spiritual master as the Supreme Personality of Godhead is confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanisad (1.10): “One should serve the spiritual master in the same way one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.”
TEXT 4 (b)
svetasvataropanisadi ca—
yasya deve para bhaktir yatha deve tatha gurau tasyaite kathita hy arthah prakasante mahatmanah
svetasvatara-upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; 1yasya – of whom; – deve for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – para – supreme; – bhaktih – devotion; – yatha – just as; – deve – for the Lord; – tatha – in the same way; – gurau – for the spiritual master; – yasya – of him; – ete – they; – kathitah – explained; – hi – certainly; – arthah – the meaning of the Vedic literatures; – prakasante – become manifested; – maha-atmanah – for such a great soul.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.23) also explains: “Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed.”
TEXT 4 ©
taya tad-bhaktir yatha sri-bhagavate
tasmad gurum prapadyeta jijjnasuh sreya uttamam sabde pare ca nisnatam brahmany upasamjasrayam
tatra bhagavatan dharman siksed gurvatma-daivatah
amayayanuvrttya yais tusyed atmatmado harih
taya – by that; – tat – for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhaktih – devotion; – yatha – just as; – sri-bhagavate – in the Srimad-Bhagavatam; – tasmat – therefore; – gurum – to the spiritual master; – prapadyeta – one should surender; – jijvasuh – eager to know; – sreyah uttamam – the supreme goal of life; – sabde pare – in the transcendental messages of the Vedas; – ca – also; – nisnatam – expert; – brahmani – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – upasamasrayam – taken shelter; – tatra – in this regard; – bhagavatan – of the Supreme Lord; – dharman – the devotional service; – sikset – should teach; – guru-atma-daivatah – one who has taken the service of the guru as his life and soul; – amayaya – with non-duplicitous; – anuvrttya – behavior; – yaih – by this; – tusyet – may be satisfied; – atma – the Supreme Lord; – atma-dah – giving Himself; – harih – Hari.
That one should be devoted to the Spiritual Master in the same way that he is devoted to the Supreme Lord is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.3.22-23): “Any person who is seriously desirous of achieving real happiness must seek out a bona-fide spiritual master and take shelter of him by initiation. The qualification of a spiritual master is that he must have realised the conclusion of the scriptures by deliberation and arguments and thus be able to convince others of these conclusions. Such great personalities who have taken complete shelter of the Supreme Godhead, leaving aside all material considerations, are to be understood as bona-fide spiritual masters. One who takes the instructions of such a bona-fide spiritual master as his life and soul, and sincerely worships and serves him, considering him equal to the Supreme as worshipable as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, greatly satisfies the Supreme Lord, who then gives Himself to such a sincere devotee. The Lord gives such a devotee the power to preach His message.”
avapta-pavca-samskaro labdha-dvividha-bhaktikah saksat-krtya harim tasya dhamni nityam pramodate
avapta – attained; – pavca – five; – samskarah – purificatory rites; – labdha – attained; – dvi-vidha – two-fold; – bhaktitah – devotional service; – saksat-krtya – directly attaining; – harim – Lord Hari; – tasya – of Him; – dhamni – in the spiritual abode; – nityam – eternally; – pramodate – rejoices.
One who has passed through the five purificatory rituals, and been initiated into the vaidhi and raga stages of devotional service, may directly perceive Lord Hari, and attain the eternal bliss of serving Him in the spiritual abode.
TEXT 6 (a)
tatha pavca-samskarah. yatha smrtau padmottara-khande—
tapah pundram tatha nama mantro yagas ca pavcamah ami hi pavca samskarah paramaikanti-hetavah
tatha – in this way; – pavca – five; – samskarah – purificatory procedures; – yatha – just as; – smrtau – in the Smrti; – padma-uttara-khande – in the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana; – tapah – austerity; – pundram – tilaka markings; – tatha – in the same way; – nama – chanting the Lord’s holy names; – mantrah – chanting various mantras; – yagah – worshipping the Salagrama-sila and other deities; – ca – and; – pavcamah – the fifth; – ami – these; – hi – indeed; – pavca – five; – samskarah – purificatory procedures; – parama – supreme; – aikanti – of causeless devotional service; – hetavah – the causes.
These five purificatory procedures are described in the Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda: “1. Austerity, 2. wearing tilaka markings, 3. Accepting a new name at the time of initiation, 4. chanting various mantras glorifying the Lord, and 5. engaging in the performance of sacrifice, are the five purificatory procedures which grant the Lord’s unalloyed devotional service.”
