Tuesday, April 28, 2015

SOMA or SOM RUS- Decoded real meaning.

Soma : The Elixir of Immortality

We have drunk of the soma; we have become immortal, we have seen the light; we have found the Gods…

Rig Veda 8.48.3

The search for the elixir of life, the quest for the Holy Grail has been since time immemorial the preoccupation of every arcane mystery religion. From the Chinese to the Greco-Egyptian, to the Gnostic, the Semitic, and the Hermetic, to other ancient alchemical traditions, all the conceptions of an ‘elixir of immortality’, ‘philosopher’s stone’ or ‘water of life’ have had their roots in the Vedic conception of ‘Soma'; for the ancient vedic soma ritual was the oldest form of alchemy known to man.
In the Vedic tradition, Soma was not only a sacred ritual drink of the Devas, but was also seen as the supreme deity- the Lord of Ananda- Absolute Bliss. Soma was indeed considered the bliss of all existence- which is the source of the universe and which is ultimately the key and secret to immortality. It was this experience of Soma that was associated with the transcendental light of higher realms of wisdom; and it was by the discovery of Soma that man became God for it was the commonly shared spirit and essence of Soma which linked man with the Divine in spiritual lineage. Apart from being associated with our immortal body- the ananda-maya kosha, Soma was also later identified with the moon:
I come into the earth and with life-giving love I support all things on earth. And I become the scent and the taste of the sacred Soma, which is the wandering moon. (Bhagavad Gita 15.13)
Like Fire, Soma was understood to exist in plants, in the waters and within man as the core essence of divinity. In the symbolization of the Vedic sacrifice, the human being was likened to the jar in which the Soma was stored as well as strained, endowing man with the secrets and powers of greater knowledge. However the physical form of the man that experienced the ecstasy of soma was expected to be prepared to receive this flood of elixir by his equally strong endurance of the burning fires of life; which in the larger context pointed to the ultimate evolution of his consciousness:
I come into the earth and with life-giving love I support all things on earth. And I become the scent and the taste of the sacred Soma, which is the wandering moon. (Bhagavad Gita 15.13)
Like Fire, Soma was understood to exist in plants, in the waters and within man as the core essence of divinity. In the symbolization of the Vedic sacrifice, the human being was likened to the jar in which the Soma was stored as well as strained, endowing man with the secrets and powers of greater knowledge. However the physical form of the man that experienced the ecstasy of soma was expected to be prepared to receive this flood of elixir by his equally strong endurance of the burning fires of life; which in the larger context pointed to the ultimate evolution of his consciousness:
Wide spread out for thee is the sieve of thy purifying, O Master of the soul; becoming in the creature thou pervadest his members all through. He tastes not that delight who is unripe and whose body has not suffered in the heat of the fire; they alone are able to bear that and enjoy it who have been prepared by the flame.
The strainer through which the heat of him is purified is spread out in the seat of Heaven; its threads shine out and stand extended. His swift ecstasies foster the soul that purifies him; he ascends to the high level of Heaven by the conscious heart.
Those who are utterly perfected in works taste the enjoyment of his honey-sweetness… King with the sieve of thy purifying for thy chariot thou ascendest to the plenitude; with thy thousand burning brilliances thou conquerest the vast knowledge.
(Rig Veda 9.83.1-5, translated by Sri Aurobindo)
Many ancient schools which propounded similar conceptions of Soma even believed that the human body contained trapped within it an infinite storehouse of light particles that one could release through the experience of altered states of bliss-consciousness to re-enter and re-experience the source and realm of universal light. This was the process by which they believed that man encountered his soul and attained immortality. The mystery hymns of the Rig Veda similarly associated Soma with the experience of divine immortal light which was at the core of man’s own boundless Self:
Where the inextinguishable light shines, the world where the sun was placed, in that immortal, unfading world, O Purifier, place me. O drop of Soma… where Heaven is enclosed, where these young waters are- there make me immortal… where the worlds are made of light, there make me immortal. O drop of Soma, flow for Indra. (Rig Veda 9.113.7-9)
In ancient India, the Soma ceremony was not only central to cosmological theories of sacrifice through which emerged the universe, but it was also central to discovering the true essence of man and propelling his ascent into Godhood. It was this visionary understanding of the basis of life that influenced all later alchemical traditions of the world which further catapulted their ancient quest for the elixir of life.


