Monday, May 18, 2015

Prameya Ratnavali of Baladeva Vidyabhushana

Baladeva
Table of Contents:

Prameya 1: Maggalacaranam, The disciplic succession, Madhvacarya’s Nine Philosophical Truths, Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Prameya 2: The Supreme Personality of Godhead Is Known By Study of the Vedas
Prameya 3: The Material World Is Real
Prameya 4: The Jivas (Living Entities) Are Different From Lord Visnu
Prameya 5: The Jivas (Living Entities) Are By Nature the Servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Prameya 6: In Both Conditioned and Liberated States, the jivas Are Situated in Higher and Lower Statuses
Prameya 7: Liberation Does Not Mean an Impersonal Merging,But the Attainment of Direct Association With Lord Krsna
Prameya 8: Pure Devotional Service Grants Liberation
Prameya 9: Direct Perception, Logic and Vedic Revelation Are Three Sources of Actual Knowledge
First Prameya
TEXT 1
jayati sri-govindo gopinathah sa madana-gopalah vaksyami yasya krpaya prameya-ratnavalim suksmam
jayati – all glories; – sri-govindah – to Lord Govinda; – gopinathah – to Lord Gopinatha; – sah – to Him; – krpaya – by the mercy; – prameya – of philosophy; – ratna – of jewels; – avalim – the series; – suksmam – subtle and excellent;
All glories to Lord Govinda, who is known as Gopinatha and Madana-Gopala. By His mercy, I shall now speak this excellent and subtle book Prameya-ratnavali (Jewels of the Vaisnava Philosophy).
TEXT 2
bhakty-abhasenapi tesam dadhane dharmadhyakse visva-nistari-namni nityanandadvaita-caitanya-rupe tattve tasmin nityam astam ratir nah
bhakti – of devotional service; – abhasena – ty the dim reflection; – api – even; – tosam – satisfaction; – dadhane – experience; – dharma – of religious activities; – adhyakse – the controllers; – visva – the universe; – nistari – delivering; – namni – the chanting of their holy names; – nityananda – Lord Nityananda; – advaita – Lord Advaita; – caitanya – Lord Caitanya; – rupe – consisting of; – tattve – truths; – tasmin – to them; – nityam – constantly; – astam – let there be; – ratih – intense devotion; – nah – on our part.
We pray that we may develop intense constant devotion for Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Lord Nityananda Prabhu, and Lord Advaita Prabhu, the controllers of all religious activities. They are pleased even with the dim reflection of devotional service. The chanting of Their holy names delivers the entire universe.
TEXT 3
anandatirtha-nama sukha- maya-dhaama yatir jiyat samsararnava-taranim yam iha janah kirtayanti budhah anandatirtha-nama – Madhvacarya, who is known as Anandatirtha; – sukhamaya – consisting of transcendental bliss; – dhama – abode; – yatih – sannyasi; – jiyat – all glories; – samsara – of material existence; – arnava – the ocean; – taranim – the boat for crossing; – yam – whom; – iha – in this world; – janah – persons; – kirtayanti – glorify; – budhah – intelligent and learned.
All glories to Srila Madhvacarya Svami, the abode of transcendental happiness. Those who are learned and intelligent glorify him, for he is like a boat which enables the conditioned souls to cross beyond this realm of repeated birth and death.
TEXT 4
bhavati vicintya vidusa niravakara guru-paramapara nityam ekantitvam sidhyati yayod- ayati yena hari-tosam
bhavati – there is; – vicintya – should be considered; – vidusa – free from fault; – niravakara – free from impurity; – guru – of spiritual masters; – parampara – disciplic succession; – nityam – always; – ekantitvam – exclusive and unalloyed devotional service; – sidhyati – becomes perfect; – yaya – by which; – udayati – arises; – yena – by whom; – hari – of Lord Hari; – tosam – the satisfaction.
A discriminating person pleases Lord Hari by remembering the faultless disciplic succession of bona-fide spiritual masters, who enable one to attain the perfection of unalloyed devotional service.
TEXT 5
yad uktam padma-purane— sampradya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah atahh kalau bhavisyanti catvarah sampradayinah
sri-brahma-rudra-sanaka vaisnavah ksiti-pavanah catvaras te kalau bhavya hy utkale purusottamat
yat – which; – uktam – is spoken; – padma-purane – in the Padma Purana; – sampradaya-vihinah – those who are not connected to the bona-fide disciplic succession; – ye – those who; – mantrah – mantras; – te – they; – nisphalah – without result; – matah – are considered; – atah – for this reason; – kalau – in the age of Kali; – bhavisyanti – there will be; – catvarah – four; – sampradayah – bona- fide disciplic successions; – sri – from Laksmi-devi; – brahma – from Lord Brahma; – rudra – from Lord Siva; – sanakah – and from Sanaka and the Kumara sons of Brahma; – vaisnavah – in relation to Lord Visnu; – ksiti – the world; – pavanah – purifying; – catvarah – four; – te – they; – kalau – in the age of kali; – bhavyah – will be; – hi– indeed; – utkale – in Orissa; – purusottamat – from Jagannatha Puri.
The Padma Purana explains: “Unless one is initiated by a bona-fide spiritual master in the disciplic succession, the mantra he might have received is without any effect. For this reason four Vaisnava disciplic successions, inaugurated by Laksmi-devi, Lord Brahma, LordSiva, and the four Kumaras, will appear in the holy place of Jagannatha Puri, and purify the entire earth during the age of Kali.”
TEXT 6
ramnujam srih svi-cakre madhvacryam caturmukhah
sri-visnu-svaminam rudro nimbadityam catuhsanah
ramanujam – Ramanuja; – srih – Laksmi-devi; – svi-cakre – selected; – madvacaryam – Madhvacarya; – caturmukah – Lord Brahma; – sri-visnu- svaminam – Visnu Svami; – rudrah – Lord Siva; – nimbadityam – Nimbarka; – catuhsanah – the four Kumaras.
Laksmi-devi chose Ramanujacarya to represent her disciplic succession. In the same way Lord Brahma chose Madhvacarya, Lord Siva chose Visnu Svami, and the four Kumaras chose Nimbarka.
TEXT 7
tatra guru-parampara yatha—
sri-krsna-brahma-devarsi- badarayana-samjvakan sri-madhva-sri-padmanabha- sriman-nrhari-madhavan
aksobhya-jayatirtha-sri- jvanasindhu-dayanidhin sri-vidyanidhi-rajendra- jayadharman kramad vayam
purusottama-brahmanya- vyasatirthams ca samstumah tato laksmipatim sriman- madhavendram ca bhaktitah
tac-chisyan srisvaradvaita- nityanandan jagad-gurun devam isvara-sisyam sri- caitanyam ca bhajamahe sri-krsna-prema-danena yena nistaritam jagat
tatra – in this connection; – guru – of bona-fide spiritual masters; – parampara – the disciplic succession; – yatha – just as; – sri-krsna – Lord Krsna; – brahma – Brahma; – devarsi – Narada; – badarayana – Vyasa; – samjvakan – named; – sri- madhva – Madhvacarya; – sri-padmanabha – Padmanabha; – srimat-nrhari – Nrhari; – madhavan – Madhava; – aksobhya – Aksobhya; – jayatirtha – Jayatirtha; – sri- jvanansindhu – Jvanasindhu; – dayanidhin – Dayanidhi; – sri- vidyanidhi – Vidyanidhi; – rajendra – Rajendra; – jayadharman – Jayadharma; – kramat- one after another; – vayam – we; – purusottama – Purusottama; – brahmanya – Brahmanya; – vyasatirtha – Vyasatirtha; – ca – and; – samstumah – offer prayers; – tatah – then; – laksmipatim – Laksmipati; – srimat-madhavendram – Madhavendra Puri; – ca – and; – bhaktitah – with devotion; – tat – his; – sisyan – disciples; – sri- isvara – Isvara Puri; – Advaita- Advaita Prabhu; – nityanandan – Nityananda Prabhu; – jagat – of the entire universe; – gurun – spiritual masters; – devam – the disciple; – sri-caitanyam – Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; – ca – and; – bhajamahe – we worship; – sri- krsna – of Sri Krsna; – prema – of pure love; – danena – by the gift; – yena – by whom; – nistaritam – delivered; – jagat – the universe.
With great devotion we glorify the spiritual masters in the Gaudiya Vaisnava disciplic successions. A list of their names follows: 1) Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 2) Brahma, 3) Narada, 4) Vyasa, 5) Madhvacarya, 6) Padmanabha, 7) Nrhari, 8) Madhava, 9) Aksobhya, 10) Jayatirtha, 11) Jnanasindhu, 12) Dayanidhi, 13) Vidyanidhi, 14) Rajendra, 15) Jayadharma, 16) Purusottama, 17) Brahmanya, 18) Vyasatirtha, 19) Laksmipati, 20) Madhavendra Puri, and 21) Isvara Puri, Advaita Prabhu and Nityananda Prabhu (who were all disciples of Madhavendra Puri). We worship Isvara Puri’s disciple, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who delivered the entire universe by granting the gift of krsna-prema (pure love of Krsna).
TEXT 8
atha prameyany uddisante—
sri-madhvah praha visnum paratamam akhilamnya-vedyam ca visvam
satyam bhedam ca jivam hari-carana-jusas taratamyam ca tesam
moksam visnv-agghri-labham tad-amala-bhajanam tasya hetum pramanam
pratyaksadi-trayam cety upadisati harih krsna- caitanyacandrah
atha – now; – prameyani – philosophical truths; – uddisante – delineate; – sri-madhvah – Madhvacarya; – praha – said; – visnum – Lord Visnu; – paratamam – is the Supreme Absolute truth; – akhila – all; – amnaya – by the Vedic scriptures; – vedyam – knowable; – ca – and; – visvam – the material universe; – satyam – is real; – bhedam – distinction; – ca – and; – jivan – the living entities; – hari – of Lord Hari; – carana – of the lotus feet; – jusah – servants; – taratamyam – distinction (in that some are liberated and some conditioned); – ca – and; – tesam – of them; – moksam – liberation; – visnu – of Lord Visnu; – agghri – of the lotus feet; – labham – the attainment; – tat – of the Lord; – amala – pure; – bhajanam – devotional service; – tasya – of that hetum – the cause; – pramanam – evidence; – pratyaksa – by direct perception; – adi – headed; – trayam – group of three; – ca – and; – iti – thus; – upadisati – teaches; – harih – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – see pg nine – Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
A summary of the Vaisnava philosophy follows—
Madhvacarya taught that 1) Lord Visnu is the Absolute Truth, than whom nothing is higher, 2) He is known by study of the Vedas, 3) the material world is real, 4) the jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Visnu 5) the Jivas are by nature servants of Lord Visnu’s lotus feet, 6) In both the conditioned and liberated condition, the jivas are situated in higher and lower statuses, 7) liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the attainment of Lord Visnu’s lotus feet, 8) Pure devotional service grants liberation, 9) direct perception, logic, and Vedic authority are the three sources of actual knowledge. These same truths are also taught by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself in His appearance as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TEXT 9(a)
paratamya prakaranam— sri-visnoh paramatvam— yatha sri-gopalopanisadi—
tasmat krsna eva paro devam tam dhyayet tam raset tam bhajet tam yajet. iti.
paratamya – about Lord Visnu’s supremacy; – prakaranam – chapter; – sri-visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – paramatvam – the position of the Absolute Truth; – yatha – just as; – sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad; – tasmat – therefore; – krsnah – Krsna; – eva – certainly; – parah – is the Supreme; – devam – that Supreme Lord; – tam – upon Him; – dhyayet – one should meditate; – tam – Him; – raset – one should chant the holy name; – tam – Him; – bhajet – one should serve; – tam – Him; – yajet – one should worship; – iti – thus.
1. Lord Visnu is the Absolute Truth, than whom, nothing is higher—
Lord Visnu’s supremacy is described in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad: “Therefore, Krsna is the Supreme Absolute Truth, and nothing is higher than Him. One should meditate upon Him, chant His holy names, serve, and worship Him.”
TEXT 9 (b)
svetasvataropanisadi ca—
jvatva devam sarva-pasapahanih ksinaih klesair janma-mrtyu-prahanih tasyabhidhyanat trtiyam deha-bhede visvaisvaryam kevalam apta-kamah etaj jneyam nityam evatma-sastham natah param veditavyam hi kivcit
svetasvatara-upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – ca- and; – jvatva – having understood; – devam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – sarva – all; – pasa – ropes; – apahanih – removed; – ksinaih – destroyed; – klesaih – with material sufferings; – janma – of birth; – mrtyuh – and death; – prahanih – destruction; – tasya – of Him; – abhidhyanat – from constant remembrance; – trtiyam – the spiritual world; – deha – of the gross and subtle material body; – bhede – on the destruction; – visva – complete; – aisvaryam – with opulence; – devalam – beyond the touch of material energy; – apta – attained; – kamah – all desires; – etat – this; – jveyam – knowable; – nityam – eternal; – atma-samstham – the Absolute Truth; – na – not; – atah – than Him; – param – superior; – veditavyam – may be known; – hi – indeed; – kincit – at all.
This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad—“When one understands the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then the ropes of illusion which bind one to this material world become cut, the material miseries end, and the repetition of birth and death in the cycle of transmigration also ends. By constantly remembering the Supreme Lord, at the time of death one attains the fully opulent spiritual world, far beyond the touch of matter, and all his desires become fulfilled. In this way he directly perceives the Supreme Personality of Godhead, than whom there is nothing higher to be known.” (1.11)
TEXT 9 ©
gitasu ca—
mattah parataram nanyat kivcid asti dhanavjaya
gitasu – in the Bhagavad-gita; – ca – and; – mattah – beyond Myself; – parataram – superior; – na – not; – anyat – anything; – kivcit – something; – asti – there is; – dhanavjaya – O conqueror of wealth.
This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (7.7), where Krsna says—“O conqueror of wealth (Arjuna), there is no truth superior to Me.”
TEXT 10
hetutvad vibhu-caitanya- nandatvadi-gunasrayat nitya-laksmy-adimatvac ca krsnah paratamo matah hetutvat – because of being the original cause of everything; – vibhu – all powerful; – caitanya – consciousness; – ananda – of bliss; – tva – because of the state; – adi – etc.; – guna – of all transcendental qualities; – asrayat – because of being the reservoir; – nitya – eternally; – laksmi – by the goddess of fortune; – adi – and others; – matvat – because of being served with great reverence; – ca – and; – krsnah – Krsna; – paratamah – the ultimate; – matah – is considered.
Krsna is accepted as the highest truth because He is the origin of both the material and spiritual worlds, because His spiritual form is all-powerful, all-cognisant, and full of transcendental bliss, because He is the reservoir of all auspicious spiritual qualities, and because He is served with great reverence and affection by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune, and uncountable millions of other devotees as well.
