Monday, May 18, 2015

Aitareya Upanishad

Invocation:
om van me manasi pratishthita mano me vaci
pratisthitamaviravirma edhi vedasya ma anisthah srutam
me ma prahasih anenadhitenahoratra nsandadhamritam
vadisyami satyam vadisyami tanmamatatu
tadvaktaramavatu avatu mamavatu
vaktaram-avatu vaktaram
aum santih santih santih harih om
O Almighty Lord! My speech is well established in my mind. My mind is well established in my speech. O Lord, please empower me to grasp and preach the Vedas. May I never forget Your teachings. Only by knowing You are with me am I able to maintain my days and nights. I shall always only follow You. May You protect me. My dear Lord, please protect me and my preceptor. O my dear Lord, please protect me and my preceptor and all those around me!
Chapter One
1.1.1
atma va idameka evagra asit
nanyat kincana misat sa iksata
lokan nu srija iti
Before creation of the universe everything was situated within the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Brahman), everything was contained within Him, nothing was at that time separate. The jivas (individual souls, tatastha sakti) and even the external energy Maya was still within Him. So that Lord then willed to manifest all the worlds through me (mahi dasa aitareya).
1.1.2
sa imamllokan-asrijata
ambho maricirmaramapah
ado-ambhah parena divam
dyauh pratistha-anttariksam maricayah
prithivi maro ya adhastatta apah
He created all the worlds – Ambahas (Tapah, Janah, Mahah and Svarga lokas – upper planets), Maricayah (the middle planets in the region of the sun, moon, stars which we in the middle earth planet can see. Mara refers to the earth, the planet where sh ort life spans are normal) and Apah (the seven lower planets – Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Rasatala, Mahatala & Patala).
1.1.3
sa iksareme u loka
lokapalan nu arija iti
so ‘dbhya eva purusam samuddhrtyamurcchayat
After contemplating the world He had created, He then decided to fill the worlds. From that waters in which He was lying in, He made the Hiranmaya Purusha.
1.1.4
tamabhyatapat tasyabhitaptasya mukham
nirabhidyata yathandam mukhadyak
vaco ‘gnih nasike nirabhidyetam nasikabhyam
pranah pranad-vayug aksini nirabhidyetam
aksibhyam caksiscaksisa adityah
karnau nirabhidyetam karnabhyam srotam
srotrad disah tvag nirabhidyata tvaco lomanyo
lomabhya osadhivanaspatayah hrdayam
nirabhidyata hrdayanmano manasascascacanddramah
nabhirnabhidyata nabhya apanah apananmrtyah
sisnam nirabhidyata sisnad retah retasa apah
The Lord deeply thought upon the form of Hiranyagarbha Purusha, as He thought in this way there burst forth from that golden egg a mouth. From that mouth came speech, from speech it’s guardian deity, Agni, came. Then came two nostrils and with them came prana – breath and it’s guardian Vayu. Two eyes next came with their guardians, the sun. Then two ears along with hearing, and it’s subtle guardian of the ether. Next came skin, the hairs of that skin being herbs and trees. B-boom, b-boom came the pounding of the heart, from the heart came the mind, and the mind’s guardian deity, the moon. The navel and the out-going breath next came with it’s guardian deity – death. The generative organ appeared, and from this organ semen came forth along with it’s guardian deity, the water based god, Prajapati.
1.2.1
ta eta devatah srista asmin
mahatyarnave prapatamstama-sanaya
pipasabhyam anvavarjjat
ta enamabruvannayatanam nah prajanihi
yasmin pratisthita annamadameti
Being created by the Lord, these guardian deities fell head first into the ocean of birth and death full of sufferings. Now the Lord subjected that Hiranyagarbha Purusha to hunger and thirst. The guardian deities then approached the Lord saying, “O creator, please give us an abode where we can reside and eat food.”
1.2.2
tabhyo gamanayat ta abruvan na vai no ‘yam alamiti
tabhyo-asvamanayat ta abruvan-na vai no ‘yamlamiti
The Lord then brought before the guardian deities a cow. But they said that this was not sufficient for them. So then the Lord brought a horse before them, but again they said it was not sufficient.
1.2.3
tabhyah purusamanayat ta abravan asukrtam vateti
puruso vava sukrta to abravit yathayatanam pravisateti
The Lord then led up a human being before them to which they said, “O well done. This form is just right for us to be established.” The Lord then told them to enter into that body and take up their respective places of residence.