All true seekers of God will desire for truth and welcome truth that leads them to the Living, Loving, Almighty and the All-powerful Creator. It is not just about religions, or sects, or faiths, nor is it a mere collection of some facts, but it is the driving force behind all sincere seekers to the ultimate hope of experiencing God.
It is in this pursuit that men for ages have been looking towards nature, ancestors, heroes and even to unknown spirits for help. In the course of time, they had started worshiping them as well. It is this longing that resulted in the birth of Vedas.
Veda means, sacred scriptural knowledge. This knowledge was obtained through dedication, devotion and meditation, by several hundred Sages for years.
These scriptures are divided into two parts. One in Shruti (which is revealed) and the other one is Smruti (which is believed). Shruti contains Vedas (which gives light or knowledge); Smruti contains Ithihasas (parables like Maha Bharat, Ramayana and Bhagavat Gita) and Puranas. These Ithihasas and Puranas were written at latter date to explain the morals of these Vedas.
There are few classes of Vedas. The first one is called the Samhitaas or Mantras, the second one is Aagamas (Commandments), the third one is Bhramanas (this contains the meanings for Samhitaas) and the fourth one is the Aranyakas and Upanishads (which contains philosophies and meditations).
Again the Samhitaas are of four different types. The first one is the Rig Veda Samhitaa (which is a collection of Hymns). The second one is the Yazur Veda Samhitaa (a collection of sacrificial formulas). The third one is Sama Veda Samhitaa (again a collection of songs). The fourth one is the Atharva Veda Samhitaa (a collection of spells and charms).
Vedas begin with the worship of gods of nature, namely;
The terrestrial gods- Prithvi (earth), Agni (fire), Bruhaspati and Soma (plants).
The atmospheric gods- Indra, Rudra, Maruts, Vayu and Parjanya (storm, thunder and rain).
The celestial gods- Dyaus (heaven), Varuna, Ushas & Asvins (twilight morning stars) and Surya, Mitra, Savitri, Ka, Vishnu (all associated with the sun).
As we have already seen, these gods were the result of man’s search for the truth, which finally culminated in Prajapati the Creator. The 10th mandala of Rig Veda chapter 121 verse 10 says, Prajapati Lord of life, Lord of Creatures and Lord of Creations. This understanding of the Creator, made man to cry to Him, as it is written in Bhruhat Aranyaka Upanishad (1.3.28) saying, Asatoma sat gamaya, Tamasoma Jyotir gamaya, Mruthyoma amrutham gamaya, which means, from untruth lead me to truth, from darkness lead me to light, from death lead me to eternal life.
After having reached this stage of knowing the truth, the next step is obviously to follow the truth, which will ultimately help mankind to attain mukti. It is at this stage, that man comes across the major hurdle, which is very well described in Prartha Snana Mantra,
Papokam, papa kanmokam, papathma papa samphava; thrahimam Pundarikaksha sarva papa hari hare…
Which means, I am born in sin, doer of sin, and a sinful self; I am the worst of all sinners, Lord save me from all my sins. Why sin is a hurdle? Because, it is an offense against God (Rig Veda 7.86.3). Sin has many names in Sanskrit Scriptures namely pap (sin), aagg (fire), dushkrit (evil deeds), thamas (darkness), prakrit (inborn nature), asathya (untruth) etc.
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan says, we have sin with us from the beginning of history. The Bruhad Aranyaka Upanishad says, that the Jeeva (soul) acquires evil, right at birth (4.3.8). Rog Sog Dhuk Paritab Bhandan Vyasnanicha, Aatma aparatha Vrukshanam phalarh edhani dehinam, is a common saying which means, “what are the fruits of this sinful tree which is our body? Sickness, sorrow, pain, bondage and many other kinds of sins”. No man is free from this bondage of sin.
Man out of his own wisdom and knowledge, invented many ways such as Karma marga (way of works), Gnana marga (way of knowledge), Yoga marga (way of concentrating mind) and Bhakti marga (way of devotion), to get rid of this bondage of sin.
The word Karma means several things. (a) It may mean the deed or deeds of the individual human being. These deeds are (i) Satvik- virtuous, (ii) Rajasik- pride, (iii) Tamasik- evil. These three are known Triguna or triple nature. (b) It may mean the Cycle of karma, karma samsara or karma chakra. (c) It may also mean karma yoga or nishkarma, or a deed or deeds done without any desire for reward.
An individual’s karma can be classified as follows:
Sanchit karma- the accumulated deeds of all previous births, which gets attached to the soul automatically at the time of each birth, in the rebirth cycle.
Kriymana karma- good or bad deeds that the soul may further accumulate.
Prarabdha karma- deeds which decides the destiny of the soul.
The main purpose of this rebirth cycle is, that the soul in each birth may reap the good or bad of all its karma of the past and present.
As per this doctrine, no one can ever know about his or her accumulated deeds, thereby not having any opportunity to correct his or her past, resulting in a hopeless uncertainty. In other words, karma is being stamped on the forehead of every human being, and the destiny of the soul is ceaselessly determined without the control of the individual. This has made Shri Shankaracharya to say in Bajagovindam,
Punarapi janana punarapi marana; Punarapi janani jadarey sayana;
Ih sansarey wah dustarey; Krupya parey pahi muararey,
which means, repeated birth, repeated death, and repeated lying in mother’s womb, is a difficult process to go through. Oh destroyer of death, save me by your grace.
MUKTI (Deliverance from sin) IS NOT BY KARMA OR DHARMA:
According to Bhagavat Gita, God does not accept karma either good or bad, as far as redemption of the soul is concerned (B.G 2.50). Viveka Chudamani verse 147 says that, “neither weapons, nor wind, nor fire, nor millions of deeds can remove this bondage. Only the wonderful sword of knowledge that comes out of discrimination sharpened by the grace of God can destroy it”. Again verse 6 says;
Vadhanthu shastrani yadhanthu devane, Kurvanthu karmanibajanthu devata,
Aatmaikayodena vinabpi mukitha, na chityathi bhramma shathanthrashpi.
Let them quote scriptures and sacrifice to gods; let them observe rituals and worship devatas (gods); but there is no liberation at all; no, not even in a hundred lifespans of Brahma put together, until the identity of one’s self with the Divine Self is realized.
Naham vedair na danena na ejyaya
sakya evamvidho drstavan asi mam yatha (Gita 11:53),
which means, neither by Vedic study, nor by austerities, nor by charities, nor by sacrifices can one behold Me. Nor by any works that you have done.
Regarding the rebirth cycle the Poet Shiva Vakkiar says; Once milked, the same milk cannot enter into the breast. Once the butter is taken out of the milk, the same butter cannot mix with the same milk. Neither the flower that falls, can become a flower again. Then how can a man or woman be born in this world several times?
Regarding Gnana marga, the Vedas and Upanishads say, that we have to know the Purusha (for He is the knowledge) who has sacrificed His life for mankind. Gurureva paraa vidya (God himself is the knowledge) is a good verse to know.