TEXT 11 (a)
sarva-hetutvam, yathahuh svetasvatarah—
ekah sa devo bhagavan varenyo yoni-svabhavan adhitisthaty ekah yac ca svabhavam pacati visva-yonih pacyams ca sarvan parinamayed yah
sarva – of everything; – hetutvam – the state of being the origin; – yatha – just as; – ahuh – explains; – svetasvatarah – the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – ekah – one; – sah – He; – devah – Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhagavan – full of all opulences; – varenyah – worshipable; – yoni-svabhavan – all material elements; – adhitisthati – he establishes; – ekah – alone; – yat – which; – ca – and; – sva-bhavam – nature of the living entity; – pacati – creates; – visva – of the universe; – yonih – the origin; – pacyan – developed; – ca – and; – sarvan – all; – parinamayet – transforms; – yah – who.
The Supreme Lord is the source of everything. This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (5.4-5): “The one supremely opulent and worshipable Personality of Godhead is the origin of the entire universe. He creates the material elements and their attributes, and He also transforms those elements.”
TEXT 11 (b)
vibhu-caitanyanandatvam, yatha kathake—
mahantam vibhum atmanam matva dhire na socati
vibhu – all powerful; – caitanya – conscious of everything; – ananda – of bliss; – tvam – the state; – yatha – just as; – kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – mahantam – supremely worshipable; – vibhum – full of all powers and opulences; – atmanam – Supreme Person;matva – having understood; – dhirah – an intelligent person who knows the distinction between material bondage and liberation; – na – does not; – socati – lament for any material distress.
That the Lord is all powerful, all-cognisant, and all-blissful is confirmed in the following verse from the Katha Upanisad (1.2.22)—“An intelligent person, who understands the distinction between material bondage and liberation, ends all material bondage when he understands the supremely worshipable Personality of Godhead, who is full of all powers and opulences.”
TEXT 11 ©
vijvana-sukha-rupatvam atma-sabdena bodhyate anena mukta-gamyatvam vyutpatter iti tad-vidah
vijvana – of transcendental knowledge; – sukha – and bliss; – rupatvam – the state of having a form; – atma – “atma”; – sabdena – by the word; – bodhyate – is understood; – anena – by this; – mukta – by the liberated souls; – gamyatvam – understandable; – vyutpatteh – derivation; – iti – thus; – tat – the truth; – vidah – those who know.
Those learned in spiritual matters know that the word “atma” means “that which is full of spiritual knowledge and bliss”. This knowledge and bliss is possessed both by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the liberated individual living entities.
TEXT 12 (a)
vajasaneyis cahuh—
vijvanam anandam brahma ratir datum parayanam
vajasaneyih – The Vajasaneya-brahmana; – ca – and; – ahuh–explains; – vijvanam – full of knowledge; – anandam – and bliss; – brahma – the supreme spirit; – ratih – giving the result of sacrifice; – datum – to the worshipper; – parayanam – the Absolute Truth.
The Vajasaneya-brahmana (3.9.28) also explains: “The Supreme Spirit, who is full of knowledge and bliss, grants the results to those who worship Him with sacrifice.”
TEXT 12 (b)
sri-gopalopanisadi ca—
tam ekam govindam sac-cid-ananda-vigraham
sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-Tapani Upanisad; – ca – also; – tam – to Him; – ekam – one; – govindam – Govinda; – sat – eternal; – cit – full of knowledge; – ananda – and bliss; – vigraham – form.
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.35) also confirms: “Lord Govinda is beyond the duality of the material world, and He is not different from His form which is eternal, full of knowledge and bliss.”
TEXT 12 ©
murtatvam pratipattavyam cit-sukhasyaiva ragavat vijvana-ghana-sabdadi- kirtanac capi tasya tat deha-dehi-bhida nastity etenaivopadarsitam
murtatvam – the state of having a form; – pratipattavyam – may be understood; – cit – spiritual; – sukhasya – of bliss; – eva – certainly; ragavat – just as a melody; – vijvana – of the Lord’s supreme knowledge; – ghana – “ghana”; – sabda – with the word; – adi – the mantra which begins with; – kirtanat – from the description; – ca – and; – api – also; – tasya – of Him; – tat – that; – deha – of the body; – dehi – of the possessor of the body; – bhida – difference; – na – not; – asti – is; – iti – thus; – etena – by this; – eva – certainly; – upadarsitam – is revealed.
Lord Govinda possesses a form of spiritual bliss, just as a melody, although apparently formless, actually possesses a subtle form within the mind. The mantra beginning “vijnana-ghana” confirms that the Lord’s form is not material, but a spiritual manifestation which is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, and that there is no difference between the Lord and His spiritual form.
TEXT 13 (a)
murtasyaiva vibhutvam, yatha mundake—
vrksa iva stabdho divi tisthaty ekas tenedam purnam purusena sarvam.
murtasya – of the form; – eva – certainly; – vibhutvam – the state of being all-powerful and opulent; – yatha – just as; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – vrksah – a tree; – iva – just as; – stabdhah – fixed; – divi – in the spiritual sky; – tisthati – is situated; – ekah – one; – tena – by Him; – idam – this; – purnam – perfect and complete; – purusena – by the person; – sarvam – everything.
The Mundaka Upanisad confirms that the Lord’s form possesses unlimited potency: “The Supreme Person appears like a tree situated in the spiritual sky. From that tree the perfect and complete spiritual and material worlds have become manifested.”
TEXT 13 (b)
dyu-stho ‘pi nikhila-vyapity
akhyanan murtiman vibhuh yugapad dhyatr-vrndesu saksat-karac ca tadrsah
dyu – in the spiritual sky; – stah – remaining; – api – although; – nikhila – everywhere; – vyapi – pervading; – iti – thus; – akhyanam – from the description of the Vedas; – murtiman – possessing a form; – vibhuh – all-powerful; – yugapat – simultaneously; – dhyatr – to the perfect living beings; – vrndesu – to the community; – saksat-karat – by direct perception; – ca – and; – tadrsah – the same.
The Vedic mantras explain that the all-powerful Absolute Truth possesses a spiritual form, and although He remains in the spiritual sky, He is simultaneously present everywhere. He personally appears within the heart of the perfect devotees who constantly meditate upon Him.
TEXT 14 (a)
sri-dasame ca—
na cantar na bahir yasya na purvam napi caparam purvaparam bahis cantar jagato yo jagac ca yah
sri-dasame – in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam; – ca – also; – na – not; – ca – also; – antah – interior; – na – nor; – bahih – exterior; – yasya – whose; – na – neither; – purvam – beginning; – na – nor; – api – indeed; – ca – also; – aparam – end; – purva-aparam – the beginning and the end; – bahih ca antah – the external and the internal; – jagatah – of the whole cosmic manifestation; – yah – one who is; – jagat ca yah – and who is everything in creation in total.
This is confirmed in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.13): “The Supreme Personality of Godhead has no beginning and no end, no exterior and no interior, no front and no rear. In other words, He is all-pervading. Because He is not under the influence of the element of time, for Him there is no difference between past, present and future; – He exists in his own transcendental form at all times. Being absolute, beyond relativity, He is free from distinctions between cause and effect, although He is the cause and effect of everything.”
TEXT 14 (b)
sri-gitasu ca—
maya tatam idam sarvam jagad avyakta-murtina mat-sthani sarva-bhutani na caham tesv avasthitah
na ca mat-sthani bhutani pasya me yogam aisvaram
sri-gitasu – in the Bhagavad-gita; – ca – also; – maya – by Me; – tatam – spread; – idam – all these manifestations; – sarvam – all; – jagat – cosmic manifestation; – avyakta-murtina – unmanifested form; – mat-sthani – unto Me; – sarva-bhutani – all living entities; – na – not; – ca – also; – aham – I; – tesu – in them; – avasthitah – situated; – na – never; – ca – also; – mat-sthani – situated in Me; – bhutani – all creation; – pasya – just see; – me – My; – yogam aisvaram – inconceivable mystic power.
The Lord confirms in the Bhagavad-gita (9.4-5): “By Me, in My unmanifested form, this entire universe is pervaded. All beings are in Me, but I am not in them. And yet everything that is created does not rest in Me. Behold my mystic opulence!”
TEXT 14 ©
acintya-saktir astise yoga-sabdena cocyate virodha-bhavjika sa syad iti tattva-vidam matam
acintya – inconceivable; – saktih – potency; – asti – there is; – ise – in the supreme Personality of Godhead; – yoga – “yoga”; – sabdena – by the word; – ca – and; – ucyate – is explained; – virodha – contradiction; – bhavjika – resolving; – sa – that potency; – syat – is; – iti – thus; – tattva – the truth; – vidam – of those who understand; – matam – the opinion.
The fact that the Supreme Personality of Godhead possesses inconceivable potency (yogam aisvaram) resolves the apparent contradiction in this statement by the Lord. This is the opinion of those who know the truth.
TEXT 15 (a)
adina sarva-jvatvam, yatha mundake— yah sarva-jvah sarva-vit
adina – by the word adi (etc.) (found in verse 10); – sarva- jvatvam – omniscience; – yatha – just as; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – yah – who; – sarva – eerything; – jvah – knows; – sarva – all; – vit – perceives.
By the use of the word “adi” (etc.) in text 10, the Lord’s omniscience may be inferred. This is confirmed in the Mundaka Upanisad (2.2.7): “The Supreme Personality of Godhead is omniscient.”
TEXT 15 (b)
ananditvam ca, taittiriyake—
anandam brahmano vidvan na vibheti kutascana
ananditvam – the state of being full of transcendental bliss; – ca – also; – taittiriyake – in the Taittiriya Upanisad; – anandam – spiritual bliss; – brahmanah – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – vidvan – a person who knows; – na – does not; – bibheti – fear; – kutascana – anything.
That the Lord is full of transcendental bliss is confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanisad (2.4.1): “One who understands the transcendental bliss of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, no longer fears anything.”
TEXT 15 ©
prabhutva-suhrttva-jvanadatva-mocakatvami ca, svetasvatara-srutau—
sarvasya prabhum isanam sarvasya saranam suhrt prajva ca tasmat prasrta purani samsara-bandha-sthiti-moksa-hetuh
prabhutva – the state of being the supreme master; – suhrttva – the state of being the supreme friend; – jvanadatva – the state of being the supreme teacher; – mocakatvani – the state of being the ultimate deliverer; – ca – and; – svetasvatara-srutau – in the following quotes from the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – sarvasya – of everyone; – prabhum – the master; – isanam – the controller; – sarvasya – of everyone; – saranam – the shelter; – suhrt–and friend; – prajva – spiritual knowledge; – ca – and; – tasmat – from Him; – prasrta – becomes manifest; – purani – eternal; – samsara – of material existance; – bandha – of the bondage; – sthiti – from the situation; – moksa – of liberation; – hetuh – the cause.
That the Lord is the supreme master, friend, teacher, and deliverer is confirmed in the following quotes from the Svetasvatara Upanisad:
“The Personality of Godhead is everyone’s supreme master, controller, shelter and friend.” (3.17)
“The Personality of Godhead is the teacher who reawakens the eternal spiritual knowledge of the conditioned souls.” (4.18)
“The Personality of Godhead delivers the conditioned souls from the bondage of repeated birth and death.” (6.16)
TEXT 15 (d)
madhuryam ca sri-gopalopanisadi—
sat-pundarika-nayanam meghabham vaidyutambaram dvi-bhujam mauna-mudradhyam vana-malinam isvaram
madhuryam – the charming beauty of the Lord; – ca – and; – sri- gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad; – sat – manifested; – pundarika – like lotus flowers; – nayanam – eyes; – megha – of a fresh rain-cloud; – abham – splendor; – vaidyuta – as splendid as lightning; – ambaram – garments; – dvi – with two; – bhujam – arms; – mauna-mudradhyam – full of transcendental knowledge; – isvaram – the Supreme Controller.
The Lord’s charming beauty is described in the Gopala- tapani Upanisad (1.13): “The Supreme Personality of Godhead appears as splendid as a fresh rain-cloud, and His eyes are as beautiful as lotus flowers. He has two arms and wears garments as yellow as lightning. He is decorated with a garland of forest flowers, and He is full of transcendental knowledge.”
TEXT 16
na bhinna dharmino dharma bheda-bhanam visesatah yasmat kalah sarvadastity adi-dhir vidusam api
na – not; – bhinnah – different; – dharminah – from the possessor of qualities; – dharmah – qualities; – bheda – distinction; – bhanam – appearance; – visesatah – specifically; – yasmat – from whom; – kalah – time; – sarvada – eternally; – asti – exists; – iti – thus; – adi – original; – dhih – intelligence; – vidusam – among the learned philosophers; – api – and.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not different from His transcendental form and attributes, and any apparent distinction is an illusion. He is the original learned philosopher, and He is the source of eternal time.
TEXT 17
evam uktam narada-pavcaratre—
nirdosa-purna-guna-vigraha atma-tantro niscetanatmaka-sarira-gunais ca hinah ananda-matra-kara-pada-mukhodaradih sarvatra ca svagata-bheda-vivarjitatma
evam – in this way; – uktam – described; – narada-pavcaratre – in the Narada Pavcaratra; – nirdosa – without fault; – purna – full; – guna – of transcendental attributes; – vigrahah – form; – atma- tantrah – independant; – niscetana – material; – atmaka – mind; – sarira – body; – gunaih – and attributes; – ca – and; – hinah – without; – ananda – spiritual bliss; – matra – exclusively consisting of; – kara – hands; – pada – feet; – mukha – face; – udara – belly; – adih – etc.; – sarvatra – in every respect; – ca – and; – svagata – from Himself; – bheda – with a difference; – vivarjita – devoid of; – atma – Supreme Personality of Godhead.
This is described in the Narada Pavcaratra: “The independent Supreme Personality of Godhead possesses a spiritual form full of perfect and faultless qualities. He is not different from the hands, feet, face, belly, or other parts of his form, which are all made exclusively of transcendental bliss.”
TEXT 18 (a)
atha nitya-laksmikatvam, yatha visnu-purane—
nityaiva sa jagan-mata visnuh srir anapayini yatha sarvagato visnus tathaiveyam dvijottama
atha – now; – nitya – eternal; – laksmikatvam – position of Laksmi-devi; – yatha- just as; – visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – nitya – eternal; – eva – certainly; – sa – she; – jagat – of the universe; – mata – the mother; – visnoh – to Lord Visnu; – srih – Srimati Laksmidevi, the goddess of fortune; – anapayini – eternally faithful; – yatha – just as; – sarva-gatah – all-pervading; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – tatha – in the same way; – eva – certainly; – iyam – she; – dvija – of brahmanas; – uttama – O best.
The eternal transcendental position of Srimati Laksmi-devi is described in the Visnu Purana: “O best of the brahmanas, Lord Visnu’s transcencental potency, Srimati Laksmidevi, is His constant faithful companion. She is eternal, and she is the mother of the entire material universe. She is all-pervading, just as Lord Visnu is.”
TEXT 18 (b)
visnoh syuh saktayas tisras tasu ya kirtita para saiva sris tad-abhinneti praha sisyan prabhur mahan
visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – syuh – there are; – saktayah – potencies; – tisrah – three; – tasu – among them; – ya – that which; – kirtita – is glorified; – para – as the transcendental and superior; – sa – she; – eva – certainly; – srih – Srimati Laksmi-devi; – tat – with the Lord; – abhinna – not different; – iti – thus; – praha – spoke; – sisyan – to His students; – prabhuh mahan – Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed His disciples in the following way: “Srimati Laksmi-devi is the best of Lord Visnu’s three potencies, and She is not different from the Lord Himself.”