1.2.4
agnirvag bhutva mukham pravisat
vayuh prano bhutva nasike pravisat
adityascaksurbhutva aksini pravisad
disah srotram bhutva jarnau
pravisan ausadhivanaspatayo-lomani
bhutva tvadham pravisan chandrama
mano bhurva hrdayam pravisad
mrtyarapano bhutva nabhim pravisad
apo reto bhutva sisnam pravisan
The fire-god, Agni, representing speech, then entered the mouth. Vayu, the life giving breath then entered the nostrils. The bright sun god Surya representing sight, entered the eyes. The Dik-devatas, the prajapatis from all directions representing hearing, entered the ears. The deities of herbs and trees as haris entered the skin. The moon-god Candra, lord of the mind, entered the heart. The god of death, Yama, entered into the navel representing out-going breath. Varuna Ojas, the water god representing semen entered the generative organ.
1.2.5
tamasanaya-pipase abrutatmavabhyamabhi-prajanihiti
sa te abravidetassveva vam
devatasvabhajamyetasu bhaginyau karomiti
tasmad yasyai kasyai ca devatayai havir-grihyate
bhaginyavevesyamasanaya-pipase bhavatah
Now hunger and thirst personified prayed to the Lord, “Where can we reside, please find a place for us.” The Lord then said, “You shall be shared among all of these aforementioned deities, in this way whichever respective deity receives an offering, hunger and thirst can partake of it.
1.3.1
sa iksateme nu lokasca lokapalasca,
annamebhyah sriji iti
The Lord, Supreme Creator of all, then though, Now I have created the universe and the demigods (guardian deities), let Me now create food for them.
1.3.2
so ‘po ‘bhyatapat tabhyoabhitaptabhyo
murtirajayata ya vai sa
murtirajayatannam vai tad
Contemplating for some time, looking at the waters, then up from the waters came a form. Indeed, that form that was produced from the waters was to be food.
1.3.3
tadenad sristam parag-tyajighamsat
tadvaca ajighriksat
tan-nasaknodvaca grihitum sa
yad-hainad-vacagrihai-shyad-abhivyahritya
haivannamatrapsyat
Having been created, it tried to run away. Speech tried to capture it, but was not able to grasp it. If speech had of grasped it then just by the utterance of food one would be satisfied.
1.3.4
tadprabebajighriksat
tannasaknot pranena gribitum sa yadhainat
pranenagrahaisyadabhipranya haivannam trapsyat
The human form then tried to capture ‘it’s food’ by breath, but he was not able to grasp it by breath, for if he had of grasped it be breath alone, then merely by the scent of food one would be satisfied.
1.3.5-1.3.9
tac caksusta ajighriksat tan nasaknoccaksusa grihitum
sa yad hainaccaksisagrahaisyad dristva
haivannamatra psipat
tad-shortrenagighriksat tannasaknoc-cotreba grihitum sa
yad-hainah-srotrenagrahaisyaca-srutva haivannamatrapsyat tatvaca-ajighriksat
tannasaknot tvaca grihitum sa yad-hainat tvaca grahaisyat
spristva haivann-amatrapsyat tanmnasa-ajighriksat
tannasaknot-manasa grihitum sa yad-hainanmanasagrahaisyat
tannasanotsisnena grihitum sa yad-hainat-sisnenagrahaisyad
visrijya haivannamatrapsyat
The being then tried to grasp it with his sight but couldn’t. If he had then just by the sight of food one would have been satisfied. The being then tried to grasp his food with hearing, but he was not able to do so. If he had then simply by hearing food one would have been satisfied. The being then tried to grasp the food with it’s skin but could not. If he had then simply by touching food one would be satisfied. The being then tried to grasp the food with the min but was unable to do so. If he had of then just by thinking of food one would be satisfied. The being then tried to grasp the food with it’s generative organ, prodding it, but could not grasp it. If this were possible then just by discharge or emission of food one would have been satisfied.
1.3.10
tadapanenajighrisat tadavayat
saiso ‘nnasya graho yadvayuannayurva
esa yadvayuh
Then the being sought to grasp the food by the apana – digestive breath. Taking the food through the mouth with the help of the digestive air, and taking the food down to the stomach, the food was consumed. Proving that it is the digestive air (apana) that consumes food; and so the apana is the principle cause in sustaining one’s life by the intake of food.
