Saturday, July 12, 2014


British Historians, Muslims and Tragedy of India             

The way history is compiled, written, presented and taught has profound effect on our minds. What we learn as school children stays with us all our lives. And it is very difficult to get away from impressions of those days. They affect and mould our thinking, how we see ourselves, how we treat our own people and how we behave with others.

A classic example is Indian History as written by the British Historians during the British Raj. After conquering India, various officers of the (English) East India Company wrote History of India. They simply used the term Muslim Rule to describe the period when various Muslim rulers were in power in India. This falsified history has affected the psyche of both Hindus and Muslims. Hindus were infested with inferiority complex whereas Muslims were made arrogant with false pride of their past. It created a false impression in the minds of Indian Muslims that they were the rulers of India before the British. British historians thus created a bloating in the minds of Indian Muslims leading to false pride and arrogance, intransigence, monstrous ambitions, resulting ultimately in the partition of India in August 1947. Unfortunately that history also affected minds of Hindus (even today).

The fact is that the Muslim rulers and the ruling class were Turks from Central Asia and they utterly despised Indian Muslims. Even the first Nizam was not born in India. He came from Bokhara in Russia, some 1,000 miles from Delhi.


In India, the Muslim rulers and their ruling class were foreign Muslims and they utterly despised native Indian Muslims. I had given some indications of this in my newsletter number 6 of 16 February 1982. Later on I found that Setumadhavrao Pagdi, historian from Mumbai had also stressed this vital point in his article in the Diwali issue of Marathi magazine Kirloskar in November 1974. Here is the gist of the information.

Pagdi says, “I was always puzzled by one thing when we read Indian History in school. The prescribed texts contained three periods – Hindu Era, Muslim
Era and the British Era. When there were Hindu and Muslim Eras, I could not understand why the British Era was NOT regarded as Christian Era. I never got a satisfactory answer in my school days. Things were no different in my college days. When I read histories written by likes of Vincent Smith I became aware of another trick of British historians. They would extend Muslim Era till 1761, start British Era from 1603 (when the first ships of the East India Company landed in Surat) and just briefly mention Maratha history in passing.”

“During my service under the Nizam (1933-48), I used to hear Muslims saying that they ruled India for a thousand years. I was shocked by their claim and decided to look closer at this issue.”
“Prophet Muhammed was an Arab. So, many Muslims try to stretch their ancestry to Arabs, but what was the true picture?”

What was the extent of Arab rule in India?

“Arabs came to India as merchants. On the west coast they had their colonies but had nothing to do with politics. Arabs attacked Sindh on the orders of Caliph of Baghdad. Muhammad bin Kasim defeated King Dahir in the year 710.
True, Arabs tried to invade in other parts of India, but Gurjar Pratihars of Delhi, Bappa Rawal of Chitod and Chalukyas of Gujrat kept Arabs in check. Thus Arabs ruled Sindh for hundred to hundred and fifty years, later it was ruled by Turks.

In the days of Muhammad Tugluck (1324 -1350) an Arab knight established a small kingdom in Tamilnadu around Madura, but within one or two generations they were ousted by kings of Daulataabaad (Devagiri). In 1354, Hindu rulers of Vijayanagar absorbed this kingdom within their rule. Apart from these two examples, Arabs did not rule in any part of India. However, hundreds of Arab families did migrate to India. We can still recognise them by their names.”

Arab immigrants in India

“Take for instance, Sayyad. Muhammad Paigambar’s daughter Fatima was married to Ali and had two sons Hasan and Hussein. Their descendents are called Sayyads. Famous Sayyad brothers (in the days of the first Maratha Peshwa Balaji Vishvanath – 1707 to 1720), Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan (of Aligad movement and who encouraged Muslims to keep away from the Congress party and also demand separate status for Muslims), Abul Kalam Azaad. Many Sufi saints were also Sayyads.
There were ten Gurus among descendents of Hussein. They were called Imams and their names Musa, Riza, Naki, Jafar etc became surnames like Musavi, Rizavi, Nakavi, Jafari.
Among the Muslim population the Sayyads were highly respected, in the same manner as Brahmins used to be respected by Hindu Kings. Turks and Pathan rulers also showed respect to Sayyads.”

“Muhammad Paigambar was born in Quereshi tribe, hence the surname Quereshi. They used to be traders, hence the name Hashami. When Muhammad was not strong he was driven out of Mecca and had to seek refuge in Medina. Those who befriended him were called Ansaris (meaning friends in Arabic language)”

“Some of the descendents of Ali became Alawi, those who descended from Caliph Umar were Farukhi, and those who descended from Caliph Abu Bakr were Siddiquis.”