Regarding the Yoga marga or concentration of the mind, there is only one answer in the Vedas and Upanishads as to whom we should concentrate on. It is Purusha the Almighty again. Mind concentration contains three important steps.
Shravana (Hearing about God from the Guru),
Manana (Keep on thinking about what we have heard),
Nididhyaasana (profound and repeated meditation on the word of God and dwelling in Him).
Yoga simply means, “to unite with”. Whom to unite with should be obvious. It is the Supreme Lord or Purusha. Shankara the ancient sage admitted that union with God is attained by the grace of God (Viveka Chudamani 3). Also verse 56 says,
Na yogena na sankhyena karmanano na vidhya
Bhrahmathmaikkathva bodhena moksha; sidhyathey nanyatha,
which means, neither by yoga, nor by knowing self, nor by karma, nor by learning, but by the realization of one’s own identity with God, is liberation possible.
Bhakti marga (way of devotion) according to scholars means spiritual love. The only God whom we can love is Purusha. If we can concentrate on this Purusha, then we will find Him and love Him as well. The Rig Veda says, “whom shall we worship other than Prajapati (Purusha)”. Svetasvataara Upanishad (3.8) says, “By knowing Purusha, death is transcended. There is no other way”.
Thertiriya Aranyaka verse 3 says, “Sarvapapa pariharo raktha prokshna mavasyam” which means, that the redemption is through shedding of blood only. For this purpose God allowed mankind to sacrifice animals, in order to make them realize that there is a penalty for everyone’s sins. Though the animal’s blood is not a substitute, it was expected that man would repent and turn away from his sinful ways, by seeing the blood of the animal which is being shed on his behalf. But mankind started practicing it just as a ritual, and thus came into condemnation.
If mankind were to be saved from this predicament, as Thertiriya Aranyaka 3rd verse says again, “…thad raktham Paranatmena punyadena baliyagam” which means, that blood has to be through the sacrifice of God himself. The Purusha Sukta says, there is no other way other than the sacrifice of Purusha Prajapati. Purushao vava yagna (Chandokya Upanishad 3.16.1), God, the Purusha is the sacrifice. Sama Veda Dandiya Mahabhramanam says, “Prajapathi devapyam aathmanam yagnam kruthva prayachita” which means, God will offer himself as a sacrifice for the redemption of mankind. Sathpatha Bhramanam says, “Prajapathi yagnayaga”.
The Rig Veda specifies ten important requirements for the sacrificial Purusha.
Kaatyaayana Srautasootram describes in chapter six, that water and fire were to be used for the purification of the animals, since blameless (defectless) animals are not available in this world.
While sacrificing the horse, the sacrificial horse is always separated from other horses. A bush of thorns is usually placed on the head of the horse to inform the people that this horse is separated for the sacrifice. Also the head of the horse is considered to represent the Purusha (Sathapatha Brahmana 13th kanda, 6.2.2).
In Itareya Brahmana it is written that the sacrificial animal should be rejected by its father, mother, brother, sister and friends (2.16).
Rig Veda 5.46.1 says, “Like a horse I have yoked myself, well knowing to the pole. I seek neither release nor turning back”.
In Satapata Brahmana it is written, never do they immolate an animal without tying it to a pole. “Na varute yapaat pasum alabhate kadachana (III-7.3.1)”. It is important to tie the animal to a sacrificial pillar before it is sacrificed. This pillar is called “Yupastampa (sacrificial pillar)”, which has now become a flag mast.
Bruhat Aranyaka Upanishad ( says, “Tvacha evasya rudhiram, prasyandi tvacha utpatah, Tasmaattadarunnaat praiti, raso vrukshadi vahataat”. As the sap comes of the cut tree, blood comes out of the Purusha who is cut.
In Itareya Brahmana 2.6 it is stated that the sacrifice separates the twenty-six ribs of the animal without breaking them.
The Bruhat Aranyaka Upanishad says, “Yad Vruksho vrukshano rohati, mulannavatharah punah, martyah svinmrutyuna vruknah, kasmaanmulaat prarohati, Retasa iti maavocata, jivatastat praja yate, dhanaruh a iva val crau vruksho, anjasaa pretya sammbhava”, which means, if the tree is cut, it will grow again from its root. But after the man (martyah) was cut off by death, from which root does he come forth? Do not say that he is from the ratas (seed or semen) because ratas comes from the one who lives. Remember this man is dead. But this man (Purusha) comes alive on his own.
In Satapata Brahmana (,2) we find that Prajapati gave Himself up to them, thus the sacrifice became theirs, and indeed the sacrifice is the food of the gods (saints).
Verse 8 in Purusha Sukta explains, Tasmaad yagnatsarvahutah, pasuntamscakre voayaryaa, naananyaan gramyaasca ye. By that sacrifice, all these originated: sprinkled ghee and all kinds of animals of the sky, forest and country. The significance of sprinkled ghee represents the original sacrifice.
Verse 9 of Purusha Sukta says: Tasmaad yagnat sarvahuta, nucha samaari jagnire, Chandaamsi jagnine, tasmaad yajustas naada jaayatah. From that sacrifice, Purusha offered everything that he had, including the Rig, Sama, Yazur Vedas and the Chandas (sacred writings).
In the Bible it is written, “Do not bring anything with a defect, because it will not be accepted on your behalf” (Leviticus 22:20). “Whether male or female, present before the Lord an animal without defect” (Leviticus 3:1). “In Him (Jesus Christ) there was no sin” (1 John 3:5).
The Bible says, “the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe” John 19:2, thus separating Him from others.
The Prophet Isaiah wrote, “He (Jesus Christ) was despised and rejected and they shouted to crucify him”. Jesus said on the cross, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani”, which means, “My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?” (Matthew 27:46).
“He was oppressed and afflicted, yet He did not open his mouth. He was led like a lamb to the slaughter and as a sheep before the shearers is silent” (Isaiah 53:7).
Psalms 118:27 says, “bind the sacrifice with cords, even unto the horns of the altar”.
This was fulfilled in Jesus Christ when he was nailed to the cross. “He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves; but entered the most holy place once for all by His own blood, having obtained eternal redemption. Without shedding of blood there is no redemption” (Hebrews 9:12,22).
In the Bible, Exodus 12:46 says that the bones of the animal should not be broken. Nine hours after crucifixion, “when they (soldiers) came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they broke not his legs” (John 19:33).
“Him (Jesus Christ) God raised up the third day, and showed him openly” (Acts 10:40). “But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept” (1 Corinthians 15:20).
At the last supper Jesus took the bread, gave thanks and gave it to his disciples saying, “Take and eat; this is my body. Then He took the cup, gave thanks, and offered it to them, saying, Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many, for the forgiveness of sins” (Matthew 26:26,27).
“He who did not spare His own son, but gave him up for us all, how will he not also, along with him graciously give us all things?” (Romans 8:32).
For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. Romans 3:23.
All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned everyone to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all. Isaiah 53:6.