TEXT 6 (b)
tapo ‘tra tapta-cakradi- mudra-dharanam ucyate tenaiva hari-namadi- mudra capy upalaksyate
tapah – austerity; – atra – here; – tapta – hot; – cakra – cakra; – adi – and other symbols of Lord Visnu; – mudra – the marks; – dharanam – wearing; – ucyate is described; – tena – by this; – eva – certainly; – hari – of Lord Hari; – nama – the holy names; – adi – beginning with; – mudra – marks of the Lord; – ca – and; – api – also; – upalaksyate – is observed.
In this verse the word austerity means to accept the branded marks of Lord Visnu (the cakra, lotus, conch and mace) and also the marks of His holy names.
1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that this difficult austerity is not actually needed. The previous great devotees have set the example of marking the body with the Lord’s holy names and symbols drawn in sandalwood paste. This is quite sufficient.
TEXT 6 ©
yatha smrtau—
hari-namaksarair gatram
ankayec candanadina sa loka-pavano bhutva tasya lokam avapnuyat
yatha – just as; – smrtau – in the Smrti-sastra; – hari – of Lord Hari; – nama – of the holy names; – aksaraih – with the letters; – candana – with sandalwood paste; – adina – and other similar substances; – sah – he; – loka – of the entire world; – pavanah – the purifier; – bhutva – having become;tasya – of the Supreme Lord; – lokam – the planet; – avapnuyat – may attain.
The Smrti-sastra explains: “One who marks his body with the letters of Lord Hari’s holy names drawn in sandalwood paste or other similar substances, purifies the entire world and becomes eligible to enter the Lord’s spiritual abode.”
TEXT 6 (d)
pundram syad urdhva-pundram tac chastre bahu-vidham smrtam hari-mandiram tat-pada- krty-adyati-subhavaham
pundram – the word pundram; – syat – may be; – urdhva- pundram – tilaka markings; – tat – that; – sastre – in the scriptures; – bahu- vidham – in many ways; – smrtam – is considered; – hari – of Lord Hari; – mandiram – the temple; – tat – the Lord’s; – pada – of the lotus feet; – akrti – with the form; – adya – etc.; – ati – very; – subha – auspicious; – avaham – causing.
The word pundram in the previous quote from the Padma Purana (6a) means tilaka markings, many varieties of which have been described in the scriptures. By marking the body with tilaka, or with the forms of the Lord’s lotus feet, or other auspicious marks, the body is sanctified and designated as temple of Lord Hari.
TEXT 6 (e)
namatra gaditam sadbhir hari-bhrtyatva-bodhakam mantro ‘stadasa-varnadih svesta-deva-vapur matah
nama – the name; – atra – here; – gaditam – described; – sadbhih – by the saintly devotees; – hari – of Lord Hari; – bhrtyatva – the state of being Lord’s Hari’s servant; – bodhakam – indicating; – mantrah – the mantra; – astadasa – eighteen; – varna – letters; – adih – beginning with; – sva – own; – ista – worshippable; – deva – of the deity; – vapuh – the form; – matah – considered.
The word nama means name. This means that when one is initiated by a spiritual master, one should accept a new name indicating that he is a servant of Lord Hari. The mantra referred to is the eighteen syllable Gopala mantra, which is considered non-different from the spiritual form of the Lord.
TEXT 6 (f)
salagramadi-puja tu yaga-sabdena kathyate pramanany esu drsyani puranadisu sadhubhih
salagrama – the Salagrama-sila; – adi – beginning with; – puja – worship; – tu – and; – yaga – yaga; – sabdena – by the wors; – kathyate – is described; – pramanani – evidences; – esu – among them; – drsyani – are seen; – purana – in the Puranas; – adisu – and other Vedic literatures; – sadhubhih – by the saintly devotees.
By the word yaga, the worship of Salagrama-sila and other deity forms of the Lord is described. In this way, the saintly devotees find many references in the Puranas and other Vedic literatures to describe the five purificatory processes.
navadha bhakti-vidhi-ruci- purva dvedha bhaved yaya krsnah bhutva svayam prasanno dadati tat tad ipsitam dhama
navadha – nine-fold; – bhakti – devotional service; – vidhi – the beginning stage of following the rules and regulations without spontaneous attraction; – ruci – spontaneous attraction; – purva – beginning; – bhavet – may be; – yaya – by which; – krsnah – Krsna; – bhutva – having become; – svayam – Himself; – prasannah – pleased; – dadati – grants; – tat – this; – tat – and that; – ipsitam – desired; – dhama – abode.