1.3.11
sa iksata katham nvidam madrite syadutu
sa iksata katarena prapadya iti
sa iksata yadi vacabhivyahritam
yadi pranenabhipranitam
yadi caksisa dristam
yadi srotrena srntam,
yadi tvaca spristam
yadi manasa dhyatam
yady apanenabhyapanitam
yadi sisnena visristamatha ko ‘ham iti
The Lord then thought to Himself, “How can this being live without Me?” Again He thought, “Through what shall I enter into this gross body?” Again the Lord thought to Himself, “If speech talk, if nostrils breaths, if the eyes see, if the ears hear, if the skin feels, if the mind thinks, if the apana vayu digests, and if the generative organ emits, then what am I?”
1.3.12
sa etam eva simanam vidaryaitaya
dvara prapadyata saisa vidritirnam
dvastadetannandanam tasya traya
avasathastrayah svapnah
ayamavasatho ‘yamavasatho ‘yamavasatheti
So then the Lord opened the Brahma Randhra in the skull and entered into that opening. This opening is known as vidriti; the place of bliss or delight (nandana). For the Lord there are three palces which are dwelling places within that of waking, dreaming, and deep sleep, deluded in all those three covered states.
1.3.13
sa jato bhutany abhivyai-ksat kimihanyam vavadisaditi,
sa etam eva purusam brahma tatamamapasya-didamadarsam iti
Thus having manifest Himself within the body of a being, the Lord then made the jiva soul active and naturally the body and senses became conscious of their respective objects. The tiny jiva soul (individual soul) in bondage being puffed up by false ego acted himself as the Lord of the body, the Lord in the form of Paramatma (supersoul or witness) who is actually Lord of the body, saw the tiny soul bewildered thinking himself as being independent from the Lord. There are however some aware souls who on realization of the Supersoul exclaim that there is another who is superior, all pervading, Brahman I see him now.
1.3.14
tasmadidandro-nama idandro ha vai nama
tamidandram santam-indra ityacaksate paroksena
paroksapriyaiva hi devah paroksapriya iva hi devah
Knowing Him indirectly some call Him Indra (He who is beyond the range of the senses – idam drah). Yes, surely His name is Indra, for those wise devotees cryptically call Him Indra for they are fond of such cryptic puzzles.
Chapter 2
2.1.1
puruse ha va ayamadito garbho bhavati
yadetadretah tad etad sarvebhyo ‘…gebhyastejah
sambhutamatmanyevatmanam vibharti
tad yada striyam sinchati-athaitadjanayati
tadasya prathamam janma
In this being, the individual soul (jiva) first enters repeated births in the form of an embryo. The individual soul left his previous situation with desires to fulfill in this world, and now through the semen of the male, is injected into a womb of a woman during her flowering period (ovulation). This is one’s first birth.
2.1.2
tat striya atmabhuyam gacchati
yatha svamangam tatha
tasmadenam na hinasti
sasyaitamatmanamatra gatam bhavayati
The embryo grows in the womb of the woman and she looks after it just as she does one of her very own limbs. She carefully nourishes this embryo that she has received from her husband.
2.1.3
sa bhavayitri bhavayitavya bhavati
tam stri garbham vibharti
so ‘gra eva kumaram janmano ‘gre adhibhavayati
sa yat kumaram janmano ‘gre ‘dhibhavayaryarmanameva
tad bhavayatyesam lokanam santatya
evam santata hime lokastadasya dvitiyam janma
The wife, being the caretaker of her husband’s embryo, is naturally nourished and cared for by the husband. The wife bears the child in her womb and the husband bestows cherishing care on the child in the womb and after birth. While the father nourishes the child from birth onwards, he also looks after his own well-being, for the continuaation of the growing progeny. In this way progeny is continued on the earth. After some time the son gets his sacred thread. This is one’s second birth.
2.1.4
so ‘syayamatma punyebhyah karmabhyah pratidhiyate
athasyayamitara atma krtakrtyah
vayogatah praiti sa itah prayanneva punarjayate
tadasya tritiyam janma
Now the son, whose prototype is the father, is commissioned by the father to perform the samskara ceremonies and spiritual activities in the absence of the father. After this the worthy son (putra) has accomplished his father’s rites, the father having attained old age, the father passes away and is born again. This is one’s third birth.