TEXT 18 ©
tatra trisakti-visnuh, yatha svetasvataropanisadi—
parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate svabhaviki jvana-bala-kriya ca
pradhana-ksetrajva-patir gunesah
tatra – in this connection; – tri-sakti – possessing three potencies; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – yatha – just as; – svetasvatara- upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – para – supreme; – asya – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – saktih – potency; – vividha – various; – eva – certainly; – sruyate – is heard; – svabhaviki – according to nature; – jvana – potency of knowledge; – bala – potency of eternal existence; – kriya – potency of spiritual bliss; – ca – and; – pradhana – the unmanifested material nature; – ksetrajva – and the individual living entities; – patih – the master; – guna – of the three modes of material nature; – isah – the master.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.8) describes the three energies of Lord Visnu: “It has been heard in the Vedas that Lord Visnu possesses multifarious potencies, which may be divided into three categories: 1. the potency of transcendental knowledge, 2. the potency of eternal existence, and 3. the potency of spiritual bliss. Lord Visnu is also the master of all living entities, and the controller of the material cosmos both in its unmanifested stage, and its developments of the three modes of nature.”
TEXT 19 (a)
sri-visnu-purane ca—
visnu-saktih para prokta ksetrajnakhya tatha paraa avidya-karma-samjnanya trtiya saktir isyate
sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – ca – and; – visnu-saktih – the potency of Lord Visnu; – para – spiritual; – prokta – it is said; – ksetrajna-akhya – the potency known as ksetrajna; – tatha – as well as; – para – spiritual; – avidya – ignorance; – karma – fruitive activities; – samjna – known as; – anya – other; – trtiya – third; – saktih – potency; – isyate – known thus.
The Visnu Purana explains: “The potency of Lord Visnu is summarised in three categories: namely, the spiritual potency, the living entities and ignorance. The spiritual potency is full of knowledge; – the living entities, although belonging to the spiritual potency, are subject to bewilderment; – and the third energy, which is full of ignorance, is always visible in fruitive activities.”
TEXT 19 (b)
paraiva visnv-abhinna srir ity uktam. tatraiva—
kala-kastha-nimesadi- kala-sutrasya gocare yasya saktir na suddhasya prasidatu sa no harih
para – transcendental potency; – visnu – than Lord Visnu; – abhinna – not different; – srih – Srimati Laksmi-devi; – iti – thus; – uktam – spoken; – tatra – there; – eva – certainly; – kala – seconds; – kastha – seconds; – nimesa – moment; – adi – etc; – kala – of time; – sutrasya – of the measuring string; – gocare – within the perception; – yasya – of whom; – saktih – potency; – na – not; – suddhasya – free from all material impurity; – prasidatu – may be merciful; – sah – He; – nah – to us; – harih – Lord Hari.
Srimati Laksmi-devi, the supreme spiritual potency, is non-different from Lord Visnu:
The spiritual potencies of the Lord are described in the following verses from Visnu Purana: “Lord Hari’s transcendental potency cannot be measured by the string of time, calibrated in minutes and seconds. May that supremely pure Personality of Godhead be merciful to us.
TEXT 19 ©
procyate parameso yo yah suddho ‘py upacaratah prasidatu sa no visnur atma yah sarva-dehinam
procyate – is described; – parama-isah – the supreme controller; – yah – who; – yah – who; – suddhah – pure; – api – and; – upacaratah – served; – prasidatu – may be merciful; – sah – He; – nah – to us; – visnuh – Visnu; – atma – Supersoul; – yah – who; – sarva – of all; – dehinam – living entities in the material world.
“Lord Visnu is described as the supreme controller, free from all material impurity. He is the object of Srimati Laksmi-devi’s service, and He is the Supersoul of all conditioned living entities. May He be merciful to us.”
TEXT 19 (d)
esa paraiva tri-vrd ity uktam tatraiva—
hladini sandhini samvit
tvayy eka sarva-samsthitau hlada-tapakari misra tvayi no guna-varjite
esa – this; – para – superior potency; – eva – certainly; – tri- vrt – three-fold; – iti – thus; – uktam – described; – tatra – there; – eva – indeed; – hladini – pleasure potency; – sandhini – existence potency; – samvit – knowledge potency; – tvayi – in You; – eka – one; – sarva-samsthitau – who are the basis of all things; – hlada – pleasure; – tapa – and misery; – kari – causing; – misra – a mixture of the two; – tvayi – in You; – no – not; – guna-varjite – who are without the three modes of material nature.
The Visnu Purana explains that the Lord’s spiritual potency has three aspects: “O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hladini (pleasure potency), sandhini (existence potency), and samvit (knowledge potency) exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities.”
TEXT 20 (a)
eko ‘pi visnur ekapi laksmis tad-anapayini sva-siddhair bahubhir vesair bahur ity abhidhiyate
ekah – one; – api – although; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – eka – one; – api – although; – laksmi – Laksmi-devi; – tat – of Him; – anapayini – the constant associate; – sva-siddhaih – spiritually perfect; – bahubhih – by many; – vesaih – appearances; – bahuh – many; – iti – thus; – abhidhiyate – is described.
Lord Visnu is one, and His constant associate Laksmi- devi is also one. Assuming many different spiritual forms, they appear to have become many.
TEXT 20 (b)
tatraikatve satyeva visnor bahutvam, sri-gopalopanisadi—
eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya eko ‘pi san bahudha yo ‘vabhati tam pithastham ye tu yajanti dhiras te sam sukham sasvatam netaresam
tatra – in this connection; – ekatve – in the oneness; – satya – the truth; – iva – as if; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – bahutvam – the state of being many; – sri-gopala- upanisadi – in the Gopala Tapani Upanisad; – ekah – one; – vasi – the supreme controller; – sarvagah – all-pervading; – krsnah – Lord Krsna; – idyah – supremely worshipable; – ekah – one; – api – although; – san – being; – bahudha – in many forms; – yah – who; – avabhati – manifests; – tam – Him; – pithastham – in His transcendental abode; – ye – those who; – yajanti – worship; – dhirah – intelligent persons; – tesam – of them; – sukham – happiness; – sasvatam – eternal; – na – not; – itaresam – of others.
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.21) confirms that Lord Visnu is one, although He manifests in many forms: “Lord Krsna is the worshipable, all-pervading supreme controller, and although He is one, Hi manifests in many forms. Those who are intelligent worship that Supreme Lord, who remains in His spiritual abode. Those persons attain the eternal transcendental happiness which is not available for others.”
TEXT 20 ©
atha laksmyas tad yatha—
parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate. ity adi.
atha – now; – laksmyah – of Laksmi-devi; – tat – that; – yatha – just as; – para – supreme; – asya – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – saktih – potency; – vividha – various; – eva – certainly; – sruyate – is heard; – iti – thus; – adi – etc.
Srimati Laksmi-devi also manifests in many forms. This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.8): “It has been heard in the Vedas that Lord Visnu’s transcendental potency manifests in many forms.”
TEXT 21 (a)
purtih sarvatriki yady apy avisesa tathapi hi taratamyam ca tac-chakti- vyakty-vyakti-krtam bhavet
purtih – perfection and completeness; – sarvatriki – at all times and circumstances; – yadi api – although; – avisesa – without any distinction; – tatha api – nevertheless; – hi – indeed; – taratamyam – distinction of superiority and inferiority; – ca – and; – tat – of Him; – sakti – of the potency; – vyakti – manifest; – avyakti-krtam – and unmanifest; – bhavet – may be.
Although all of the transcendental forms of Visnu and Laksmi are always equally perfect and complete in all circumstances, these forms are considered higher and lower according to the different qualities and potencies which they manifest or refrain from manifesting.
TEXT 21 (b)
tatra nisnoh sarvatriki purtir yatha vajasaneyake—
“purnam adah purnam idam purnat purnam udacyate purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate”
tatra – in this connection; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – sarvatriki – in all circumstances; – purtih – perfection and completeness; – yatha – just as; – vajasaneyike – in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad;om – the complete whole; – purnam – perfectly complete; – adah – that; – purnam – perfectly complete; – idam – this phenomenal world; – purnat – from the all-perfect; – purnam – complete unit; – udacyate – is produced; – purnasya – of the complete whole; – purnam – completely, all; – adaya – having been taken away; – purnam – the complete balance; – eva – even; – evasisyate – is remaining.
Lord Visnu is always perfect and complete. This is described in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad (5.1.1): “The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced of the complete whole is also complete in itself. Because He is the complete whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance.”
TEXT 21 ©
maha-varahe ca—
sarve nityah sasvatas ca dehas tasya paratmanah hanopadana-rahita naiva prakrtijah kvacit
maha-varahe – in the Maha-varaha Purana; – ca – and; – sarve – all; – nityah – eternal; – sasvatah – imperishable; – ca – and; – dehah – forms; – tasya – of Him; – para-atmanah – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – hana – destruction; – upadana – origin; – rahitah – devoid of; – na – not; – eva – certainly; – prakrti-jah – produced from the material energy; – kvacit – at any time.
The Maha-varaaha Purana also explains: “The transcendental forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are eternal and imperishable. They were not created at a certain point, and they are never to be destroyed. They are not products of the material energy.
TEXT 21 (d)
paramananda-sandoha jnana-matras ca sarvatah
sarve sarva-gunaih purnah sarva-dosa-vivarjitah
parama – transcendental; – ananda – of bliss; – sandohah – the great abundance; – jvana – of knowledge; – matrah – exclusively; – ca – and; – sarvatah – all; – sarve – all; – gunaih – auspicious transcendent qualities; – purnah – filled; – sarva – all; – dosa – of defects; – vivarjitah – devoid.
“All the forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are completely filled with transcendental bliss, knowledge and all auspicious qualities. These spiritual forms of the Lord are free from all material defects.”
TEXT 22 (a)
atha sriyah sa yatha sri-visnu-purane—
evam yatha jagat-svami deva-devo janardanah avatram karoty esa tatha sris tat-sahayini
atha–now; – sriyah – of Srimati Laksmi; – sa – she; – yatha – just as; – sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – evam – in the same way; – yatha – just as; – jagat – of the universe; – svami – the lord; – deva – of all demigods; – devah – the master; – janardanah – Lord Janardana; – avataram – incarnation; – karoti – manifests; – esah – He; – tatha – in the same way; – srih – Srimati Laksmi-devi; – tat – His; – sahayini – eternal companion.
Srimati Laksmi-devi is described in the same way in the Visnu Purana: “Just as Lord Janardana, the controller of the universe and master of the demigods incarnates in different forms, so also does His eternal consort, Srimati Laksmi- devi.
TEXT 22 (b)
punas ca padmad udbhuta adityo ‘bhud yada harih yada ca bhargavo ramas tadabhud dharini tv iyam
punah – again; – ca – and; – padmat – from the lotus; – udbhuta – born; – adityah – as the son of Aditi (Lord Vamana); – abhut – became manifest; – yada – when; – harih – Lord Hari; – yada – when; – ca – and; – bhargavah – in the dynasty of Bhrgu; – ramah – Lord Parasurama; – tada – then; – abhut – appeared; – dharini – as Dharini; – tu – indeed; – iyam – she.
“When Lord Hari appeared as Vamana, the son of Aditi, Laksmi-devi appeared as Padma, and when the Lord appeared as Parasurama, she appeared as Dharini.
TEXT 22 ©
raghavatve ‘bhavat sita rukmini krsna-janmani anyesu cavataresu visnor esa sahayini
raghavatve – in the appearance of Lord Ramacandra; – abhavat – she became; – sita – Sita-devi; – rukmini – Princess Rukmini; – krsna – of Lord Krsna; – janmani – in the incarnation; – anyesu – in others; – ca – and; – avataresu – during the incarnations; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – esa – she; – sahayini – the consort.
“When the Lord appeared as Ramacandra, she became Sita- devi, and when He descended in His original form as Lord Krsna, she was Princess Rukmini. In Lord Visnu’s many other incarnations, she always appeared as the Lord’s consort.
TEXT 22 (d)
devatve deva-deheyam manusatve ca manusi visnor dehanurupam vai karoty esatmanas tanum syat svarupa-sati purtir ihaikyas iti vin-matam
devatve – when the Lord appears as a demigod; – deva – of demigod; – deha – assuming the form; – iyam – she; – manusatve – when the Lord incarnates as a human being; – ca – and; – manusi – in the form of a human; – visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – deha – of the form; – anurupam – corresponding; – vai – certainly; – karoti – manifests; – esa – she; – atmanah – of Herself; – tanum – the form; – syat – there is; – sva-rupa-sati – related to her transcendental form; – purtih – perfection and completeness; – iha – in this connection; – aikyat – because of non-difference; – iti – thus; – vit – of the transcendental scholars; – matam – the opinion.
“Laksmi-devi appears in different forms, corresponding to the forms of Lord Visnu. When the Lord appears as a demigod, she assumes a demigod-like form, and when He appears in a human- like form, she assumes a human-like form also. As the Lord’s transcendental potency, she is not different form Him, and her spiritual forms are all perfect and complete. This is the opinion of the learned transcendentalists.”
TEXT 23 (a)
atha tathapi taratamyam
atha sri-visnos tad yatha sri-bhagavate (1.3.28)—
ete camsa-kalah pumsah krsnas tu bhagavan svayam
atha – now; – tatha api – nevertheless; – taratamyam – distinction of superior and inferior; – atha – now; – sri- visnoh – of Lord Visnu; – tat – that; – yatha – just as; – sri-bhagavate – in the Srimad-Bhagavatam; – ete – all these; – ca – and; – amsa – plenary portions; – kalah – portions of the plenary portions; – pumsah – of the Supreme; – krsnah – LOrd Krsna; – tu – but; – bhagavan – the Personality of Godhead; – svayam – in person.
Some forms of the Lord are considered superior to other forms of the Lord. In this connection the Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28) explains: “All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead.”
TEXT 23 (b)
astamas tu tayor asit svayam eva harih kila
astamah – the eighth; – tu – indeed; – tayoh – of Vasudeva and Devaki; – asit – was; – svayam – personally; – eva – indeed; – harih – Lord Hari; – kila – certainly.
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared in His original form as the eighth son of Vasudeva and Devaki.”
TEXT 24 (a)
atha sris tad yatha purusa-bodhinyam atharvopanisadi—
“gokulakhye mathuramandale” ity upakramya “dve parsve candravali radhika ca” ity abhidhaya paratra “yasya amse laksmi-durgadika-saktih” iti.
atha – now; – srih – the goddess of fortune; – tat – that; – yatha – just as; – purusa-bodhinyam – in the Purusa-bodhini; – atharva – of the Atharva Veda; – upanisadi – in the Upanisad; – gokula – Gokula; – akhye – in the place named; – mathura – of Mathura; – mandale – in the district; – iti – thus; – upakramya – having begun; – dve – two; – parsve – at the sides; – candravali – Candravali; – radhika – Srimati Radharani; – ca – and; – iti thus; – abhidhaya – describing by name; – paratra – in another place; – yasyah – of Her; – amse – as parts; – laksmi – Laksmi; – durga – Durga; – adika – beginning with; – saktih – the Lord’s potencies; – iti – thus.