The nine-fold process of devotional service described in Text 2a may be considered in two stages. The first stage is called vidhi-bhakti, or following the rules and regulations of bhakti. The second stage is called ruci, and it is attained when there is spontaneous attraction to Krsna and His service. Lord Krsna becomes personally very satisfied by this loving service, He fulfills all the desires of His servitor and brings him back to the spiritual realm.
vidhinabhyarcyate devas catur-bahv-adi-rupa-dhrk rucyatmakena tenasau nr-lingah paripujyate
vidhina – by the rules and regulations; – abhyarcyate – is worshiped; – devah – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – catuh – four; – bahu – arms; – adi – and other; – rupa – forms; – dhrk – manifesting; – ruci-atmakena – by spontaneous attraction; – tena – by this; – asau – He; – nr-liggah – appearing as a human being, the son of Yasoda-devi; – paripujyate – is worshipped.
By the process of vidhi-bhakti, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshipped in His Narayana feature, manifesting four, or sometimes eight or ten arms. By the process of ruci- bhakti, the Lord is worshipped in His original human-like form as the son of Yasoda.
tulasy-asvattha-dhatry-adi- pujanam dhama-nisthata arunodaya-viddhas tu santyajyo hari-vasarah janmastamy-adikam suryo- daya-viddham parityajet
tulasi – of the tulasi plant; – asvattha – of the banyan tree; – dhatri – of the amalaki tree; – adi – beginning with; – pujanam – worship; – dhama – in the holy place where the Lord performed His pastimes; – nisthata – residence; – arunodaya-viddhah – if mixed with the dasami; – tu – but; – santyajyah – should be abandoned; – hari-vasarah – ekadasi; – janmastami – janmastami; – adikam – beginning with; – surodaya-viddham – if mixed with the saptami; – parityajet – one should abandon.
One should worship the tulasi plant,the banyan and amalaki trees, and everything else which is in relationship with the Lord. One should not fast on the ekadasi day which partly falls on the dasami, and one should not fast on the janmastami day which falls on the saptami.
loka-sangraham anvicchan nitya-naimittikam budhah pratisthitas caret karma bhakti-pradhanyam atyajan
loka – of the devotees; – saggraham – the association; – anvicchan – desiring; – nitya – regular; – naimittikam – and occasional; – budhah – the learned devotees; – pratisthitah – fixed; – caret–should perform; – karma – action; – bhakti – devotional service;pradhanyam – principally; – atyajan- not abandoning.
A learned and intelligent devotee, fixed in service to the Lord, should reside in a holy place, aspire for the association of advanced devotees, and engage in the regular and special activities of devotional service.
dasa namaparadhams tu yatnatah parivarjayet
dasa – ten; – nama – to the holy name; – aparadhan – offenses;tu – also; – yatnatah – with geat endeavor; – parivarjayet – one whold avoid.
One should carefully avoid the ten offenses in the chanting of the holy name of the Lord.
krsnavapti-phala bhaktir ekantatrabhidhiyate jnana-vairagya-purva sa phalam sadyah prakasayet
krsna – of Krsna; – avapti – the attainment; – phala – the fruit; – bhaktih – devotional service; – ekanta – unalloyed; – atra – here; – abhidhiyate – is described; – jvana – with scriptural knowledge; – vairagya – and renunciation; – purva – formerly; – sa – that; – phalam – fruit; – prakasayet – causes to become manifest.
Unalloyed devotional service, which causes one to attain Krsna, is described here. When that devotion is enriched with renunciation and scriptural scholarship, it very quickly bears fruit.
Ninth Prameya
atha pratyaksanumana-sabdanam eva pramanatvam— yatha sri-bhagavate
srutih pratyaksam aitihyam anumanam catustayam
atha – now; – pratyaksa – direct perception; – anumana – logic; – sabdanam – and Vedic authority; – eva – certainly; – pramanatvam – sources of evidence; – yatha – just as; – sri-bhagavate – in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.16.17); – srutih – the four Vedas; – pratyaksam – direct perception; – aitihyam – the Puranas and historical records; – anumanam – and logic; – catustayam – four sources of evidence.