For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. Romans 6:23.
And according to the law almost all things are purged with the blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission. Hebrews 9:22.
But God commended his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Romans 5:8.
For He has made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. 2 Corinthians 5:21.
The blood of Jesus Christ, His Son cleanses us from all sin. 1 John 1:7.
For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten son, that whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. John 3:16.
Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins. 1 John 4:10.
That if you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you will be saved. Romans 10:9.
Or do you underestimate His wealth of kindness and tolerance and enduring patience, unmindful that God’s kindness is meant to lead you toward repentance?. But in line with your obstinacy and impenitence of heart you are treasuring up for yourself anger for the day of anger and the revealing of the righteous judgment of God, who will reward each person according to his deeds. Romans 2:4-6.
For there is no partiality with God. Romans 2:11.
Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. Acts 4:12.
So today if you hear His voice, harden not your heart, but come boldly unto the throne of grace, that you may obtain mercy, pardon and ETERNAL LIFE (MOKSHA).
Come unto Me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28.
Behold, I stand at the door, and knock; if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me. Revelation 3:20.
I am the way, the truth and life; no one comes to the Father except through Me. John 14:6.
Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that hears My word, and believes in Him that sent Me, has everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. John 5:24.
For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? Mark 8:36.
Ohm Shri Brahmaputraya namaha: Oh Lord, The Son of God, we praise you.
Ohm Shri Umathyaya namaha: Oh Lord who is born of the Spirit, we praise you.
Ohm Shri kanni sudhaya namaha: Oh Lord who is born of a virgin, we praise you.
Ohm Shri tharithra narayanaya namaha: Oh Lord who became poor for our sake, we praise you.
Ohm Shri vidhiristaya namaha: Oh Lord who is circumcised, we praise you.
Ohm Shri panchagayaya namaha: Oh Lord who bore five wounds on your body, we praise you.
Ohm Shri vruksha shul aruthaya namaha: Oh Lord who offered yourself as a sacrifice on a trishool like tree (three headed spear), we praise you.
Ohm Shri mruthyam jaya namaha: Oh Lord who got victory over death, we praise you.
Ohm Shri shibilistaya namaha: Oh Lord who willingly offered your flesh to be eaten by your saints, we praise you.
Ohm Shri thatchina moorthyaya namaha: Oh Lord who is seated by the side of the Father, we praise you.
Ohm Shri maha devayaya namaha: Oh Lord who is Lord of lords, we praise you.
Bhavishya Mahapurana, book three, chapter two, verse 34 says, “Ko bhavaanithi tham praaha Sobhovaachamudaanwitha: Eshaputhram cha maam vidhi Kumaaree garbha sambahavam Aham Eesa Maseeha nama:” which means, (king Saka asks) “May I know who you are? That man replied happily, I am the Son of God, born to a virgin. My name is Eesa Maseeha.”.
The festival of Shivarathri is celebrated by keeping a vigil throughout that night to thank god who had saved a hunter, who lost his way in the jungle.
The Bible says that the Lord kept a vigil on the day of Passover and delivered the people of Israel from Egypt. In remembrance of this day and to honor the Lord, the Israelites in turn keep a vigil on this night every year.
On this day, God instructed Moses to mark the main doors of their houses and the top and two side posts with the blood of the lamb, which was to be sacrificed by each family, as a mark of identification for the purpose of protection. These same markings with the red powder can be seen in every Indian house, even today.
While on a journey, Jacob slept for the night by keeping a stone as a pillow and dreamt, seeing angels of God ascending and descending on a ladder set between earth and heaven, and the Lord stood above it. Next morning he took the stone, and set it up as a pillar, and poured oil over it, and he named that place as Bethel (house of God). In India also one can see the stone with oil, which has become “Shivalinga”.
In the Bible, God told Moses to bring a red heifer without spot and kill it as a sacrifice for the Lord. Her skin, her flesh, blood and dung shall be burnt. A clean man shall gather up the ashes of the heifer and keep it in the holy place. This ash will be mixed with water and will be sprinkled on the body of the people, for the purpose of purification from their sins (Numbers 19:1-9).
During the Vedic period, three different kinds of sacrifices were in practice. 1. Nara (human) medhya (body) yagna (sacrifice), 2. Ko (cow) medhya yagna, 3. Aswa medhya yagna. For Ko medhya yagna, the cow should be a red one. Even today, if a Brahmin wants to do some ceremonial duty in his house, he will look for a red cow and do pooja before it. The sacrificial cow has now become a sacred cow, because cow is no longer sacrificed by law. Therefore, people burn only the cow’s dung and they collect these ashes and mix it with water and apply it on their body or generally on their forehead as “Vibhooti”.
Since the sacrificed cow was to be positioned upside down on the altar before burning, a long three headed fork like tool was used. In addition, to collect and store these ashes, several types of vessels were used. In the Bible the Lord told, “you shall make its pans to receive its ashes, and its shovels and its basins and its forks and its fire pans; you shall make all its utensils of bronze” (Exodus 27:3).
Similarly in the Indian temples also, all these vessels are made out of bronze. Ever since the sacrifices have been stopped, the meat fork with three-headed spear is kept near the altar in front of the temple. This has now become “Trishool”.
In the Bible, the priest, while he is inside the holy of the holiest part of the temple, should make a sound with the bells, as well as while coming out of it. He should have his undergarments from the waist to the knee. The sacrificial animal should have a small string, bearing the name of the family. The priest should mention the name of the family and then sacrifice. He should wear an engraved plate on his turban saying, “Holy to the Lord” (Exodus 28:34-37,42).
In the Indian temples also, when the priest goes inside the holy of the holiest place for prayer, he makes the noise of the bell and comes out with the noise of the bell. He wears a piece of cloth from his hip to the knee over his clothing. When the people bring their offerings to God, he always asks them on whose name should it be offered?
As the Bible says, that “God is a Spirit, and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth (John 4:24)”, the Yazur Veda also says, “Nathasya prathima asityasya nammahastha (32:3), God has no image and His name is Holy.
The Bruhat Aranyaka Upanishad says, “Vagya vai Brahmma”, the word is Brahmma (creator). Brahmmavindu Upanishad says, “Shabdo vai Brahmma”, the voice is Brahmma and “Shabdaksharam Param Brahmma”, the voice and word became absolute God.
The Bible says, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God … and the Word was made flesh (Jesus)” (John 1:1,14).