“These are some of the families who migrated to India.”

Thus Arab ancestry is nothing to be proud of. In India there were never any Arab Kings or Generals or Governors.
Muslim rulers were foreigners.
“Things were again different in mediaeval times. Those who ruled were openly foreigners. They regarded Hindus converted to Islam and those foreign merchants who had settled in India as Hindusthanis. Rulers on the other hand regarded themselves as Turks or Pathans and were proud of ruling the foreign land of Hindusthan. This is especially true of those who ruled from Delhi; though they were Muslims by religion, by race they were Turks, Afghans or Pathans. This led to the popular concept that Muslim means Turk. In Kannad language Muslims are called Turks. In Urdu, Muslims are also called Turks. Same thing applies in Telagu language. In mediaeval times, in Hindi language Muslims were called Turks – for example, ‘Tum to nire Turk bhaye’ or ‘you have really become Turk.’ Vagabonds or unclean people used to be called Turks in this way.”
Let us explore this subject further
Many people are confused by the word Turk. Let us see its proper meaning.


Oxford English Dictionary says – Turkoman, Turkman, Turco: Member of any of various Turkish tribes in Turkestan, Afghanistan, Persia & Russia.

Pagdi says,
“Turks originated from Central Asia. Many confuse between Turks and Mongols. The two were bitter enemies for centuries. Mongols originated from Mongolia (north of China). Gengizkhan (1162-1227), Kublaikhan (1216-1294) first Mongol Emperor of China and grandson of Gengizkhan etc were Mongols, but they were NOT Muslims. At one time (13th and 14th century) Mongols controlled vast areas from Iraq and East Russia to Korea (including China).”
“Turks, Turanis, Turkmans and Uzbeks are neighbouring tribes. They came from Uzbekistan (cities of Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara) Turkmenistan, Sinkiang province of China (cities of Yarkand, Kashgar, Khohan) and Balkh and Bahrushan areas of Afghanistan.”

“After Arabs conquered Central Asia, Turks accepted Islam in the 9th century.
Turks then joined the armies of Caliph of Baghdad and spread all over the Arab empire. In the course of time the Caliphs became rulers in name only. Turks then spread west. Today’s Turkey (Anatolia) was settled by them. Many Military officers accepted the rule of Caliph for namesake but became rulers themselves. Mahmood of Ghazni was one such ruler.”

How did Turks come to India?

“Mahmood of Gazni was the first Turk who invaded Northern India 17 times. He destroyed the famous Somnath temple in Gujarat for the last time in 1026. At the time of his death Turkish rulers controlled Punjab, North West Frontier Province and Sindh. Mahmood’s descendents ruled till 1190. By then a Turk named Muhammad Ghori deposed the Ghazni dynasty and attacked Delhi. In 1192, in the battle of Thanesar, he defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan and Mahmood Ghori became ruler of Delhi – Ajmer.
[A piece of missing history –  The time difference between 1026 and 1192 is 166 years. Did the Muslims say – we had enough loot? No. They tried again but on 14 June 1033 the entire Muslim army of Pathans and Persians was wiped out at the Battle of Bahiraich, 60 miles from Lucknow, by the combined army of 17 Hindu kings. Not one Muslim was left alive even to tell folks back home that they had lost. So severe was the shock that Muslims dare not attack India for 6 generations!!    
Also in 1191 Ghori was defeated by Prithwiraj Chauhan, but was allowed to go free. He paid dearly for this folly a year later.]

Kutubuddin Aibak, one of Ghori’s officers founded the Gulam dynasty of Delhi. These Gulams were Turks. The successors were Altmash, Razia, Nasiruddin, Balban. They were all Turks. Majority of their knights were also Turks. Some knights, though originally Turks had settled in Afghanistan for generations and had become Afghans. In history books they are called Turkish Afghans.”

“Turks of Gulam dynasty extended their rule Eastwards up to Bengal by defeating various Hindu Kings.”

“The Gulam dynasty was followed by the Khiljis (1290 to 1324). The well-known Allauddin Khilji conquered Malwa, Gujarat, and Maharashtra and imposed heavy tributes on kings of Andhra, Karnatak and Tamilnadu (1296-1316). After his death there was bloodbath and many claimants to his throne were killed. Kutubuddin Mubarik khan Khilji eventually succeeded and ruled for four years.”