9. Direct Perception, logic and Vedic revelation are three sources of actual knowledge:
This is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.16.17): “The Four Vedas, direct perception, the Puranas and Vedic histories, as well as logic are four sources of actual knowledge.”
pratyaksam anumanam ca yat-sacivyena suddhimat maya-munkavalokadau pratyaksam vyabhicari yat
pratyaksam – direct perception; – anumanam – logic; – ca – also; – yat – to which; – sacivyena – favorable; – suddhimat – pure; – maya- munda – of those bewildered by the illusory energy of the Lord; – avaloka – in the vision; – adau – beginning with; – pratyaksam – direct perception; – vyabhicari – evidence; yat – which.
Direct perception and logic are actual sources of knowledge when they confirm the authoritative statements found in Vedic revelation. Only foolish persons bewildered by the illusory material energy of the Lord accept the misleading evidence of direct sensory perception.
anuma cati-dhume ‘drau vrsti-nirvapitagnike atah pramanam tat tac sa svatantram naiva sammatam
anuma – logic; – ca – also; – ati-dhume – with much smoke; – adrau – on a mountain; – vrsti – by rain; – nirvapita – extinguished; – agnike – on a fire; – atah – from this; – pramanam–evidence; – tat – this; – tat – and that; – ca – also; – sva-tantram – independent; – na– not; – eva – certainly; – sammatam – considered.
Logic and mental speculation are inconclusive and unreliable sources of knowledge. They may be compared to the forest fire on top of a hill which has just been extinguished by showers of rain, and thus yields no light, but only a great quantity of smoke. Intelligent persons to not therefore consider logic and sensory perception to be independent and infallible sources of knowledge, but rather they are dependent assistants to the principal source of knowledge: the Vedic revelation.
anukulo matas tarkah suskas tu parivarjitah
anukulah – favorable to the knowledge revealed inthe scriptures; – matah – considered; – tarkah – logic; – suskah – dry; – tu – but; – parivarjitah – rejected.
When logic confirms the Vedic revelation, it should be accepted, but otherwise not.
TEXT 5 (a)
tatha hi vajasaneyinah— atma va are drastavyah srotavyo mantavyo nididhyasitavyah. iti.
tatha hi – furthermore; – hi – indeed; – vajasaneyinah – Yajvavalkya explains in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad; – atma – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – vai – certainly; – are – O Maitreyi; – drastavyah – should be seen; – srotavyah – should be heard; – mantavyah – should be understood; – nididhyasitavyah – should be meditated upon; – iti – thus.
The proper use of logic is described by Yajnavalkya Muni in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad (4.5.6): “O Maitreyi, one should directly perceive the supreme Personality of Godhead by hearing about Him from a bona-fide spiritual master. In this way one con properly understand His position, and constantly meditate upon Him.”
TEXT 5 (b)
kathake— naisa tarkena matir apaneya proktany eva jnanaya prestha.iti.
kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – na – not; – esah – He; – tarkena – simply by logic; – apaneya – is brought; – proktani – the elucidations of a bona-fide spiritual master; – eva – certainly; – jvanaya – for actual knowledge; – prestha – O dear Naciketa; – iti – thus.
Logic which has no foundation in scriptural revelation is described in the Katha Upanisad (1.2.9): “My dear Naciketa, simply by logic one will never be able to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but only by the descriptions of a realised spiritual master.”
smrtis ca—
purvaparavirodhena ki ‘trartho ‘bhimato bhavet ity adyam uhanam tarkah suska-tarkam tu varjayet
smrtih – the Smrti-sastra; – ca – and; – purvapara – with the previous Vedic authorties; – avirodhena – not in disagreement; – kah – what; – atra – in this connection; – arthah – the meaning; – abhimatah – accepted; – bhavet – may be; – iti – thus; – adyam – beginning; – uhanam – guesswork speculation; – tarkah – logic; – suska – dry; – tarkam – logic; – tu – indeed; – varjayet – one should reject.
The Smrti-sastra confirms: “One should reject the dry logic that considers: ‘How important is it that one’s reasoning follow the conclusion previously described in Vedic revelation? It cannot be very important.’ Such logic leads one to the process known as speculative guessing.”
TEXT 7 (a)
naveda-vidusam yasmad brahmadir upajayate yac caupanisadam brahma tasman mukhya srutir mata
na – not; – aveda-vidusam – dried-up philosophers who do not accept the Vedic conclusion; – yasmat – for this reason; – brahma – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – dhih – the proper understanding; – upajayate – is produced; – yat – which; – ca – and; – aupanisadam – described in the Upanisads; – brahma – the Supreme; – tasmat – therefore; – mukhya – most important; – srutih – the Vedas; – mata – are considered.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is described in the statements of the Upanisads, and for this reason Vedic revelation is the best of all sources of knowledge. They who spurn the Vedic revelation do not have the power to properly understand the Supreme.