The same differing importance of forms applies to Srimati Laksmi-devi. The Purusa-bodhini Upanisad of the Atharva Veda explains:
“In the supreme abode of Gokula in the district of Mathura, Srimati Radharani and Srimati Candravali-devi stand at the left and right side of Lord Krsna.”
“Srimati Radharani expands Herself as Laksmi, Durga, and many other potencies of the Lord which are all her incarnations.”
TEXT 24 (b)
gautamiya-tantre ca—
devi krsnamayi prokta radhika para-devata sarva-laksmimayi sarva- kantih sammohini para
gautamiya-tantre – in the Gautamiya Tantra; – ca – and; – devi – who shines brilliantly; – krsna-mayi – nondifferent from Lord Krsna; – prokta – called; – radhika – Srimati Radharani; – para-devata – most worshipable; – sarva-laksmi- mayi – presiding over all the goddesses of fortune; – sarva- kantih – in whom all splendor exists; – sammohini – whose character completely bewilders Lord Krsna; – para – the superior energy. This is also confirmed in the Gautamiya Tantra: “The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krsna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. she possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.”
TEXT 25 (a)
atha nitya-dhamatvam adi-sabdat, yatha chandogye—
sa bhagavah kasmin pratisthitah. iti. sve mahimni. iti
mundake ca— divye pure hy esa samvyomny atma pratisthitah. iti
atha – now; – nitya – eternal; – dhamatvam – the state of the abode; – adi – “adi”; – sabdat – from the word; – yatha – just as; – chandogye – in the Chandogya Upanisad; – sah – He; – bhagavah – O Sanat-kumara; – kasmin – where?; – pratisthitah – is situated; – iti – thus; – sve – in His own; – mahimni – glorious abode; – iti – thus; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – divye – splendid; – pure – in the abode; – hi – certainly; – esah – He; – samvomni – in the spiritual sky; – atma – the supreme Personality of Godhead; – pratisthitah – is situated; – iti – thus.
The Lord’s eternal abode may be understood by the use of the word “adi” (etc.) in the quote from the Purusa-bodhini Upanisad. In this connection, the following question and answer are found in the Chandogya Upanisad:
“O Sanat-kumara, where does the Supreme Personality of Godhead reside?” “He resides in His own splendid abode.”
The Mundaka Upanisad also confirms: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead resides in His own splendid abode in the spiritual sky.”
TEXT 25 (b)
rksu ca— tam vam vastuny usmasi gamadhye yatra gavo bhuri-srnga ayasah.
atraha— tad urugayasya krsnah paramam padam avabhati bhuri. iti.
rksu – in the Rg Veda; – ca – and; – tam – that; – vam – of the divine couple (Sri Sri Radha and Krsna); – vastuni – the transcendental abodes; – usmasi – we desire; – gamadhye – to attain; – yatra – where; – gavah – surabhi cows; – bhuri – with excellent; – srggah – horns; – ayasah – move about; – atra – in the same scripture; – aha – the seer describes; – tat – that; – urugayasya – of Lord Krsna, who is glorified by the liberated souls; – vrsnah – and who fulfills all the desires of the devotees; – paramam – transcendental; – padam – abode; – avabhati – is splendidly manifest; – bhuri – unlimitedly; – iti–thus.
The Rg Veda (1.154.6) explains: “We desire to attain the transcendental abode of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna, which is full of splendid surabhi cows.” The Sruti also explains: “Unlimited Vaikuntha planets are the abode of Lord Krsna, who is glorified by the liberated souls and who fulfills all the desires of the devotees.”
TEXT 26 (a)
sri-gopalopanisadi ca— tasam madhye saksad brahma gopala-puri hi. iti.
sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala Tapani Upanisad; – ca – and; – tasam – of the seven holy cities of Bharata-varsa; – madhye – in the midst; – saksat – directly; – brahma – the spiritual world; – gopala – of Lord Gopala; – puri – the city; – hi – ertainly; – iti – thus.
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad explains: “Among the seven sacred cities of Bharata, the city of Mathura, where Lord Gopala resides, is a direct manifestation of the spiritual world.”
TEXT 26 (b)
jitante tantre ca—
lokam vaikuntha-namanam divyad-sad-gunya-samyutam avaisnavanam aprapyam guna-traya-vivarjitam
jitante tantre – in the Jitanta Tantra; – ca – and; – lokam – world; – vaikuntha – Vaikuntha; – namanam – named; – divyat – spiritual; – sat – six; – gunya – attributes; – samyutam – endowed; – avaisnavanam – by the non-devotees; – aprapyam – unattainable; – guna – modes of material nature; – traya – ot the three; – vivarjitam – devoid.
The Jitanta Tantra explains: “Unattainable by the non- devotees, free from the influence of the three modes of material nature, and filled with the six spiritual opulences, the supreme abode of the Personality of Godhead is known as Vaikuntha.
TEXT 26 ©
nitya-siddhaih samakirnam tan-mayaih panca-kalikaih sabha-prasada-samyuktam vanais copavanaih subham
nitya-siddhaih_with the eternally liberated souls; – samkirnam – filled; – tat-mayaih – by the Lord’s spiritual associates; – pavca-kalikaih – engaged in the five activities of approaching the Lord, accepting things from Him, worshipping Him, hearing about and remembering Him; – sabha – great halls; – prasada – and palaces; – samyuktam – endowed; – vanaih – with forests; – ca – and; – upavanaih – gardens; – subham – very splendid.
“Appearing very splendid with gardens, forests, halls and great palaces, that Vaikuntha world is inhabited by the Supreme Lord’s liberated associates who are always engaged in the devotional activities of approaching the Lord, asociating with Him, worshipping, hearing about and remembering Him at every moment.
TEXT 26 (d)
vapi-kupa-tadagais ca vrksa-sandaih sumanditam aprakrtam surair vandyam ayutarka-sama-prabham
vapi – with lakes; – kupa – wells; – tadagaih – ponds; – ca – and; – vrksa – of desire-trees; – sandaih – with multitudes; – sumanditam – nicely decorated; – aprakrtam – beyond the influence of material nature; – suraih – by the demigods; – vandyam – worshipable; – ayuta – millions; – arka – of suns; – sama – equal; – prabham – splendor.
“That Vaikuntha world is beyond the reach of the material nature, and it is worshipped by the demigods. It is nicely decorated with wells, ponds, lakes, and various desire-trees, and it is as effulgent as millions of suns.”
TEXT 26 (e)
brahma-samhitayam ca—
sahasra-patram kamalam gokulakhyam mahat-padam tat-karnikaram tad-dhama tad-anantamsa-sambhavam
brahma-samhitayam – in the Brahma-samhita; – ca – and; – sahasra – thousands; – patram – of petals; – kamalam – lotus flower; – gokula – Gokula; – akhyam – named; – mahat – great; – padam – abode; – tat – of that; – karnikaram – the whorl; – tat – that; – dhama – abode; – tat – that; – ananta – unlimited; – amsa – parts; – sambhavam – born.
The Brahma-samhita (verse 2) presents the following description: “The superexcellent station of Krsna, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinatary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Krsna.”
TEXT 27 (a)
prapavce svatmakam lokam avatarya mahesvarah avirbhavati tatreti matam brahmadi-sabdatah
prapavce – in the jurisdiction of the material energy; – sva – atmakam – own; – lokam – abode; – avatarya – having caused to descend; – mahesvarah – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; avirbhavati – manifests; – tatra – there; – iti- thus; – matam – the opinion; – brahma – of Brahma- adi – and others; – sabdatah – from the words.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead brings His own spiritual realm within the jurisdiction of the material world, and then personally appears there. This is the opinion of Lord Brahma and the other learned spiritualists.
TEXT 27 (b)
govinde sac-cid-anande nara-darakata yatha ajvair nirupyate tadvad
dhamni prakrtita kila
govinde – for Lord Govinda; – sat – whose form is eternal; – cit – full of knowledge; – anande – and bliss; – nara – human; – darakata – the state of being a child; – yatha – just as; – ajvaih – by the ignorant; – nirupyate; – is considered; – tadvat – to that extent; – dhamni – to the Lor’s spiritual abode; – prakrtita – the state of being material; – kila – indeed.
Just as they consider the eternal, omniscient and blissful spiritual form of Lord Krsna to be only the form of an ordinary human child, the foolish also consider the Lord’s spiritual abodes to be simply a manifestation of material energy.
TEXT 28 (a)
atha nitya-lilatvam ca. tathahi srutih— yad gatam bhavac ca bhavisyac ca. iti.
eko devo nitya-lilanurakto bhakta-vyapi bhakta-hrdy antaratma. iti ca.
atha – now; – nitya – eternal; – lilatvam – the state of performing pastimes; – ca – and; – tatha hi – furthermore; – srutih – in the Vedas; – yat – which; – gatam – happened in the past; – bhavat – happens at present; – bhavisyat – will occur in the future; – ca – and; – iti – thus; – ekah – one; – devah – Supreme Personality of Godhead; – nitya – eternal; – lila – by pastimes; – anuraktah – delighted; – bhakta – for the devotees; – vyapi – all-pervading; – bhakta – of the devotees; – hrdi – within the heart; – antaratma – the Supersoul.
The Supreme Lord Performs eternal pastimes. This is confirmed in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad: “The Supreme Lord performs pastimes eternally: in the past, present and future.” The Atharva Veda explains: “The one supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally engaged in many, many transcendental forms in relationships with His unalloyed devotees.”
TEXT 28 (b)
smrtis ca—
janma karma ca me divyam evam yo etti tattvatah tyktva deham punar janma naiti mam iti so’rjuna
smrtih – the smrti; – ca – and; – janma – birth; – karma – work; – ca – also; – me – of Mine; – divyam – transcendntal; – evam – like this; – yah – anyone who; – vetti – knows; – tattvatah – in teality; – tyaktva – leaving aside; – deham – this body; – punah – again; – janma – birth; – na – never; – eti – does attain; – mam – unto Me; – eti – does attain; – sah – he; – arjuna – O Arjuna.
The Lord Himself expains in Bhagavad-gita (4.9): “One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna.”
TEXT 29
rupanantyaj jananantyad dhamanantyac ca karma tat nityam syat tad-abhedac cety uditam tattva-vittamaih
rupa – of the Lord’s spiritual forms; – anantyat – because of the numberlessness; – jana – of the Lord’s associates; – anantyat – because of the numberlessness; – dhama – of the Lord’s abodes; – anantyat – because of the infinite extent; – ca – and; – karma – pastimes; – tat – these; – nityam – eternal; – syat – are; – tat – from them; – abhedat – because Hi is not different; – ca – and; – iti – thus; – uditam – described; – tattva – vittamaih – by the learned transcendentalists, who know the truth.
Because the Lord’s forms, followers, and abodes are all unlimited, and because the Lord’s forms and abodes are not different from Him, the learned transcendentalists have described that the Lord’s pastimes are eternally manifest.
Second Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
athakhilamnaya-vedyatvam. yatha sri-gopalopanisadi— yo ‘sau sarvair vedair giyate. iti.
kathake ca- – sarve veda yat-padam amananti tapamsi sarvani ca yad vadanti
atha – now; – akhila – all; – amnaya – by the Vedas; – vedyatvam – the state of being known; – yatha – just as; – sri-gopala-upanisadi – in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad; – yah – who- asau – He; – sarvaih – by all; – vedaih – the Vedas; – giyate – is glorified; – iti – thus; – kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – sarve – all; – vedah – the Vedas; – yat – whose; – padam – lotus feet; – amananti – worship; – tapamsi – austerities; – sarvani – all; – ca – and; – yat – whom; – vadanti – glorify.
2. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is known by study of the Vedas:
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad confirms this: “All the Vedas proclaim the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” And the Katha Upanisad (1.2.15) also confirms it: “All the Vedas worship the Supreme Lord’s lotus feet, and all austerities proclaim His glories.”
TEXT 1 (b)
sri-hari-vamse ca—
vede ramayane caiva purane bharate tatha adav ante ca madhye ca harih sarvatra giyate
sri-hari-vamse – in the Hari-vamsa; – ca – and; – vede – in the Vedas; – ramayane – in the Ramayana; – ca – and; – eva – certainly; – purane – in the Puranas; – bharate – in the Mahabharata; – tatha – in the same way; – adau – in the beginning; – ante – in the middle; – ca – and; – madhye – in the middle; – ca – and; – harih – the supreme Personality of Godhead; – sarvatra – everywhere; – giyate – is glorified.
The Hari-vamsa states: “In the Vedic literature, including the Ramayana, Puranas ad Mahabharata, from the very beginning (adau), to the end (ante ca), as well as within the middle (madhye ca), only Hari, the supreme Personality of Godhead, is explained.”
TEXT 2
saksat paramparabhyam veda gayanti madhavam sarve vedantah kila saksad apare tebhyah paramparaya
saksat – directly; – paramparabhyam – systematically; – vedah – the four Vedas; – gayanti – glorify; – madhavam – Lord Madhava; – sarve – all; – vedantah – the Vedanta-sutras; – kila – indeed; – saksat – directly; – apare tebhyah – other Vedic literatures; – paramparaya – systematically.
The four Vedas, Vedanta-sutras, and supplementary Vedic literatures, all directly and systematically glorify the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Madhava.
TEXT 3
kvacit kvacid avacyatvam yad vedesu vilokyate kartsnena vacyam na bhaved iti syat tatra sangatih anyatha tu tad arambhe vyarthah syad iti me matih
kvacit kvacit – here and There; – avacyatvam – indescribableness; – yat – which; – vedesu – in the Vedas; – vilokyate – is observed; – kartsnena – with completeness; – vacyam – able to be described; – na – not; – bhavet – may be; – iti – thus; – syat – is; – tatra – there; – saggatih – the appropriate interpretation; – anyatha – otherwise; – tu – indeed; – tat – that; – arambhe – endeavor; – vyarthah – useless and illogical; – syat – is; – iti – thus; – me – my; – matih – opinion.
At different places in the Vedic literatures the absolute truth is said to be indescribeable. This means that His qualities are unlimited and He cannot be adequately described. It is my opinion that any other interpretation of this is illogical and senseless.
TEXT 4
sabda-pravrtti-hetunam jaty-adinam abhavatah brahma-nirdharmakam vacyam naivety ahur vipascitah
sabda – of words; – pravrtti – employment; – hetunam – of the causes; – jati – of birth; – adinam – and other things (qualities, activities, manes, etc.); – abhavatah – because of the non- existance; – brahma – of the Supreme; – nirdharmikam – without attributes; – vacyam – description; – na – not; – eva – certainly; – iti – thus; – ahuh – speak; – vipascitah – those who understand the Supreme.
They who understand the actual nature of spirit never say that the supreme never takes birth, or that He is devoid of qualities, pastimes and names, which constitute the realm describable by words. those who are learned do not say that the Supreme cannot be described by words.
TEXT 5
sarvaih sabdair avacye tu laksana na bhaved atah laksyam ca na bhaved dharma– hinam brahmeti me matam
sarvaih – by all; – sabdaih – words; – avacye – not describeable; – tu – indeed; – laksana – character; – na – not; – bhavet – is; – atah – therefore; – laksyam – characteriseable; – ca – and; – na – not; – bhavet – may be; – dharma – of attributes; – hinam – devoid; – brahma – the Supreme Absolute; – iti – thus; – me – my; – matam – opinion.