Sunday, April 26, 2015

क्या वेदों में अश्लीलता हैं?

क्या वेदों में अश्लीलता हैं?

वेदों के विषय में कुछ लोगों को यह भ्रान्ति हैं की वेदों में धार्मिक ग्रन्थ होते हुए भी अश्लीलता का वर्णन है। इस विषय को समझने की पर्याप्तआवश्यकता है क्यूंकि इस भ्रान्ति के कारण वेदों के प्रति साधारण जनमानस में आस्था एवं विश्वास प्रभावित होते है।
 पश्चिमी विद्वान ग्रिफ्फिथ महोदय ने इस विषय में ऋग्वेद 1/126 सूक्त के सात में पाँच मन्त्रों का भाष्य करने के पश्चात अंतिम दो मन्त्रों काभाष्य नहीं किया हैं एवं परिशिष्ठ में इनका लेटिन भाषा में अनुवाद देकर इस विषय में टिप्पणी लिखी हैं की इन्हें पढ़कर ऐसा लगता हैं कि मानो येमंत्र किसी असभ्य उच्छृंखलबेलगाम मनमौजी गडरियें के प्रेमगीत के अंश हो[i] 
ग्रिफ्फिथ महोदय अपने यजुर्वेद के भाष्य में भी 23 वें अध्याय के 19 वें मंत्र के पश्चात सीधे 32 वें मंत्र के भाष्य पर  जाते हैं। 20 वें मंत्र केविषय में उनकी टिप्पणी हैं की यह और इसके अगले 9 मंत्र यूरोप की किसी भी सभ्य भाषा में वर्णन करने योग्य नहीं हैं। एवं 30 वें तथा 31 वें मंत्रका इन्हें पढ़े बिना कोई लाभ नहीं हैं[ii]
विदेशी विद्वान वेद के जिन मन्त्रों में अश्लीलता का वर्णन करते हैं उनमें से कुछ इस प्रकार हैं-
ऋग्वेद 1/126/6-7
ऋग्वेद 1/164/33 और ऋग्वेद 3/31/1
यजुर्वेद 23-22,23
अथर्ववेद 1//11/ 3-6
अथर्ववेद 4//4/ 3-8 
अथर्ववेद 6//72/ 1-3
अथर्ववेद 6/101/1-3 
अथर्ववेद 6/138/4-5 
अथर्ववेद 7/35/2-3 
अथर्ववेद 7/90/ 3 
अथर्ववेद 20/126/16-17 
अथर्ववेद कांड 20 सूक्त 136 मंत्र 1-16 

शंका  1वेदों में अश्लीलता होने के कारण है?
समाधानयह प्रश्न ही भ्रामक है क्यूंकि वेदों में किसी भी प्रकार की अश्लीलता नहीं है। संस्कृत भाषा में यौगिक रूढ़ि एवं योगरूढ़ तीन प्रकार केशब्द होते हैं।  वैदिक काल में अनेक ऐसे शब्द प्रचलित थे जिन्हे सर्वदा श्लील (शालीनमाना जाता था और उनका संपर्क कुत्सित भावों से करने कीप्रवृति  थी। ये शब्द है लिंगशिश्नयोनिगर्भरेतमिथुन आदि। आजकल भी इन शब्दों को हम सामान्य भाव से ग्रहण करते हैं जैसे लिंग काप्रयोग पुल्लिंग एवं स्त्रीलिंग में किया जाता हैं। योनि का प्रयोग मनुष्य योनि एवं पशु योनि में भेद करने के लिए प्रयुक्त होता हैंगर्भ शब्द काप्रयोग पृथ्वी के गर्भ एवं हिरण्यगर्भ के लिए प्रयुक्त होता हैं। इस प्रकार से अनेक शब्दों के उदहारण लौकिक और वैदिक साहित्य से दिए जा सकतेहै जिनमें सभ्य व्यक्ति अश्लीलता नहीं देखते। श्लीलता एवं अश्लीलता में केवल मनोवृति का अंतर हैं। ऊपर में जिस प्रकार शब्दों के रूढ़ि अर्थोंका ग्रहण किया गया हैं उसी प्रकार से कुछ स्थानों पर शब्दों के यौगिक अर्थों का भी ग्रहण होता हैं। जैसे 'माता की रज को सिर में धारण करोकातात्पर्य पग धूलि हैं  की माता के 'रजस्वलाभाव से प्रार्थना की गई हैं। इस प्रकार से शब्दों के अर्थों के अनुकूल एवं उचित प्रयोग करने से ही तथ्यका सही भाव ज्ञात होता हैं अन्यथा यह केवल अश्लीलता रूपी भ्रान्ति को बढ़ावा देने के समान है। इस भ्रान्ति का एक कारण कुछ मन्त्रों में अर्थों काअस्वाभाविक एवं पक्षपातपूर्ण प्रयोग करके उनमें व्यभिचार अथवा अश्लीलता को दर्शाना है। एक  कारण तथ्य को गलत परिपेक्ष में समझना है।एक उदहारण लीजिये की जिस प्रकार से चिकित्सा विज्ञान की पुस्तकों में मानव गुप्तेन्द्रियों के चित्र को देखकर कोई यह नहीं कहता की यहअश्लीलता है क्यूंकि उनका प्रयोजन शिक्षा है उसी प्रकार से वेद ईश्वरीय प्रदत ज्ञान पुस्तक है इसलिए उसमें जो जो बातें हैं वे शिक्षा देने के लिएलिखी गई हैं। इसलिए उनमें अश्लीलता को मानना भ्रान्ति है।   

शंका 2 - अगर वेदों में अश्लीलता नहीं है तो फिर अनेक मन्त्रों में क्यों प्रतीत होता हैं?