2.1.5
taduktamrisninah-garbhe nu sannanvesa
mavedamaham devanam janimani visva
satam ma pura ayasiraraksannadhah
syeno javasa niradiyamiti
garbha eva etat-shayano vamadeva-evamvuvaca
In regard to this, it is stated by a great seer: “While I was confined in my mother’s womb I knew well all the many births I had taken. A hundred iron citadels confined me. But somehow by the causeless mercy of the Supreme Lord, I again came in contact with my spiritual master that I had previously had in another birth. And now with the swiftness of a hawk, I flew forth” – Thus Rsi Vamadeva declared even while lying in the womb of his mother.
2.1.6
sa evam vidvanasmah sarira-bhedadurdhvam
utcramya-musmin svarge loke sarvan
kamanaptva-amrtahsamabhavat samabhavat
Realizing his predicament Rishi Vamadeva gave up all further materialistic desires, desiring only the lotus feet of the Lord. When finally his present body’s dissolution came, he attained to the Vaikunthas, the abode of transcendental bliss, and resumed his normal eternal constitutional blissful body free from three fold sufferings of this world.
Chapter 3
3.1.1
ko ‘yamatmeti vayamupasmahe
katarah satma yena va rupam pasyati
yena ca sabdam srinoti
yena va gandhanajighrati
yena va vacam vyakaroti
yena va svadu casvaduca vijanati
Who is that Lord whom we worship? Out of the two souls residing in the body, who is that witness who is worshipped by us? The tiny jiva soul observes to see if he is the same as that Lord by seeing Whom one sees, by Whom one hears or by Whom one smells or talks about. Or by how one discriminates between the bitter and the sweet. Are we one?
3.1.2
yadetaddhrdayam manascaited sanjnanam vijnanam
prajnanam medha dristirdhritirmatirmanisa
jutih smritih samkalpah craturasuh kamo vasa iti
sarvanyevaitani prajnanasya namadheyani bhavanti
So we see that which is the heart and mind cannot also be the soul, perception, discrimination, intelligence, wisdom, insight, steadfastness, thought, thoughtfulness, impulse, memory, conception, purpose, life, desire, and control – all these are attributes of the entity within the body whose nature is Brahman, but they are not He, nor He, they.
3.1.3
esa brahmaisa indra esa prajapatirete
sarve devemani ca panca mahabhutani prithivi vayurakasa
apo-joytim-shityetanimani ca ksudramisraniva bijani
itaranmi cetarani ca andajani ca jarujani
ca svedajanicodbhijjani ca asva gavah pusu
sa hastino yadkincedam prani jangamanca patatrica
yaccha sthavaram sarvam tat prajnanetram prajnane
pratisthitam prajnanetro lokah
prajna pratistha prajnanam brahma
He who is the underlying unseen, the Lord of hosts of demigods and humans alike. Who has put into motion the five great elements, earth, water, fire, air and ether, mixed with the modes of nature, each and every living entity down to the smallest organism, those born form an egg and those born from a womb, those born from sweat and those born of a sprout, of horses, cows, men, elephants, those that walk and those that fly, all moving and non-moving beings. Know that the omniscient Personality of Godhead Who is the source of the impersonal Brahma has manifest all these different animate and inanimate objects through His power of Brahman. For the Lord is the source of the spiritual and material worlds everything eminates from Him, knowing this one can go to Him.
3.1.4
sa etena prajnenatmana asman-lokadutcramya
amusmin svarge loke sarvan kamanaptva amrtah
samabhavat samabhavat aum
Rishi Vamadeva having realized his true nature as a spiritual being, free from the influence of material conditioning and the impositions thereof, attained to the transcendental plane. Now happily he regained his natural constitutional position as an eternal servant of Lord Krishna in Goloka Vrndavana.
O Almighty Lord! My speech is well established in my mind. My mind is well established in my speech. Kindly show yourself to me. Bestowing Your kindness upon me, enable me to fully understand You, Whose glories are sounded throughout the Vedas. May I never lose sight of the Vedic injunctions. By constantly remembering You I maintain my days and nights. I shall always deem to live by Your path and shall always speak the truth.
Thus ends Aitareya Upanishad.