I do not consider that the Absolute Truth is without attributes and therefore beyond the descriptive power of words.
Third Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
atha visva – satyatvam.
sva-saktya srstavan visnur yathartham sarva-vij jagat ity uktah satyam evaitad vairagyartham asad-vacah
atha – now; – visva – of the material world; – satyatvam – the reality; – sva – wwn; – saktya – by the potency; – srstavan – created; – visnuh – Lord Visnu; – yatha-artham – real; – sarva-vit – omniscient; – jagat – the material world; – iti – thus; – ukteh – from this statement; – satyam – reality; – eva – certainly; – etat – this; – vairagya-artham – for the purpose of renunciation; – asat-vacah – it is described as asat (temporary) in the Vedas.
3. The Material World is Real
Because omniscient Lord Visnu created this material world with His own potency,therefore it is real. The word asat used to describe the material world in the Vedas should be interpreted to mean temporary, not unreal. Describing the the temporality of this world, the Vedas instruct us in the importance of renunciation.
TEXT 1 (b)
tatha hi svetasvataropanisadi—
ya eko’varno bahudha-sakti-yogad varnan anekan nihitartho dadhati
tatha hi – furthermore; – svetasvatara-upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – yah – who; – ekah – one without a second; – avarnah – without any material qualities; – bahudha – many; – sakti – of potencies; – yogat – because of contact; – varnan – different classes of human beings, demigods, and animals; – anekan – many; – nihita-arthah – desiring to create; – dadhati – created.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.1) explains: “The Absolute Truth, who is one without a second, and who possesses no material attributes, desired to manifest the material world, and created the different classes of human beings, animals and demigods.”
TEXT 1 ©
sri-visnu-purane ca—
ekadesa-sthitastagner jyotsna vistarini yatha parasya brahmanah saktis tathedam akhilam jagat
eka-desa – in one place; – sthitasya – situated; – agneh – of a fire; – jyotsna – the effulgence; – vistarini – spead; – yatha – just as; – parasya – of the supreme; – brahmanah – spirit; – saktih – energy; – tatha – in the same way; – idam – this; – akhilam – entire; – jagat – world.
The Visnu Purana explains: “Whatever we see in this world is simply an expansion of different energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is exactly like a fire which spreads illumination for a long distance, although it is situated in one place.”
TEXT 1 (d)
isopanisadi—
sa paryagac chukram akayam avranam asnaviram suddham apapa-viddham kavir manisi paribhuh svayambhur yathatathyato ‘rthan vyadadhac chasvatibhyah samabhyah
isopanisadi – in the Isopanisad; – sah – that person; – paryagat – must know in fact; – sukram – the omnipotent; – akayam – unembodied; – avranam – without reproach; – asnaviram – without veins; – suddham – antiseptic; – apapa-viddham – prophylactic; – kavih – omniscient; – manisi – philosopher; – paribhuh – the greatest of all; – svayambhuh – self-sufficient; – yathatathyatah – just in pursuance of; – arthan – desirables; – vyadadhat – awards; – sasvatibhyah – immemorial; – samabhyah – time.
The Isopanisad explains: “Such a person must factually know the greatest of all, who is unembodied, omniscient, beyond reproach, without veins, pure and uncontaminated, the self- sufficient philosopher who has been fulfilling everyone’s desire since time immemorial.”
TEXT 2
sri-visnu-purane ca—
tad etad aksayam nityam jagan muni-varakhilam avirbhava-tirobhava janma-nasa-vikalpavat
sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – ca – and; – tat – that; – etat – this; – aksayam – imperishable; – nityam – eternal; – jagat – material world; – muni – of sages; – vara – O best; – akhilam – entire; – avirbhava – manifestation; – tirobhava – dissapearance; – janma – birth; – nasa – destruction; – vikalpavat – only the appearance.
The Visnu Purana explains: “O best of the sages, this entire material world is eternal and imperishable. When it is manifested from the Supreme, it only appears to have begun it’s existence, and when it again enters the Supreme, it only appears to be destroyed.”
TEXT 3
mahabharate ca—
brahma satyam tapah satyam satyam caiva prajapatih satyad bhutani jatani satyam bhutam ayam jagat
mahabharate – in the Mahabharata; – ca – and; – brahma – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – satyam – is real; – tapah – austerity; – satyam – is real; – satyam – real; – ca – and; – eva – certainly; – prajapatih – Brahma, the creator of the living beings; – satyat – from the reality; – bhutani – the living entities; – jatani – are born; – satyam – real; – bhutam – manifested; – ayam – this; – jagat – material world.
The Mahabharata explains: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form eternal, full of knowledge and bliss, is real. Austerities are real, and Lord Brahma is also real. Because the living entities and the material world have taken birth from the supreme reality, they are also real.”
TEXT 4
atma va idam ity adau vana-lina-vihangavat sattvam visvasya mahtavyam ity uktam veda-vedibhih
atma – the Supreme Absolute; – vai – certainly; – idam – this; – iti – thus; – adau – in the beginning; – vana – in the forest; – lina – disappeared; – vihaggavat – like a bird; – sattvam – reality; – visvasya – of the material world; – mantavyam – should be considered; – iti – thus; – uktam – spoken; – veda – of the Vedas; – vedibhih – by the knowers.
When the Vedas explain that in the beginning only the supreme exists, it may be understood that at that time the material world rests within the supreme in it’s dormant state and remains invisible, just as a bird which has disappeared into a forest. In this way the knowers of the Vedas assert the reality of the material world.
Fourth Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
atha visnuto jivanam bhedah—
tatha hi svetasvatarah pathanti—
dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vrksam parisasvajate tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty anasnann anyo ‘bhicakasiti
atha – now; – visnutah – from Visnu; – jivanam – of the living entities; – bhedah – the distinction; – tatha hi – furthermore; – svetasvatarah – the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – pathanti – reads; – dva – two; – suparna – birds; – sayuja – associated; – sakhaya – friends; – samanam – the same; – vrksam – tree; – parisasvajate – contacting; – tayoh – of the two; – anyah – the other; – pippalam – banyan fruit; – svadu – palatable; – atti – eats; – anasnan – not eating; – anyah – the other; – abhicakasiti – observes.
4. The jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Visnu:
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.6-7) explains: “Two birds reside in the metaphorical banyan tree of the material body. One of them is engaged in eating the material happiness and distress which is the fruit of that tree, while the other does not eat, but only witnesses the actions of his friend. The witness is the Supreme Lord Visnu, and the fruit-eater is the living entity.
TEXT 1 (b)
samane vrkse puruso nimagno hy anisaya socati muhyamanah justam sada pasyaty anyam isam asya mahimanam eti vita-sokah
samane – same; – vrkse – on the tree; – purusah – person; – nimagnah – entered; – hi – certainly; – anisaya – helplessly; – socati – laments; – muhyamanah – bewildered; – justam – happy; – sada – continually; – pasyati – sees; – anyam – the other; – isam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – asya – of Him; – mahimanam – the glories; – eti – goes; – vita – free from; – sokah – lamentation.
“Although the two birds are on the same tree, the eating bird is fully engrossed with anxiety and moroseness as the enjoyer of the fruits of the tree. But if in some way or other he turns his face to His friend who is the Lord and knows His glories_at once the suffering bird becomes free from all anxieties.”
TEXT 2
brhat-samhitayam—
upakramopasamharav abhyaso ‘purvata-phalam artha-vadopapatti ca
lingam tatparya-nirnaye
iti tatparya-lingani sad yany ahur manisinah bhede tani pratiyante tenasau tasya gocarah
brhat-samhitayam – in the Brhat-samhita; – upakrama – beginning; – upasamharau – and end; – abhyasah – repetition; – apurvata-phalam – not known by the material senses; – artha-vada – prayers; – upapatti – and logic; – ca – and; – liggam – characteristic; – tatparya – in determining the meaning; – nirnaye – in the establishment; – iti–thus; – tatparya – of a correct understanding; – liggani – characteristics; – sat – six; – yani – which; – ahuh – describe; – manisinah – philosophers; – bhede – in difference;_tani – they; – pratiyante – are proved; – tena tena – by that; – asau – this tasya – of that; – gocarah – the field of perception.
The Brhat-samhita explains: “Learned philosophers have concluded that the correct interpretation of the Vedic texts is determined by understanding- – their beginning and concluding statements, what is repeatedly stated within them, evidence presented within them which is beyond the power of the limited material senses to perceive, and the prayers and logical arguments presented within them. A correct understanding of these six elements leads to a proper interpretation of the Vedas. By studying in this way one comes to the correct interpretation- – that the living entities are different from the Supreme.”
TEXT 3 (a)
kim ca mundake—
yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim tada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya niravjanah paramam samyam upaiti
kim ca – and furthermore; – mundake – in the Mundaka Upanisad; – tada – when; – pasyah – the seer; – pasyate – sees; – rukma – of gold; – varnam – the color; – kartaram – the supreme actor; – isam – of Godhead; – purusam – the Personality; – brahma – of the Supreme Brahman; – yonim – the source; – tada – then; – vidvan – the learned devotee; – punya – pious deeds; – pape – s well as sins; – vidhuya – having cleansed; – niravjanah – free from material contact; – paramam – supreme; – samyam – equality; – upaiti – attains.
The Mundaka Upanisad (3.1.3) explains: “One who sees that golden-colored Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, the supreme actor, who is the source of the Supreme Brahman, becomes free from the reactions to past pious and sinful deeds, and becomes liberated, attaining the same transcendental platform as the Lord.”
TEXT 3 (b)
kathake ca—
yathodakam suddhe suddham asiktam tadrg eva bhavati evam mune vijanata atma bhavati gautama
kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – ca – and; – yatha – just as; – udakam – water; – suddhe – in the pure; – suddham – pure; – asiktam – cast; – tadrk – like that; – eva – certainly; – bhavati – becomes; – evam – in this way; – mune – O sage; – vijanatah – of one situated in transcendental knowledge; – atma – the supreme spirit; – gautama – O Naciketa.
The Katha Upanisad (2.1.15) explains: “O Naciketa, when a drop of pure water is thrown into a reservoir of pure water, the drop does not change it’s nature in any way. In the same way, the individual living entity, when situated in transcendental knowledge, does not change his nature when he comes into contact with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but retains his individuality in all respects.”
TEXT 4 (a)
brahmaham eko jivo ‘smi nanye jivo na cesvarah mad-avidya-kalpitas te syur itittham ca dusitam anyatha nitya ity adi- sruty-artho nopapadyate
brahma – the Supreme Brahman; – aham – I; – ekah – one; – jivah – living entity; – asmi – am; – na – not; – anye – others; – jivah – living entities; – na – not; – ca – and; – isvarah – Supreme Personality of Godhead; – mat – of me; – avidya – by ignorance; – kalpitah – imagined; – te – they; – syuh – may come into existance; – iti – thus; – ittham – in this say; – ca – and; – dusitam – the polluted conclusion; – anyatha – otherwise; – nitya-iti-adi – beginning with the word nitya; – sruti – of the Vedas; – artha – the meaning; – na – not; – upapadyate – may be interpreted.
The impersonalist followers of Sankaracarya proclaim:
“I, the living entity, am the only supreme, and other living entities, as well as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, do not actually exist, but are only imagined in the mind when there is ignorance of my actual nature.” This is their polluted conclusion. The following Vedic quotation, beginning with the word nitya, presents the actual truth. It is stated so clearly that the impersonalists cannot twist a different meaning from it.
TEXT 4 (b)
tatha hi kathah pathanti—
nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman tam atmastham ye ‘nupasyanti dhiras tesam santih sasvati netaresam
tatha hi – furthermore; – hi – certainly; – kathah – the Katha Upanisad; – pathanti – reads; – nityah – a single eternal; – nityanam – among the many eternals; – cetanah – a single conscious being; – cetananam – among many conscious beings; – ekah – one; – bahunam – of the many; – yah – who; – vidadhati – grants; – kaman – the desires; – tam – Him; – atmastham – situated within the heart; – ye – those who; – anupasyanti – see; – dhirah – saintly persons; – tesam – of them; – santih – peace; – sasvati – eternal; – na – not; – itaresam – of others.
The Katha Upanisad (2.2.13) explains: “Of all eternals, there is one who is the chief eternal. Of all conscious living entities, there is one who is the chief conscious entity. That supreme living entity, the Personality of Godhead, maintains the others, and fulfills their desires according to their merits. Only saintly persons, who can see, within and without, the same Supreme Lord, can actually attain to perfect and eternal peace.”
TEXT 5
ekasmad isvaran nityac cetanat tadrsa mithah bhidyante bahavo jivas tena bhedah sanatanah
ekasmat – one; – isvarat – supreme Personality of Godhead; – nityat – eternal; – cetanat – conscious; – tadrsah – like this; – mithah – mutually; – bhidyante – are distinct entities; – bahavah – the many; – jivah – individual souls; – tena – by this; – bhedah – distinction; – sanatanah – eternal.
This verse states that both the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual loving entities are eternal and conscious. By affirming the eternality of both the one and the many, the distinction between them is described as eternal.
1Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura remarks in this connection that the impersonalists may object that the distinction between the living entity (jiva) and the Supreme (isvara) is not an eternal distinction. To support their view they may quote many verses from the Upanisads, such as sarvam khalv idam brahma (everything is brahman), and tat tvam asi svetaketo (O Svetaketu, you are that). Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana replies to their objections in the following way:
TEXT 6 (a)
pranaikadhina-vrttitvad ragadeh pranata yatha tatha brahmadhina-vrtter jagato brahmatocyate
prana – life force; – eka – exclusively dependent; – vrttitvat – because of the nature; – raga – adeh – of the senses; – pranata – the life force; – yatha – just as; – tatha – in the same way; – brahma – the supreme; – adhina-vrtteh – completely dependent; – jagatah – from the material universe; – brahma – the distinct Supreme; – ucyate – is described.
Just as the life-force is different from the senses of the material body which are completely dependent upon it, in the same way the Supreme Lord is distinct from the material world which is completely dependent upon Him.
TEXT 6 (b)
tatha hi chandogye pathyate
na vai vaco na caksumsi na srotrani na manamsity acaksate. prana ity acaksate. prano hy evaitani sarvani bhavati. iti.
tatha hi – moreover; – chandogye – in the Chandogya Upanisad; – pathyate – it is read; – na – not; – vai – certainly; – vacah – words; – na – nor; – caksumsi – eyes; – na – nor; – srotrani – ears; – na – nor; – manamsi – minds; – iti – thus; – acaksate – names; – pranah – the life- force; – iti – thus; – acaksate – he names; – pranah – the life-force; – hi – indeed; – eva – certainly; – etani – them; – sarvani – all; – bhavati – is; – iti–thus.
The Chandogya Upanisad (5.1.15) explains in this connection: “The different senses, such as the voice, sense of sight, sense of hearing, and the mind, are all known as the life- force, but the actual life-force is different from all these senses, which are dependent upon it. They are named after the life-force, although it is actually different from them.”