समाधानवेदों में अश्लीलता प्रतीत होने का प्रमुख कारण विनियोगकारोंअनुक्रमणिककारोंसायण,महीधर जैसे भाष्यकारों और उनका अनुसरणकरने वाले पश्चिमी और कुछ भारतीय लेखक हैं। यदि स्वामी दयानंद और यास्काचार्य की पद्यति से शब्दों के सत्य अर्थ पर विचार कर मन्त्रों केतात्पर्य को समझा जाता तो वेद मन्त्रों में ज्ञान-विज्ञान के विरुद्ध कुछ भी  मिलता। कुछ उदहारण से हम इस संख्या का निवारण करेंगे।
ऋग्वेद 1/126 के छठे और सातवें मंत्र का सायणाचार्यस्कंदस्वामी आदि ने राजा भावयव्य और उनकी पत्नी रोमशा के मध्य संभोग की इच्छा कोलेकर अत्यंत अश्लील संवाद का वर्णन मिलता है। पाठक सम्बंधित भाष्यकारों के भाष्य में देख सकते है। वही इसी मंत्र का अर्थ स्वामी दयानंदसुन्दर एवं शिक्षाप्रद रूप से इस प्रकार से करते है। स्वामी जी इस मंत्र में राजा (जो उत्तम गुण सीखा सके और सब लोग जिसे ग्रहण करके उस परसुगमता से चल सकेके प्रजा के प्रति कर्तव्य का वर्णन करते हुए व्यवहारशील एवं प्रयत्नशील प्रजा को सैकड़ों प्रकार के भोज्य पदार्थ  दे सकनेवाली  राजनीती करने की सलाह देते है। इससे अगले मंत्र में राजा कि भांति उसकी पत्नी  विदुषी और राजनीति में निपुण होने तथा प्रजा विशेष रूपसे स्त्रियों का न्याय करने में राजा का सहयोगी बनने का सन्देश है। 

ऋग्वेद 1/164/33 और ऋग्वेद 3/3/11 में प्रजापति का अपनी दुहिता (पुत्रीउषा और प्रकाश से सम्भोग की इच्छा करना बताया गया हैं जिसे रूद्र नेविफल कर दिया जिससे की प्रजापति का वीर्य धरती पर गिर कर नाश हो गया ऐसे अश्लील अर्थो को दिखाकर विधर्मी लोग वेदों में पिता-पुत्री केअनैतिक संबंधो पर आक्षेप करते हैं।
स्वामी दयानंद इन मंत्रो का निरुक्त एवं शतपथ का प्रमाण देते हुए अर्थ करते हैं की प्रजापति कहते हैं सूर्य को और उसकी दो पुत्री उषा (प्रात कालमें दिखने वाली लालिमाऔर प्रकाश हैं। सभी लोकों को सुख देने के कारण सूर्य पिता के सामान है और मान्य का हेतु होने से पृथ्वी माता केसामान है।  जिस प्रकार दो सेना आमने सामने होती हैं उसी प्रकार सूर्य और पृथ्वी आमने सामने हैं और प्रजापति पिता सूर्य मेघ रूपी वीर्य से पृथ्वीमाता पर गर्भ स्थापना करता है जिससे अनेक औषिधिया आदि उत्पन्न होते हैं जिससे जगत का पालन होता है। यहाँ रूपक अलंकार है जिसकेवास्तविक अर्थ को  समझ कर प्रजापति की अपनी पुत्रियो से अनैतिक सम्बन्ध की कहानी बना दी गई। 
इन्द्र अहिल्या की कथा का उल्लेख ब्राह्मण ,रामायणमहाभारतपुराण आदि ग्रंथो में मिलता हैं जिसमें कहा गया हैं की स्वर्ग का राजा इन्द्र गौतमऋषि की पत्नी अहिल्या पर आसक्त होकर उससे सम्भोग कर बैठता हैं। उन दोनों को एकांत में गौतम ऋषि देख लेते हैं और शाप देकर इन्द्र कोहज़ार नेत्रों वाला और अहिल्या को पत्थर में बदल देते है। अपनी गलती मानकर अहिल्या गौतम ऋषि से शाप की निवृति के लिया प्रार्थना करती हैतो वे कहते है की जब श्री राम अपने पैर तुमसे लगायेगे तब तुम शाप से मुक्त हो जायोगी। इस कथा का अलंकारिक अर्थ इस प्रकार है।  यहाँ इन्द्रसूर्य हैंअहिल्या रात्रि हैं और गौतम चंद्रमा है। चंद्रमा रूपी गौतम रात्रि अहिल्या के साथ मिलकर प्राणियो को सुख पहुचातें हैं।  इन्द्र यानि सूर्य केप्रकाश से रात्रि निवृत हो जाती हैं अर्थात गौतम और अहिल्या का सम्बन्ध समाप्त हो जाता है।
यजुर्वेद के 23/19-31 मन्त्रों में अश्वमेध यज्ञ परक अर्थों में महीधर के अश्लील अर्थ को देखकर अत्यंत अप्रीति होती है। इन मन्त्रों में यजमानराजा कि पत्नी द्वारा अश्व का लिंग पकड़ कर उसे योनि में डालनेपुरोहित द्वारा राजा की पत्नियों के संग अश्लील उपहास करने का अश्लीलवर्णन हैं। पाठक सम्बंधित भाष्यकार के भाष्य में देख सकते है। स्वामी दयानंद ने ऋग्वेदादि भाष्य भूमिका में इन मन्त्रों का पवित्र अर्थ इस प्रकारसे किया है। राजा प्रजा हम दोनों मिल के धर्मअर्थ। काम और मोक्ष की सिद्धि के प्रचार करने में सदा प्रवृत रहें। किस प्रयोजन के लिएकि दोनोंकी अत्यंत सुखस्वरूप स्वर्गलोक में प्रिया आनंद की स्थिति के लिएजिससे हम दोनों परस्पर तथा सब प्राणियों को सुख से परिपूर्ण कर देवें। जिसराज्य में मनुष्य लोग अच्छी प्रकार ईश्वर को जानते हैवही देश सुखयुक्त होता है। इससे राजा और प्रजा परस्पर सुख के लिए सद्गुणों केउपदेशक पुरुष की सदा सेवा करें और विद्या तथा बल को सदा बढ़ावें। कहाँ स्वामी दयानंद का उत्कृष्ट अर्थ और कहाँ महीधर का निकृष्ट औरमहाभ्रष्ट अर्थ
ऋग्वेद 7/33/11 के आधार पर एक कथा प्रचलित कर दी गयी की मित्र-वरुण का उर्वशी अप्सरा को देख कर वीर्य स्खलित  हो गया।  वह घड़े में जागिरा जिससे वसिष्ठ ऋषि पैदा हुए।  ऐसी अश्लील कथा से पढ़ने वाले की बुद्धि भी भ्रष्ट हो जाती है।
इस मंत्र का उचित अर्थ इस प्रकार है। अथर्व वेद 5/19/15 के आधार पर मित्र और वरुण वर्षा के अधिपति यानि वायु माने गए है ऋग्वेद 5/41/18के अनुसार उर्वशी बिजली हैं और वसिष्ठ वर्षा का जल है।  यानि जब आकाश में ठंडीगर्म हवाओं (मित्र-वरुणका मेल होता हैं तो आकाश मेंबिजली (उर्वशीचमकती हैं और वर्षा (वसिष्ठकी उत्पत्ति होती है।  इस मंत्र का सत्य अर्थ पूर्ण रूप से वैज्ञानिक है।
इस प्रकार से वेदों में जिन जिन मन्त्रों पर अश्लीलता का आक्षेप लगता है उसका कारण मन्त्रों के गलत अर्थ करना हैं। अधिक जानकारी के लिएस्वामी दयानंद[iii]विश्वनाथ वेदालंकार[iv] ,आचार्य प्रियव्रत वेदवाचस्पति[v]धर्मदेव विद्यामार्तंड[vi]स्वामी सत्यप्रकाश[vii],डॉ ज्वलंत कुमारशास्त्री[viii] आदि विद्वतगण की रचना महत्वपूर्ण है जिनकी पर्याप्त सहायता इस लेख में ली गई हैं।
शंका  3वेदों में यम यमी जोकि भाई बहन हैं उनके मध्य अश्लील संवाद होने से आप क्या समझते है?