TEXT 7 (b)
tatha hi srutih—
navedavin manute tam brhantam. iti. aupanisadam purusam prcchami. iti.
tatha hi–furthermore; – srutih – the Vedas explain; – na – not; – aveda-vit – one ignorant of the Vedic revelation; – manute – understands; – tam – Him; – brhantam – the greatest; – iti – thus; – aupanisadam – described in the Upanisads; – purusam – Supreme Person; – prcchami – I am inquiring about; – iti – thus.
This conclusion is confirmed in the Vedas:
“One ignorant of Vedic knowledge cannot actually understand the Supreme.” (Sruti-sastra)
“Please tell me about the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is revealed in the Upanisads.” (Brhad-aranyaka 3.9.26)
Concluding Words
sri-madhva-mate harih paratamah satyam jagat tattvato
bhedo jiva-gana harer anucara nicocca-bhavam gatah muktir naija-sukhanubhutir amala bhaktis ca tat-sadhanam aksadi-tritayam pramanam akhilamnayaika-vedyo harir iti
sri-madhva – of Sri Madhvacarya; – mate – in the conception; – harih – Hari; – paratamah – is the Absolute Truth; – satyam – real; – jagat – the material world is; – tattvatah – in truth; – bhedah – distinction; – jiva – of living entities; – ganah – the multitudes; – hareh – of Lord Hari; – anucara – the servants; – nica – lowly; – ucca – and exalted; – bhavam – position; – gatah – attained; – muktih – liberation; – naija – own; – sukha – bliss anubhutih – the experience; – amala – pure; – bhaktih – devotional service; – ca – and; – tat – to that end; – sadhanam – the means; – aksa – direct perception; – adi – beginning with; – tritayam – three; – pramanam – sources of knowledge; – akhila – all; – amnaya – by the Vedas; – eka – exclusively; – vedyah – knowable; – harih – Hari; – iti – thus.
The Philosophy of Madhvacarya may be summarised in the following way: 1. Lord Hari is the Absolute Truth, and nothing is greater than He, 2. the material world is real, 3. the jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Hari, 4. the jivas are by nature Lord Hari’s servants, 5. the jivas are situated in varying positions both in the material and spiritual worlds, 6. liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the experience of the bliss of devotional service, 7. Pure devotional service grants liberation, 8. direct perception, logic, and Vedic revelation are the three sources of knowledge, and 9. Lord Hari is revealed in the Vedic scriptures.
anandatirthai racitani yasyam prameya-ratnani navaiva santi prameya-ratnavalir adarena pradhibhir esa hrdaye nidheya
anandatirthaih – by Madhvacarya; – racitani – written; – yasyam – in which; – prameya – of philosophical truths; – nava – nine; – eva – certainly; – santi – are; – premeya-ratnavalih – this book, Prameya-ratnavali; – adarena – with great respect; – pradhibhih – by those who are intelligent; – esa – this book; – hrdaye – in the heart or upon the chest; – nidheya – should be placed.’
The nine jewels of philosophical truth formulated by Madhvacarya have been described in this book. Let those who are actually intelligent, respectfully place this book, Prameya- ratnavali, within their hearts.
nityam nivasatu hrdaye caitanyatma murarir nah niravedyo nirvrtiman gajapatir anukampaya yasya
nityam – eternally; – nivasatu – may reside; – hrdaye – in the heart; – caitanya – either spiritual, or Lord Caitanya; – atma – form; – murarih – Lord Krsna; – nah – our; – niravedyah – purified; – nirvrtiman – and liberated; – gajapatih – either Gajendra, the king of the elephants, or Maharaja Prataparudra; – anukampaya – by the mercy; – yasya – of whom.
This concluding verse may be interpreted either for Lord Krsna or Lord Caitanya. Interpreted for Lord Krsna, it may be translated in the following way.
May Lord Krsna, whose form is spiritual and full of knowledge, and who mercifully purified and delivered Gajendra, the king of the elephants, eternally reside within our hearts.
Interpreted for Lord Caitanya, the same verse may be translated in the following way.
May Lord Caitanya, who is actually Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and who mercifully purified and delivered Maharaja Prataparudra, eternally reside within our