1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains in this connection that the mayavadis may argue that the Vedas say: “sarvam khalv idam brahma (everything is brahman)” and “tat tvam asi svetaketo (O Svetaketu, you are that)”, and therefore the only thing in existance is impersonal brahman, and everything else is an illusion. To counter this argument, Baladeva Vidyabhusana quotes this verse from the Chandogya Upanisad, where there is an explanation of how everything is brahman. The various senses are dependent upon the life-force, and therefore, they are collectively known as the life-force, although the actual life-force is different from them. In this way the senses are designated as the life-force because they are manifested from the life-force, although they are actually different from it. In the same way, the individual living entities have emanated from the Supreme Brahman, and they are therefore designated Brahman to show their source of origin, although they are actually different from the Supreme Brahman.
TEXT 7
brahma-vyapyatvatah kaiscij jagad brahmeti manyate. yad uktam sri-visnu-purane—
yo ‘yam tavagato deva samipam devata-ganah satyam eva jagat-srasta yatah sarvagato bhavan
brahma – by the Absolute Truth; – vyapyatvatah – because of being present everywhere; – kaiscit – by some; – jagat – the material universe; – brahma – identical with the Supreme; – manyate – is considered; – yat – which uktam – spoken; – sri-visnu-purane – in the Visnu Purana; – yah – who; – ayam – this; – tava – to You; – agatah – approached; – deva – O Lord; – samipam – near; – devata – of demigods; – ganah – the host; – satyam – the eternally real Supreme Personality of Godhead; – eva – certainly; – jagat – of the material world; – srasta – the creator; – yatah – because; – sarvagatah – all- pervading; – bhavan – You.
Some maintain that because the Supreme is all-pervading, the material universe must be identical with Him. The Visnu Purana dispels this misconception: “O Supreme Personality of Godhead, although You have created this material universe, and although You are everywhere present within it, You are nevertheless eternally distinct from it.”
TEXT 8
pratibimba-pariccheda- paksau yau svi-krtau paraih vibhutvavisayatvabhyam tau vidvadbhir nirakrtau
pratibimba – a reflected manifestation; – pariccheda – a different manifestation; – paksau – the two parties; – yau – which; – svi-krtau – accepted; – paraih – by others; – vibhutva – because of all-pervasiveness; – avisayatvabhyam – because of being beyond the reach of the material senses; – tau – they; – vidvadbhih – by those who know the truth; – nirakrtau – not accepted.
Some maintain that the universe is identical with the Supreme because the universe is the Supreme’s reflected image, and others say that they are identical because the Supreme has divided Himself into the various pieces that constitute the universe. Those who are wise do not accept these faulty arguments, because they know that the Supreme is simultaneously all-pervading and beyond the reach of the material senses.
1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains the defect in the arguments of these two groups of mayavadis. The first group of mayavadis say that just as the sun or moon may be reflected in various pots or reservoirs of water, in the same way, the Supreme reflects Himself- – the reflections being the individual living entities. This view cannot be maintained because the Supreme is, by His very nature, all-pervading. Something all-pervading cannot be reflected anywhere, just as the all-pervading dimension of space, upon which all the material elements rest, cannot be reflected anywhere. The opinion of the second camp of mayavadis is that the Supreme has cut Himself into many little pieces which are the individual living entities and the material elements. This view cannot be held because the Supreme is avisaya- – spiritual, beyond the reach of the material senses. Because the Supreme is spiritual, imperishable, and without change, He cannot be cut into many pieces as the mayavadis say.
TEXT 9
advaitam brahmano bhinnam bhinnam va tvayocyate adye dvaitapattir ante siddha-sadhanata sruteh
advaitam – the Supreme Brahman, who is one without a second; – brahmanah – from the Brahman; – bhinnam – different; – abhinnam – not different; – va – or; – tvaya – by you; – ucyate – spoken; – adye – in the beginning; – dvaita – of difference; – apattih – attainment; – ante – in the end; – siddha – perfection; – sadhanata – attainment; – sruteh – from the Vedas.
O Mayavadis, you insist that the individual living entities and the Supreme are identical, even though this view contradicts all the descriptions found in the Vedic texts.
TEXT 10
alikam nirgunam brahma pramanavisayatvatah sraddheyam vidusam naivety ucire tattva-vadinah
alikam – untrue; – nirgunam – without attributes; – brahma – Supreme; – pramana – of evidence; – avisayatvatah – because of the non-perception; – sraddha – faith; – iyam – this; – vidusam – of those who are intelligent and learned in the spiritual science; – na – not; – eva – certainly; – iti – thus; – ucire – said; – tattva – of the truth; – vadinah – the knowers.
There is no evidence to support the erroneous conception that the Supreme is an amorphous mass without any qualities. Those who know the truth declare that those learned in the spiritual science never accept such a conclusion.
1 Note: In this connection, Srila Bhaktisiddhaanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that the three sources of evidence- – direct perception, logic, and scriptural revelation- – tell us that although the Supreme is devoid of material qualities, He possesses innumerable spiritual qualities. That the Supreme possesses spiritual qualities (bhagavan) in the ultimate issue is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11):
vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam yaj jnanam advayam brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate 1 “Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this non-dual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavaan (full of all opulences).”
Fifth Prameya
TEXT 1
atha jivanam bhagavad-dasatvam tatha hi svetasvatarah pathanti—
tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram tam daivtanam paramam ca daivatam patim patinam paramam parastat vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam
atha – now; – jivanam – of the individual living entities; – bhagavat – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – dasatvam – the state of being the servants; – tatha hi – furthermore; – svetasvatarah – the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – pathanti – reads; – tam – Him; – isvaram – controller; – tam – Him; – daivatanam – of all the demigods; – paramam – supreme; – ca – and; – daivatam – worshippable deity; – patim – the director; – patinam – of all directors; – paramam – greater; – parastat – than the greatest; – vidama – we understand; – devam – the Supreme Lord; – bhuvana – of the entire world; – isam – the master; – idyam – worshipable.
5. The jivas (living entities) are by nature the servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead:
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.7) explains: “The Supreme Lord is the controller of all other controllers, and He is the greatest of all the diverse planetary leaders. Everyone is under His control. All entities are delegated with particular power only by the Supreme Lord; – they are not supreme themselves. He is also worshipable by all demigods, and is the supreme director of all directors. Therefore, He is transcendental to all kinds of material leaders and controllers and is worshipable by all. There is no one greater than Him, and He is the supreme cause of all causes.”
TEXT 2 (a)
smrtis ca—
brahma sambhus tathaivarkas candramas ca satakratuh evam adyas tathaivanye yukta vaisnava-tejasa
smrtih – the Smrti-sastra; – ca – and; brahma – Brahma; – sambhuh – Siva; – tatha – in the same way; – eva – certainly; – arkah – Surya; – candramah – Candra; – satakratuh – Indra; – evam – in this way; – adyah–beginning with; – tatha – in the same way; – anye – others; – yuktah – engaged; – vaisnava – of Lord Visnu; – tejasa – by the prowess.
The Smrti-sastra declares: “Brahma, Siva Surya, Candra, Indra, and all the other demigods are appointed to their posts by Lord Visnu and given extraordinary powers by Him. They areall the servants of Lord Visnu.”
TEXT 2 (b)
sa-brahmakah sa-rudras ca sendra deva maharsibhih arcayanti sura-srestham devam narayanam harim
sa-brahmakah – with many Brahmas; – sa-rudrah – with many Sivas; – ca – and; – sa-indrah – with many Indras; – devah – demigods; – maha-rsibhih – with the great sages; – arcayanti – worship; – sura – of all the demigods; – srestham – the best; – devam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – narayanam – known as Narayana; – harim – and Hari.
The Sastras explain: “Innumerable Brahmas, Sivas, Indras, sages and demigods, all worship the Supreme Lord Narayana, the best of the demigods.”
TEXT 2 ©
padme ca, jiva-laksane
dasa-bhuto harer eva nanyasyaiva kadacana
padme – in the Padma Purana; – jiva – of the living entities; – laksane – in the description; – dasa-bhutah – a servant; – hareh – of Lord Hari; – eva – certainly; – na – not; – anyasya – of anyone else; – kadacana – at any time.
The Padma Purana describes the nature of the jiva (individual living entity) in the following way: “By nature the living entity is eternally the servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari. He is never the servant of Brahma, Siva, or anyone else.”
Sixth Prameya
TEXT 1
atha jivanam taratamyam—
anu-caitanya-rupatva- jnanitvadya-visesatah samye saty api jivanam taratamyam ca sadhanat
atha – now; – jivanam – of the living entities; – taratamyam – gradations of importance; – anu – minute; – caitanya – consciousness; – rupatva – possessing; – jvanitva – the state of possessing knowledge; – adya – geginning with; – visesatah – particularly; – samye – equality; – sati – being so; – api – although; – jivanam – of the living entities; – taratamyam – gradation; – ca – and; – sadhanat – because of activities, or because of advancement in devotional service.
6. In both conditioned and liberated states, the jivas are situated in higher and lower statuses.
Although all living entities are equally conscious and full of knowledge, according to the small capacity of an individual soul, they nevertheless manifest that original spiritual nature in varying degrees. The extent to which that original nature is uncovered is determined by their purity and devotion to the Supreme Lord.
TEXT 2 (a)
tatranuktam uktam svetasvataraihh
balagra-sata-bhagasya satadha kalpitasya ca bhago jivah sa vijneyah sa canantyaya kalpate
tatra – there; – anuktam – not described; – uktam – described; – svetasvataraih – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; – bala-agra – the tip of a hair; – sata-bhagasya – of one hundreth; – satadha – into one hundred parts; – kalpitasya – divided; – ca – and; – bhagah – minute portion; – jivah – the living entity; – sah – that; – vijveyah – to be understood; – sah – that; – ca – and; – anantaya – for the unlimited; – kalpate – worthy.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (5.9) describes the individual spirit soul: “When the upper point of a hair is divided into one hundred parts and again each of such parts is further divided into one hundred parts, each such part is the measurement of the dimension of the spirit-soul.”
TEXT 2(b)
caitanya-rupatvam jnanitvadikam ca sat-prasnyam
esa hi drasta sprasta srota ghrata rasayita manta boddha karta vijnanatma purusah. iti.
caitanya-rupatvam – state of being conscious; – jvanitva – state of possessing knowledge; – adikam – beginning with; – ca – and; – sat – six; – prasnyam – in the Prasna Upanisad; – esah – he; – hi – indeed; – drasta – the seer; – sprasta–the one who touches; – srota – the hearer; – ghrata – the one who smells; – rasayita – the one who tastes; – manta – the one who thinks; – boddha – the one who understands; – karta – the doer; – vijvana – full of knowledge; – atma – soul; – purusah – person; – iti – thus.
The Prasna Upanisad (4.9) explains the soul’s consciousness, knowledge and and other qualities: “It is the individual soul who perceives the activities of the senses. It is he who sees, touches, hears, smells, tastes, thinks, and understands.”
TEXT 3 (a)
adina gunena deha-vyapitvam ca. sri-gitasu—
yatha prakasayaty ekah krtsnam lokam imam ravih ksetram ksetri tatha krtsnam prakasayati bharata
adina – beginning with; gunena – qualities; deha – in the body; vyapitvam – omnipresence; ca – and; gitasu – in Bhagavad-gita; – yatha – as; – prakasayati – illuminates; – ekah – one; – krtsnam – the whole; – kam – universe; – imam – this; – ravih – the sun; – ksetra – this body; – ksetri – the soul; – tatha – similarly; – krtsnam – all prakasayati – illuminates; – bharata – son of Bharata.
The soul pervades the material body, as Bhagavad-gita (13.34) explains: “O son of Bharata, as the sun alone illuminates all this universe, so does the living entity, one within the body, illuminate the entire body with consciousness.” TEXT 3 (b)
aha caiva sutrakarah— gunad balarokavad iti. guna-nityatvam uktam vajasaneyibhih avinasi va are ayam atmanuchitti-dharma. iti.
aha – said; – ca – and eva – certainly; – sutrakarah – the author of Vedanta-sutra; – gunat – by spiritual qualities; – bala – newly risen; – arka – sun; – vat – like; – iti – thus; – guna – of the qualities; – nityatvam – eternality; – uktam – described; – vajasaneyibhih – ty Yajvavalkya; – avinasi – without destruction; – va – or; – are – Oh; – ayam – this; – atma – soul; – anucchitti-dharma – cannot be cut.
The author of Vedanta-sutra explains (2.3.14): “Just as the newly risen sun remains in one place and yet fills the entire sky with light, in the same way the individual soul, although remaining in one place, pervades the entire body by consciousness.”
Yajnavalkya Muni (in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad, 4.5.14) describes the eternality of the soul: “O Maitreyi, the soul is imperishable, and can never be cut or changed.”
TEXT 4 (a)
evam samye ‘pi vaisamyam aihikam karmabhih sphutam prahah paratrikam tat tu bhakti-bhedaih su-kovidah
evam – in this way; – samye – in equality; – api – although; – vaisamyam – inequality; – aihikam – in this world; – karmabhih – by activities; – sphutam – manifested; – prahuh – describe; – paratrikam – the spiritual world; – tat – that; – tu – and; – bhakti – of devotion; – bhedaih – by distinctions; – su-kovidah – those learned in the spiritual science.
They who are learned in the spiritual science say that although in one sense all individual souls are equal, they manifest different activities in the material world, and even in the spieitual world, they possess different degrees of pure devotion for the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TEXT 4 (b)
tatha hi kauthumah pathanti—
yatha-kratur asmil loke puruso bhavati tathetah pretya bhavati. iti.
smrtis ca- – yadrsi bhavana samye siddhir bhavati tadrsi. iti.
tatha hi – moreover; – kauthumah – the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas; – pathanti – read; – yatha – according to; – kratuh – sacrifice; – asmin – inthis; – loke – world; – purusah – a person; – bhavati – becomes; – tatha – in the same way; – itah – from that; – pretya – in the next world; – bhavati – becomes; – iti – thus; – smrtih – in the Smrti-sastra; – yadrsi – in whatever extent; – bhavana – devotional meditation; – samye – in equality; – siddhih – perfection; – bhavati – becomes; – tadrsi – like that; – iti – thus.
The following explanation is found in the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas: “The degree to which one engages in devotional activities in this world determines his status in the next world.” The Smrti-sastra also confirms: “The extent to which one is devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead determines the degree of his spiritual perfection.”
TEXT 4 ©
santy-adya rati-paryanta ye bhavah panca kirtitah tair devam smaratam pumsam taratamyam mitho matam
santi – the neutral-rasa; – adya – giginning with; – rati – the madhurya-rasa; – paryanta – culminating in; – ye – those; – bhavah – mellows of loving exchange; – pavca – five; – kirtitah – are described; – taih – by them; – devam – one whould remember; – pumsam – of the living entities; – taratamyam – gradation; – mithah – mutual; – matam – are considered.
Neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parenthood, and conjugal love are described as the five mellows of loving exchange with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who meditate upon the Lord in these different mellows attain the appropriate different destinations. In this way, the living entities possess different gradations of good-fortune.