समाधानवेदों के विषय में अपने विचार प्रकट करते समय पाश्चात्य एवं अनेक भारतीय विद्वानों ने पूर्वाग्रहों से ग्रसित होने के कारण वेदों के सत्य ज्ञान को प्रचारित करने केस्थान पर अनेक भ्रामक तथ्यों को प्रचारित करने में अपना सारा श्रम व्यर्थ कर दिया ।यम यमी सूक्त के विषय में इन्ही तथाकथित विद्वानों की मान्यताये इसी भ्रामक प्रचार कानतीजा हैं। दरअसल विकासवाद की विचारधारा को सिद्ध करने के प्रयासों ने इन लेखकों को यह कहने पर मजबूर किया की आदि काल में मानव अत्यन्य अशिक्षित एवं जंगली था।विवाह सम्बन्धपरिवाररिश्ते नाते आदि का प्रचलन बाद के काल में हुआ।
श्रीपाद अमृत डांगे में लिखते हैं - “इस प्रकार के गुणों में परस्पर भिन्न नातों तथा स्त्री पुरुष संबंधों की जानकारी  होना स्वाभाविक ही था। परन्तु इस प्रकार का अनियंत्रितसम्बन्ध संतति विकसन के लिए हानिकारक होने के कारण सर्व्रथम माता-पिता एवं उनके बाल बच्चों का बीच सम्भोग पर नियंत्रण उपस्थित किया गया और इस प्रकार कुटुंबव्यस्था की नींव रखी गई। यहाँ विवाह की व्यवस्था कुटुम्भ के अनुसार होनी थीअर्थात समस्त दादा दादी परस्पर एक दुसरे के पति पत्नी हो सकते थे। उसी प्रकार उनके लड़केलड़कियां अर्थात समस्त माता पिता एक दूसरे के पति पत्नी हो सकते थे  सगे  चचेरे भाई-बहिन सब सुविधानुसार एक दूसरे के पति पत्नी हो सकते थे। आगे चलकर भाई औरबहिन के बीच निषेध उत्पन्न किया गया ।परन्तु उस नवीन  सम्बन्ध का विकास बहुत ही मंदगति से हुआ और उसमें अड़चन भी बहुत हुईक्यूंकि समान वय के स्त्री पुरुषों केबीच यह एक अपरिचित सम्बन्ध था ।एक ही माँ के पेट से उत्पन्न हुई सगी बहिन से प्रारंभ कर इस सम्बन्ध का धीरे धीरे विकास किया गया। परन्तु इसमें कितनी कठिनाई हुईहोगीइसकी कल्पना ऋग्वेद के यम-यमी सूक्त से स्पष्ट हो जाती हैं। यम की बहिन यमी अपने भाई से प्रेम एवं संतति की याचना करती हैं। परन्तु यम यह कहते हुए उसकेप्रस्ताव को अस्वीकृत कर देता हैं की देवताओं के श्रेष्ठ पहरेदार वरुण देख लेंगे एवं क्रुद्ध हो जायेंगे। इसके विपरीत यमी कहती हैं की वे इसके लिए अपना आशीर्वाद देंगे। इस संवादका अंत कैसे हुआयह प्रसंग तो ऋग्वेद में नहीं हैंपरन्तु यदि यह मान लिया जाये की अंत में यम ने यह प्रस्ताव अस्वीकृत कर दिया तो भी यह स्पष्ट हैं की प्राचीन परिपाटी कोतोड़ने में कितनी कठिनाई का अनुभव हुआ होगा[ix]
यम यमी सूक्त ऋग्वेद[x] और अथर्ववेद[xi] में आता हैं। डांगे विदेशी विद्वानों की सोच का ही अनुसरण करते दिख रहे हैं। यम यमी सूक्त का मूल भाव भाई-बहन के संवाद केमाध्यम से शिक्षा देना हैं। यम और यमी दिन और रात हैं, दोनों जड़ है। इन्ही दोनों जड़ों को भाई बहन मानकर वेद ने एक धर्म विशेष का उपदेश किया हैं। अलंकार के रूपक से दोनोंमें बातचीत हैं। यमी यम से कहती हैं की आप मेरे साथ विवाह कीजिये पर यम कहता हैं की-
बहिन के साथ कुत्सित व्यवहार करने से पाप होता हैं। पुराकाल में कभी भाई बहिन का विवाह नहीं हुआइसलिए तू दुसरे पुरुष को पति बना। परमात्मा ने जड़ प्रकृति का उदहारणदेकर लोगों को यह सूचित करा दिया हैं की एक जड़ स्त्री के कहने पर भी पाप के डर  से परम्परा की शिक्षा से प्रेरित होकर एक जड़ पुरुष जब इस प्रकार के पाप कर्म को करने सेइंकार करता हैंतब चेतन ज्ञानवान मनुष्य को भी चाहिए की वह भी इस प्रकार का कर्म कभी  करे[xii]
वेदों में बहिन भाई के व्यभिचार का कितना कठोर दंड हैं तो श्रीपाद डांगे का यह कथन की यम यमी सूक्त में बहन भाई के व्यभिचार का वर्णन हैं अज्ञानता मात्र हैं।  देखें-
ऋग्वेद[xiii] और अथर्ववेद[xiv] में आता हैं जो तेरा भाई तेरा पति होकर जार कर्म करता हैं और तेरी संतान को मरता हैंउसका हम नाश करते हैं।
अथर्ववेद[xv] में आता हैं यदि तुझे सोते समय (स्वपन में) तेरा भाई अथवा तेरा पिता भूलकर भी प्राप्त हो तो वे दोनों गुप्त पापी औषधि प्रयोग से नपुंसक करके मार डाले जाएँ।
आगे श्रीपाद डांगे का यह कथन की विवाहरिश्ते आदि से मनुष्य जाति वैदिक काल में अनभिज्ञ थी भी अज्ञानता मात्र हैं। ऋग्वेद के विवाह सूक्त[xvi]अथर्ववेद[xvii] मेंपाणिग्रहण अर्थात विवाह विधिवैवाहिक प्रतिज्ञाएँपति पत्नी सम्बन्धयोग्य संतान का निर्माणदाम्पत्य जीवनगृह प्रबंध एवं गृहस्थ धर्म का स्वरुप देखने को मिलता हैंजोविश्व की किसी अन्य सभ्यता में अन्यंत्र ही मिले। 
वैदिक काल के आर्यों के गृहस्थ विज्ञान की विशेषता को जानकार श्रीमति एनी बेसंत ने लिखा हैं-  भूमंडल के किसी भी देश मेंसंसार की किसी भी जाति मेंकिसी भी धर्म मेंविवाह का महत्व ऐसा गंभीर एवं ऐसा पवित्र नहीं हैंजैसे प्राचीन आर्ष ग्रंथों में पाया जाता हैं[xviii]  यम यमी सूक्त एक आदर्श को स्थापित करने का सन्देश हैं नाकि भाई-बहनके मध्य अनैतिक सम्बन्ध का विवरण हैं।  