Seventh Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
atha sri-krsna-prapter moksatvam. yatha—
jnatva devam sarva-pasapahanir ity adi. eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya ity adi ca.
atha – now; – sri-krsna – of Lord Krsna; – prapteh – of the attainment; – moksatvam – the state of liberation; – yatha – just as; – jvatva – having understood; – devam – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – sarva – all; – pasa – the ropes of entanglement in material existence; – apahanih – destroyed; – iti – thus; – adi – etc. (The entire verse reads – jnatva devam sarva-pasapahanih, ksinaih klesair janma-mrtyu-prahanih tasyabhidhyanat trtiyam deha-bhede, visvaisvaryam kevala); apta-kamah; – ekah – one; – vasi – all powerful; – sarvagah – all-peravding; – krsnah – Lord Krsna; – idyah – supremely worshipable; – iti – thus; – adi – etc. (The entire verse reads – eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya eko ‘pi san badhudha yo vibhati tam pithastham ye ‘nubhajanti diras tesam sukham sasvatam netaresam).
7. Liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the attainment of direct association with Lord Krsna:
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (1.14) explains: “By understanding the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead from a bona-fide spiritual master, one becomes free from the entangling ropes of identification with the material body, as well as the various miseries and the trap of repeated birth and death which spring from that false-identification. By constantly meditating on the Supreme Lord, he becomes free from the subtle material body of mind, intelligence and false-ego. He attains the form of an eternally liberated associate of the Supreme Lord in the spiritual world, and all his desires become fulfilled.” The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.21) also explains: “Lord Krsna is the all-powerful, all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He is the object of the prayers and worship of the demigods. Intelligent persons worship Him as He resides in His own spiritual abode. They thus attain the eternal transcendental bliss which is not available for others.”
TEXT 1 (b)
bahudha bahubhir vesair bhati krsnah svayam prabhuh tam istva tat-pade nitye sukham tisthanti moksinah
bahudha – in many ways; – bahubhih – with many; – vesaih – forms; – bhati – is manifested; – krsnah – Krsna; – svayam – personally; – prabhuh – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – tam – Him; – istva – having worshipped; – tat – His; – pade – in the spiritual abode; – nitye – eternal; – sukham – bliss; – tisthanti – situated; – moksinah – liberated.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is manifested in many forms- – but His original form is Lord Krsna. Those who worship that original form of Lord Krsna become liberated from this material world, and attain transcendental bliss in the Lord’s eternal abode.
Eighth Prameya
TEXT 1 (a)
athaikanta-bhakter moksa-hetutvam—
yatha sri-gopala-tapanyam— bhaktir asya bhajanam tad iha-mutropadhi-nairasyenamusmin manah-kalpanam etad eva naiskarmyam.
atha – now; – eka-anta – unalloyed; – bhakteh – of devotional service; – moksa – of liberation; – hetutvam – the state of being the cause; – yatha – just as; – sri-gopala-tapanyam – in the Gopala- tapani Upanisad; – bhaktih – devotional service; – asya – of Him; – bhajanam- worship; – tat – that; – iha – in this world; – mutra – in the next world; – upadhi – designations; – nairasyena – renunciation; – amusmin – among us; – manah – of the mind; – kalpanam – meditation; – etat – that; – eva – certainly; – naiskarmyam – freedom from the bonds of karma.
8. Pure devotional service grants liberation:
The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.15) explains: “Devotional service means worship and meditation directed to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such devotional service frees one from the desire for sense-gratification both in this life and the next, and breaks the bonds of karma.”
TEXT 1 (b)
narada-pavcaratre ca—
sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam hrsikena hrsikesa- sevanam bhaktir ucyate
narada-pavcaratre- – in the Narada-pavcaratra; – ca – and; – sarva-upadhi-vinirmuktam – free from all kinds of material designations, or free from all desires except the desire to render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – tat- paratvena – by the sole purpose of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead. nirmalam – uncontaminated by the effects of speculative philosophical research or fruitive activity; – hrsikena – by purified senses freed from all designations; – hrsikesa – of the master of the senses; – sevanam – the service to satisfy the senses; – bhaktih – devotional service; – ucyate – is called.
The Narada-pavcaratra also explains: “Bhakti, or devotional service, means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the senses. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme, there are two side effects. One is freed from all material designations, and, simply by being employed in the service of the Lord, one’s senses are purified.”
TEXT 2 (a)
navadha caisa bhavati. yad-uktam sri-bhagavate—
sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam
iti pumsarpita visnau bhaktis cen nava-laksana kriyeta bhagavaty addha tan manye ‘dhitam uttamam
navadha – nine-fold; – ca – and; – esa–this; – bhavati – is; – yat – which; – uktam – spoken; – sri – bhagavate – in the Srimad- Bhaagavatam; – sri-prahradah uvaca – Prahlada Maharaja said; – sravanam – hearing; – kirtanam – chanting; – visnoh – o Lord Visnu (not anyone else); – smaranam – remembering; – pada- sevanam – serving the feet; – arcanam – offering wership (with sodasopacara, the sixteen kinds of paraphernalia); – vandanam – offering prayers; – dasyam – becoming the servant; – sakhyam – becoming the best friend; – atma-nivedanam – surrendering everything, whatever one has; – iti – thus; – pumsa arpita – offered by the devotee; – visnau – unot Lord Visnu (not to anyone else); – bhaktih – devotional service; – cet – if; – nava- laksana – possessing nine different precesses; – kriyeta – one should perform; – bhagavati – unto the Supreme Personality ofGodhead; – addha – directly or completely; – tat – that; – manye – I consider; – adhitam – learning; – uttamam – topmost.
The Lord’s devotional service consists of nine parts, as the Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.23-24) explains: “Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Visnu, remembering them, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, offering the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia, offering prayers to the Lord, becoming His servant, considering the Lord one’s best friend, and surrendering everything unto Him (in other words, serving Him with the body, mind and words) – these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional service. One who has dedicated his life to the service of Krsna through these nine methods should be understood to be the most learned person, for he has acquired complete knowledge.”
TEXT 2 (b)
sat-seva guru-seva ca deva-bhavena ced bhavet dadaisa bhagavad-bhaktir labhyate nanyatha kvacit
sat – of the devotees; – seva – servide; – guru – of the spiritual master; – seva – service; – ca – and; – deva – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhavena – with meditation; – cet – if; – bhavet – may be; – tada – then; – esa – this; – bhagavat – of the Supreme Lord; – bhaktih – devotional service; – labhyate – is attained; – na – not; – anyatha – otherwise; – kvacit – under any circumstance.
If one engages in the service of the devotees and the spiritual master, considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then he may attain the devotional service of the Lord. There is no other way in which this service may be obtained.
TEXT 3 (a)
deva-bhavena sat-seva. yatha taittiriyake—
atithi-devo bhava. iti.
deva – as the Supreme Lord; – bhavena – with the conception; – sat – of the devotees; – seva – service; – yatha – just as; – taittiriyake – in the Taittiriya Upanisad; – atithi – as a guest; – devah – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhava – please become; – iti – thus.
That one should serve the devotees, considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, is described in the Taittiriya Upanisad (1.10): “One should serve devotee in the same way as one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.”
TEXT 3 (b)
taya tad-bhaktir yatha sri-bhagavate—
naisam matis tavad urukramanghrim sprsaty anarthapagamo yad-arthah mahiyasam pada-rajo- ‘bhisekam niskincananam na vrnita yavat
taya – by this; tat-bhaktih – this devotional service to Him; yatha – as; – sri-bhagavate_in Srimad-Bhagavatam; na – not; – esam – of these; – matih – the consciousness; – tavat – that long; – urukrama-anghrim – the litus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is famous for performing uncommon activities; – sprsati – does touch; – anrtha – of unwanted things; – apagamah – the disappearance; – yat – of which; – arthah – the purpose; – mahiyasam – of the great sous (the mahatmas, or devotees); – pada-rajah – by the dust of the litus feet; – abhisekam – consecration; – niskincananam – of devotees who have nothing to do with this material world; – na – not; – vrnita – may accept; – yavat – as long as.
The Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.32) confirms that this is the only way to attain the Lord’s devotional service: “Unless they smear upon their bodies the dust of the lotus feet of a Vaisnava completely freed from material contamination, persons very much inclined toward materialistic life cannot be attached to the lotus feet of the Lord, who is glorified for His uncommon activities. Only by becoming Krsna conscious and taking shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord in this way can one be freed from material contamination.”
TEXT 4(a)
deva-bhavena guru-seva yatha taittiriyake— acarya-devo bhava. iti.
deva – as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhavena – considering; – guru – of the spiritual master; – seva – service; – yatha – just as; – taittiriyake – in the Taittiriya Upanisad; – acarya – the spiritual master; – devah – as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhava – please be; – iti – thus.
That one should also serve the spiritual master as the Supreme Personality of Godhead is confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanisad (1.10): “One should serve the spiritual master in the same way one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.”
TEXT 4 (b)
svetasvataropanisadi ca—
yasya deve para bhaktir yatha deve tatha gurau tasyaite kathita hy arthah prakasante mahatmanah
svetasvatara-upanisadi – in the Svetasvatara Upanisad; 1yasya – of whom; – deve for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – para – supreme; – bhaktih – devotion; – yatha – just as; – deve – for the Lord; – tatha – in the same way; – gurau – for the spiritual master; – yasya – of him; – ete – they; – kathitah – explained; – hi – certainly; – arthah – the meaning of the Vedic literatures; – prakasante – become manifested; – maha-atmanah – for such a great soul.
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.23) also explains: “Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed.”
TEXT 4 ©
taya tad-bhaktir yatha sri-bhagavate
tasmad gurum prapadyeta jijjnasuh sreya uttamam sabde pare ca nisnatam brahmany upasamjasrayam
tatra bhagavatan dharman siksed gurvatma-daivatah
amayayanuvrttya yais tusyed atmatmado harih
taya – by that; – tat – for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – bhaktih – devotion; – yatha – just as; – sri-bhagavate – in the Srimad-Bhagavatam; – tasmat – therefore; – gurum – to the spiritual master; – prapadyeta – one should surender; – jijvasuh – eager to know; – sreyah uttamam – the supreme goal of life; – sabde pare – in the transcendental messages of the Vedas; – ca – also; – nisnatam – expert; – brahmani – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – upasamasrayam – taken shelter; – tatra – in this regard; – bhagavatan – of the Supreme Lord; – dharman – the devotional service; – sikset – should teach; – guru-atma-daivatah – one who has taken the service of the guru as his life and soul; – amayaya – with non-duplicitous; – anuvrttya – behavior; – yaih – by this; – tusyet – may be satisfied; – atma – the Supreme Lord; – atma-dah – giving Himself; – harih – Hari.
That one should be devoted to the Spiritual Master in the same way that he is devoted to the Supreme Lord is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.3.22-23): “Any person who is seriously desirous of achieving real happiness must seek out a bona-fide spiritual master and take shelter of him by initiation. The qualification of a spiritual master is that he must have realised the conclusion of the scriptures by deliberation and arguments and thus be able to convince others of these conclusions. Such great personalities who have taken complete shelter of the Supreme Godhead, leaving aside all material considerations, are to be understood as bona-fide spiritual masters. One who takes the instructions of such a bona-fide spiritual master as his life and soul, and sincerely worships and serves him, considering him equal to the Supreme as worshipable as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, greatly satisfies the Supreme Lord, who then gives Himself to such a sincere devotee. The Lord gives such a devotee the power to preach His message.”
TEXT 5
avapta-pavca-samskaro labdha-dvividha-bhaktikah saksat-krtya harim tasya dhamni nityam pramodate
avapta – attained; – pavca – five; – samskarah – purificatory rites; – labdha – attained; – dvi-vidha – two-fold; – bhaktitah – devotional service; – saksat-krtya – directly attaining; – harim – Lord Hari; – tasya – of Him; – dhamni – in the spiritual abode; – nityam – eternally; – pramodate – rejoices.
One who has passed through the five purificatory rituals, and been initiated into the vaidhi and raga stages of devotional service, may directly perceive Lord Hari, and attain the eternal bliss of serving Him in the spiritual abode.
TEXT 6 (a)
tatha pavca-samskarah. yatha smrtau padmottara-khande—
tapah pundram tatha nama mantro yagas ca pavcamah ami hi pavca samskarah paramaikanti-hetavah
tatha – in this way; – pavca – five; – samskarah – purificatory procedures; – yatha – just as; – smrtau – in the Smrti; – padma-uttara-khande – in the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana; – tapah – austerity; – pundram – tilaka markings; – tatha – in the same way; – nama – chanting the Lord’s holy names; – mantrah – chanting various mantras; – yagah – worshipping the Salagrama-sila and other deities; – ca – and; – pavcamah – the fifth; – ami – these; – hi – indeed; – pavca – five; – samskarah – purificatory procedures; – parama – supreme; – aikanti – of causeless devotional service; – hetavah – the causes.
These five purificatory procedures are described in the Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda: “1. Austerity, 2. wearing tilaka markings, 3. Accepting a new name at the time of initiation, 4. chanting various mantras glorifying the Lord, and 5. engaging in the performance of sacrifice, are the five purificatory procedures which grant the Lord’s unalloyed devotional service.”
TEXT 6 (b)
tapo ‘tra tapta-cakradi- mudra-dharanam ucyate tenaiva hari-namadi- mudra capy upalaksyate
tapah – austerity; – atra – here; – tapta – hot; – cakra – cakra; – adi – and other symbols of Lord Visnu; – mudra – the marks; – dharanam – wearing; – ucyate is described; – tena – by this; – eva – certainly; – hari – of Lord Hari; – nama – the holy names; – adi – beginning with; – mudra – marks of the Lord; – ca – and; – api – also; – upalaksyate – is observed.
In this verse the word austerity means to accept the branded marks of Lord Visnu (the cakra, lotus, conch and mace) and also the marks of His holy names.
1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that this difficult austerity is not actually needed. The previous great devotees have set the example of marking the body with the Lord’s holy names and symbols drawn in sandalwood paste. This is quite sufficient.
TEXT 6 ©
yatha smrtau—
hari-namaksarair gatram
ankayec candanadina sa loka-pavano bhutva tasya lokam avapnuyat
yatha – just as; – smrtau – in the Smrti-sastra; – hari – of Lord Hari; – nama – of the holy names; – aksaraih – with the letters; – candana – with sandalwood paste; – adina – and other similar substances; – sah – he; – loka – of the entire world; – pavanah – the purifier; – bhutva – having become;tasya – of the Supreme Lord; – lokam – the planet; – avapnuyat – may attain.
The Smrti-sastra explains: “One who marks his body with the letters of Lord Hari’s holy names drawn in sandalwood paste or other similar substances, purifies the entire world and becomes eligible to enter the Lord’s spiritual abode.”
TEXT 6 (d)
pundram syad urdhva-pundram tac chastre bahu-vidham smrtam hari-mandiram tat-pada- krty-adyati-subhavaham
pundram – the word pundram; – syat – may be; – urdhva- pundram – tilaka markings; – tat – that; – sastre – in the scriptures; – bahu- vidham – in many ways; – smrtam – is considered; – hari – of Lord Hari; – mandiram – the temple; – tat – the Lord’s; – pada – of the lotus feet; – akrti – with the form; – adya – etc.; – ati – very; – subha – auspicious; – avaham – causing.
The word pundram in the previous quote from the Padma Purana (6a) means tilaka markings, many varieties of which have been described in the scriptures. By marking the body with tilaka, or with the forms of the Lord’s lotus feet, or other auspicious marks, the body is sanctified and designated as temple of Lord Hari.
TEXT 6 (e)
namatra gaditam sadbhir hari-bhrtyatva-bodhakam mantro ‘stadasa-varnadih svesta-deva-vapur matah
nama – the name; – atra – here; – gaditam – described; – sadbhih – by the saintly devotees; – hari – of Lord Hari; – bhrtyatva – the state of being Lord’s Hari’s servant; – bodhakam – indicating; – mantrah – the mantra; – astadasa – eighteen; – varna – letters; – adih – beginning with; – sva – own; – ista – worshippable; – deva – of the deity; – vapuh – the form; – matah – considered.
The word nama means name. This means that when one is initiated by a spiritual master, one should accept a new name indicating that he is a servant of Lord Hari. The mantra referred to is the eighteen syllable Gopala mantra, which is considered non-different from the spiritual form of the Lord.
TEXT 6 (f)
salagramadi-puja tu yaga-sabdena kathyate pramanany esu drsyani puranadisu sadhubhih
salagrama – the Salagrama-sila; – adi – beginning with; – puja – worship; – tu – and; – yaga – yaga; – sabdena – by the wors; – kathyate – is described; – pramanani – evidences; – esu – among them; – drsyani – are seen; – purana – in the Puranas; – adisu – and other Vedic literatures; – sadhubhih – by the saintly devotees.
By the word yaga, the worship of Salagrama-sila and other deity forms of the Lord is described. In this way, the saintly devotees find many references in the Puranas and other Vedic literatures to describe the five purificatory processes.
TEXT 7
navadha bhakti-vidhi-ruci- purva dvedha bhaved yaya krsnah bhutva svayam prasanno dadati tat tad ipsitam dhama
navadha – nine-fold; – bhakti – devotional service; – vidhi – the beginning stage of following the rules and regulations without spontaneous attraction; – ruci – spontaneous attraction; – purva – beginning; – bhavet – may be; – yaya – by which; – krsnah – Krsna; – bhutva – having become; – svayam – Himself; – prasannah – pleased; – dadati – grants; – tat – this; – tat – and that; – ipsitam – desired; – dhama – abode.
The nine-fold process of devotional service described in Text 2a may be considered in two stages. The first stage is called vidhi-bhakti, or following the rules and regulations of bhakti. The second stage is called ruci, and it is attained when there is spontaneous attraction to Krsna and His service. Lord Krsna becomes personally very satisfied by this loving service, He fulfills all the desires of His servitor and brings him back to the spiritual realm.
TEXT 8
vidhinabhyarcyate devas catur-bahv-adi-rupa-dhrk rucyatmakena tenasau nr-lingah paripujyate
vidhina – by the rules and regulations; – abhyarcyate – is worshiped; – devah – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – catuh – four; – bahu – arms; – adi – and other; – rupa – forms; – dhrk – manifesting; – ruci-atmakena – by spontaneous attraction; – tena – by this; – asau – He; – nr-liggah – appearing as a human being, the son of Yasoda-devi; – paripujyate – is worshipped.
By the process of vidhi-bhakti, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshipped in His Narayana feature, manifesting four, or sometimes eight or ten arms. By the process of ruci- bhakti, the Lord is worshipped in His original human-like form as the son of Yasoda.
TEXT 9
tulasy-asvattha-dhatry-adi- pujanam dhama-nisthata arunodaya-viddhas tu santyajyo hari-vasarah janmastamy-adikam suryo- daya-viddham parityajet
tulasi – of the tulasi plant; – asvattha – of the banyan tree; – dhatri – of the amalaki tree; – adi – beginning with; – pujanam – worship; – dhama – in the holy place where the Lord performed His pastimes; – nisthata – residence; – arunodaya-viddhah – if mixed with the dasami; – tu – but; – santyajyah – should be abandoned; – hari-vasarah – ekadasi; – janmastami – janmastami; – adikam – beginning with; – surodaya-viddham – if mixed with the saptami; – parityajet – one should abandon.
One should worship the tulasi plant,the banyan and amalaki trees, and everything else which is in relationship with the Lord. One should not fast on the ekadasi day which partly falls on the dasami, and one should not fast on the janmastami day which falls on the saptami.
TEXT 10
loka-sangraham anvicchan nitya-naimittikam budhah pratisthitas caret karma bhakti-pradhanyam atyajan
loka – of the devotees; – saggraham – the association; – anvicchan – desiring; – nitya – regular; – naimittikam – and occasional; – budhah – the learned devotees; – pratisthitah – fixed; – caret–should perform; – karma – action; – bhakti – devotional service;pradhanyam – principally; – atyajan- not abandoning.
A learned and intelligent devotee, fixed in service to the Lord, should reside in a holy place, aspire for the association of advanced devotees, and engage in the regular and special activities of devotional service.
TEXT 11
dasa namaparadhams tu yatnatah parivarjayet
dasa – ten; – nama – to the holy name; – aparadhan – offenses;tu – also; – yatnatah – with geat endeavor; – parivarjayet – one whold avoid.
One should carefully avoid the ten offenses in the chanting of the holy name of the Lord.
TEXT 12
krsnavapti-phala bhaktir ekantatrabhidhiyate jnana-vairagya-purva sa phalam sadyah prakasayet
krsna – of Krsna; – avapti – the attainment; – phala – the fruit; – bhaktih – devotional service; – ekanta – unalloyed; – atra – here; – abhidhiyate – is described; – jvana – with scriptural knowledge; – vairagya – and renunciation; – purva – formerly; – sa – that; – phalam – fruit; – prakasayet – causes to become manifest.
Unalloyed devotional service, which causes one to attain Krsna, is described here. When that devotion is enriched with renunciation and scriptural scholarship, it very quickly bears fruit.
Ninth Prameya
TEXT 1
atha pratyaksanumana-sabdanam eva pramanatvam— yatha sri-bhagavate
srutih pratyaksam aitihyam anumanam catustayam
atha – now; – pratyaksa – direct perception; – anumana – logic; – sabdanam – and Vedic authority; – eva – certainly; – pramanatvam – sources of evidence; – yatha – just as; – sri-bhagavate – in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.16.17); – srutih – the four Vedas; – pratyaksam – direct perception; – aitihyam – the Puranas and historical records; – anumanam – and logic; – catustayam – four sources of evidence.
9. Direct Perception, logic and Vedic revelation are three sources of actual knowledge:
This is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.16.17): “The Four Vedas, direct perception, the Puranas and Vedic histories, as well as logic are four sources of actual knowledge.”
TEXT 2
pratyaksam anumanam ca yat-sacivyena suddhimat maya-munkavalokadau pratyaksam vyabhicari yat
pratyaksam – direct perception; – anumanam – logic; – ca – also; – yat – to which; – sacivyena – favorable; – suddhimat – pure; – maya- munda – of those bewildered by the illusory energy of the Lord; – avaloka – in the vision; – adau – beginning with; – pratyaksam – direct perception; – vyabhicari – evidence; yat – which.
Direct perception and logic are actual sources of knowledge when they confirm the authoritative statements found in Vedic revelation. Only foolish persons bewildered by the illusory material energy of the Lord accept the misleading evidence of direct sensory perception.
TEXT 3
anuma cati-dhume ‘drau vrsti-nirvapitagnike atah pramanam tat tac sa svatantram naiva sammatam
anuma – logic; – ca – also; – ati-dhume – with much smoke; – adrau – on a mountain; – vrsti – by rain; – nirvapita – extinguished; – agnike – on a fire; – atah – from this; – pramanam–evidence; – tat – this; – tat – and that; – ca – also; – sva-tantram – independent; – na– not; – eva – certainly; – sammatam – considered.
Logic and mental speculation are inconclusive and unreliable sources of knowledge. They may be compared to the forest fire on top of a hill which has just been extinguished by showers of rain, and thus yields no light, but only a great quantity of smoke. Intelligent persons to not therefore consider logic and sensory perception to be independent and infallible sources of knowledge, but rather they are dependent assistants to the principal source of knowledge: the Vedic revelation.
TEXT 4
anukulo matas tarkah suskas tu parivarjitah
anukulah – favorable to the knowledge revealed inthe scriptures; – matah – considered; – tarkah – logic; – suskah – dry; – tu – but; – parivarjitah – rejected.
When logic confirms the Vedic revelation, it should be accepted, but otherwise not.
TEXT 5 (a)
tatha hi vajasaneyinah— atma va are drastavyah srotavyo mantavyo nididhyasitavyah. iti.
tatha hi – furthermore; – hi – indeed; – vajasaneyinah – Yajvavalkya explains in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad; – atma – the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – vai – certainly; – are – O Maitreyi; – drastavyah – should be seen; – srotavyah – should be heard; – mantavyah – should be understood; – nididhyasitavyah – should be meditated upon; – iti – thus.
The proper use of logic is described by Yajnavalkya Muni in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad (4.5.6): “O Maitreyi, one should directly perceive the supreme Personality of Godhead by hearing about Him from a bona-fide spiritual master. In this way one con properly understand His position, and constantly meditate upon Him.”
TEXT 5 (b)
kathake— naisa tarkena matir apaneya proktany eva jnanaya prestha.iti.
kathake – in the Katha Upanisad; – na – not; – esah – He; – tarkena – simply by logic; – apaneya – is brought; – proktani – the elucidations of a bona-fide spiritual master; – eva – certainly; – jvanaya – for actual knowledge; – prestha – O dear Naciketa; – iti – thus.
Logic which has no foundation in scriptural revelation is described in the Katha Upanisad (1.2.9): “My dear Naciketa, simply by logic one will never be able to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but only by the descriptions of a realised spiritual master.”
TEXT 6
smrtis ca—
purvaparavirodhena ki ‘trartho ‘bhimato bhavet ity adyam uhanam tarkah suska-tarkam tu varjayet
smrtih – the Smrti-sastra; – ca – and; – purvapara – with the previous Vedic authorties; – avirodhena – not in disagreement; – kah – what; – atra – in this connection; – arthah – the meaning; – abhimatah – accepted; – bhavet – may be; – iti – thus; – adyam – beginning; – uhanam – guesswork speculation; – tarkah – logic; – suska – dry; – tarkam – logic; – tu – indeed; – varjayet – one should reject.
The Smrti-sastra confirms: “One should reject the dry logic that considers: ‘How important is it that one’s reasoning follow the conclusion previously described in Vedic revelation? It cannot be very important.’ Such logic leads one to the process known as speculative guessing.”
TEXT 7 (a)
naveda-vidusam yasmad brahmadir upajayate yac caupanisadam brahma tasman mukhya srutir mata
na – not; – aveda-vidusam – dried-up philosophers who do not accept the Vedic conclusion; – yasmat – for this reason; – brahma – of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; – dhih – the proper understanding; – upajayate – is produced; – yat – which; – ca – and; – aupanisadam – described in the Upanisads; – brahma – the Supreme; – tasmat – therefore; – mukhya – most important; – srutih – the Vedas; – mata – are considered.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is described in the statements of the Upanisads, and for this reason Vedic revelation is the best of all sources of knowledge. They who spurn the Vedic revelation do not have the power to properly understand the Supreme.
TEXT 7 (b)
tatha hi srutih—
navedavin manute tam brhantam. iti. aupanisadam purusam prcchami. iti.
tatha hi–furthermore; – srutih – the Vedas explain; – na – not; – aveda-vit – one ignorant of the Vedic revelation; – manute – understands; – tam – Him; – brhantam – the greatest; – iti – thus; – aupanisadam – described in the Upanisads; – purusam – Supreme Person; – prcchami – I am inquiring about; – iti – thus.
This conclusion is confirmed in the Vedas:
“One ignorant of Vedic knowledge cannot actually understand the Supreme.” (Sruti-sastra)
“Please tell me about the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is revealed in the Upanisads.” (Brhad-aranyaka 3.9.26)
Concluding Words
TEXT 1
sri-madhva-mate harih paratamah satyam jagat tattvato
bhedo jiva-gana harer anucara nicocca-bhavam gatah muktir naija-sukhanubhutir amala bhaktis ca tat-sadhanam aksadi-tritayam pramanam akhilamnayaika-vedyo harir iti
sri-madhva – of Sri Madhvacarya; – mate – in the conception; – harih – Hari; – paratamah – is the Absolute Truth; – satyam – real; – jagat – the material world is; – tattvatah – in truth; – bhedah – distinction; – jiva – of living entities; – ganah – the multitudes; – hareh – of Lord Hari; – anucara – the servants; – nica – lowly; – ucca – and exalted; – bhavam – position; – gatah – attained; – muktih – liberation; – naija – own; – sukha – bliss anubhutih – the experience; – amala – pure; – bhaktih – devotional service; – ca – and; – tat – to that end; – sadhanam – the means; – aksa – direct perception; – adi – beginning with; – tritayam – three; – pramanam – sources of knowledge; – akhila – all; – amnaya – by the Vedas; – eka – exclusively; – vedyah – knowable; – harih – Hari; – iti – thus.
The Philosophy of Madhvacarya may be summarised in the following way: 1. Lord Hari is the Absolute Truth, and nothing is greater than He, 2. the material world is real, 3. the jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Hari, 4. the jivas are by nature Lord Hari’s servants, 5. the jivas are situated in varying positions both in the material and spiritual worlds, 6. liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the experience of the bliss of devotional service, 7. Pure devotional service grants liberation, 8. direct perception, logic, and Vedic revelation are the three sources of knowledge, and 9. Lord Hari is revealed in the Vedic scriptures.
TEXT 2
anandatirthai racitani yasyam prameya-ratnani navaiva santi prameya-ratnavalir adarena pradhibhir esa hrdaye nidheya
anandatirthaih – by Madhvacarya; – racitani – written; – yasyam – in which; – prameya – of philosophical truths; – nava – nine; – eva – certainly; – santi – are; – premeya-ratnavalih – this book, Prameya-ratnavali; – adarena – with great respect; – pradhibhih – by those who are intelligent; – esa – this book; – hrdaye – in the heart or upon the chest; – nidheya – should be placed.’
The nine jewels of philosophical truth formulated by Madhvacarya have been described in this book. Let those who are actually intelligent, respectfully place this book, Prameya- ratnavali, within their hearts.
TEXT 3
nityam nivasatu hrdaye caitanyatma murarir nah niravedyo nirvrtiman gajapatir anukampaya yasya
nityam – eternally; – nivasatu – may reside; – hrdaye – in the heart; – caitanya – either spiritual, or Lord Caitanya; – atma – form; – murarih – Lord Krsna; – nah – our; – niravedyah – purified; – nirvrtiman – and liberated; – gajapatih – either Gajendra, the king of the elephants, or Maharaja Prataparudra; – anukampaya – by the mercy; – yasya – of whom.
This concluding verse may be interpreted either for Lord Krsna or Lord Caitanya. Interpreted for Lord Krsna, it may be translated in the following way.
May Lord Krsna, whose form is spiritual and full of knowledge, and who mercifully purified and delivered Gajendra, the king of the elephants, eternally reside within our hearts.
Interpreted for Lord Caitanya, the same verse may be translated in the following way.
May Lord Caitanya, who is actually Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and who mercifully purified and delivered Maharaja Prataparudra, eternally reside within our