शंका 4क्या अथर्ववेद में वर्णित गर्भाधानप्रसव विद्या आदि = की प्रक्रिया का वर्णन अश्लील नहीं है?

समाधानसभी मनुष्यों के कल्याणार्थ ईश्वर द्वारा वेदों में गृहस्थाश्रम में पालन हेतु संतान उत्पत्ति हेतु अथर्ववेद के 14 वें कांड के 2 सूक्त  के 31,32, 38 और 39 मन्त्रों मेंगर्भाधान की प्रक्रिया का वर्णन है। यह वर्णन ठीक इस प्रकार से है जैसा चिकित्सा विज्ञान के पुस्तकों में वर्णित होता है एवं उसे कोई भी अश्लील नहीं मानता। इसी प्रकार सेअथर्ववेद के पहले कांड 11 वें सूक्त में प्रसव विद्या का वर्णन लाभार्थ वर्णित है। ग्रिफ्फिथ महोदय इन मन्त्रों को अश्लील मानते हुए अवांछनीय टिप्पणी लिख देते है[xix] अबकोई ग्रिफ्फिथ साहिब से पूछे कि चिकित्सा विज्ञान में जब अध्यापक छात्रों को प्रसव प्रक्रिया पढ़ाते है तो क्या योनिगर्भलिंग आदि शब्द अश्लील प्रतीत होते हैं। उत्तर स्पर्श हैकदापि नहीं अंतर केवल मनोवृति का है। इन मन्त्रों में कहीं भी अनाचारव्यभिचार आदि का वर्णन नहीं हैं यही अंतर इन्हें अश्लील से श्लील बनता हैं।

[i]  I subjoin a Latin version of the two stanzas omitted in my translation. They are in a different metre from the rest of the Hymn, having no apparent connection with what precedes and look like a fragment of a liberal shepherd’s love song. Appendix 1, The Hymns of the Rigveda, 1889 by Ralph T.H.Griffith.
[ii] This and the following nine stanzas are not reproducible even in the semi-obscurity of a learned European language; and stanzas 30, 31 would be unintelligible without them.p.231, White Yajurveda by Ralph T.H.Griffith.
[iii] ऋग्वेदादिभाष्यभूमिका, यजुर्वेदभाष्य ,ऋग्वेदभाष्य
[iv] अथर्ववेद भाष्य प्रकाशक- रामलाल कपूर ट्रस्ट
[v] वेद और उसकी वैज्ञानिकता भारतीय मनीषा के परिपेक्ष में- गुरुकुल कांगड़ी विश्वविद्यालय
[vi] वेदों का यथार्थ स्वरुप- समर्पण शोध संस्थान
[vii] वेदों पर अश्लीलता का व्यर्थ आक्षेप 
[viii] वेद और वेदार्थ- श्री घूडमल प्रह्लादकुमार आर्य धर्मार्थ न्यास
[ix] Origin of Marriage by Dange
[x] ऋग्वेद 10/10
[xi] अथर्ववेद 18/1
[xii] ऋग्वेद 10/10/10
[xiii] ऋग्वेद 10/162/5
[xiv] अथर्ववेद 20/16/15
[xv] अथर्ववेद 8/6/7
[xvi] ऋग्वेद 10/85
[xvii] अथर्ववेद 14/1, 7/37 एवं 7/38 सूक्त
[xviii] Nowhere in the whole world, nowhere in any religion, a nobler, a more beautiful, a more perfect ideal of marriage than you can find in the early writings of Hindus- Annie Besant
[xix] The details given in the stanza 3-6 are strictly obstetric and not presentable in English.

डॉ विवेक आर्य