Struggle for power

In his excellent book Six Glorious Epochs of Indian History, Veer Savarkar gives startling information

“In 1320, Khusro, a Hindu who was forcibly converted to Islam killed Mubarik, son of Allauddin Khilji and became king in Delhi in his place. A shock to the whole of India, as Khusro declared himself to be a Hindu again!! However, within a year Giyasuddin Turk defeated Khusro and re-established the rule of Turks in Delhi. His son was Muhammad Tugluck (1324 to 1350) who once extended his rule right up to Madura in the South.
But during Tugluck’s days itself his empire had started to crumble. In 1347 Alauddin Hasan Gangu Bahamani established his own kingdom in southern India. Thus started the Bahamani dynasty. He was an Afghan (Turkish Afghan).”

“Harihar and Bukkarai, two Hindu youths were forcibly converted to Islam and taken to Delhi. They became so confident of Muhammad Tagluck that he sent them south for a battle in 1331. But they escaped with the help of Hindu warriors and encouragement of Vidyaranyaswami (Shankaracharya) they became Hindus and established the mighty Vijayanagar Empire in 1336. It lasted till 1565, more than 200 years.”

Mr Pagdi continues,
“Firozshah Tagluck succeeded Muhammad Tugluck and during his time there were many independent kingdoms. There were Turks in Kashmir, in Bengal there were Turks and then Afghans, in the south Afghan Bahamani were rulers, in Malwa Dilarwarkhan Khilji (Afghan) was the ruler. Farukhi rulers of Khandesh (1370 to 1599) called themselves descendents of the second Caliph Umar Farukh.”

“In 1489, The Bahamani kingdom disintegrated into five. Yusuf Adilshah of Bijapur was a Turk who had fled Constantinople (Istambul)
Sultan Kuli Kutub (Kutubshah) of Golconda was a Turk who fled northern Iran
Kasim Berid (Beridshah) of Beedar was a Turk from Georgia (Soviet Union)
Nizamshah of Nagar was originally a Hindu Brahmin – Bhairavbhat
Imadshah of Berar was also originally a Hindu Brahmin.”
(Also quoted in Raja Shivachhatrapati by B M Purandare, 1974 edition, p34)
“There are other examples too. Sultans of Gujarat were originally Rajputs.
In Bengal a landlord named Raja Ganesh became a King, but his sons embraced Islam and his kingdom lasted for two generations. But there is NO EXAMPLE of a native Indian Muslim ever becoming a king.”

“When the Tuglucks were ruling Delhi, Timerlung invaded northern India and committed atrocities. A Subedhar from a Sayyad family ruled from Delhi as representative of Timerlung. But in 1456 an Afghan named Bahalol Lodi ousted this ruler and gained the throne of Delhi.
In 1526 Babar, descendent of Timurlung defeated Ibrahim Lodi and established the Mughal rule in Delhi. Babar was a Turk.”

“ It is true that during this time many Hindus were being forced to accept Islam by terror, but they were always kept away from political power by foreign Muslim Rulers.”

“The strange thing was that after two generations, descendents of foreign Muslims would despise new incoming foreign Muslims. This led to many factions, feuds, massacres and destruction of kingdoms.”

What was the picture in the South?

“ During the days of Bahamani rule (1347 to 1489) and thereafter, large number of Muslims migrated from Iran and Iraq. Khwaja Mahmud Gawan, Prime minister of Bahamani king came from Gilan in North Iran. General Valaf Hasan Basari was an Iraqi. Guru of Bahamanis, Niyamatulla came from Kirman area of Iran, their general in Belgaum, Sardar Asadkhan was an Irani. Vazir of Bijapur, Rafiuddin Shiraji was an Irani. Salabatkhan and Chengizkhan, officers of Nagar were Turks. Chief Minister of Nizam of Ahmednagar was Malik Ambar (1605 to 1626), an Abyssinian (Ethiopian).
The list is endless. Such immigrants were called Afafi, those who came from across the horizon. Later day history of the Bahamani kingdom is full of bloodbath between the Afafis and the South Indian Muslims. And thus Kwaja Muhammad Gawan and Nizam-ul-mulk were killed.
In the Nizamshahi of Nagar also this dispute led to bloodbaths. Famous historian Farishta was an Afafi. He had to flee for his life.”
Rulers were Turkish Muslims NOT Native Indian Muslims.
We find several references, which support Pagdi’s statement.
c 1586 Maratha saint Eknath wrote-
Davalmalakachi pujita gada. Varshatuni phakir hoti ekada. Maga dola hota thanda khati malida. Turkanche Kharakate
Meaning that people had become so despondent that they accept leftovers from dinners of Turkish rulers at the time Id. Eknath has used the word Turk correctly. He knew that the rulers were Turks and not Indian Muslims.

Shahaaji the father of Great Maratha King Shivaaji’s was also a great warrior. In 1648, Shahaaji was tricked and imprisoned by Mustaphakhan, Afzulkhan and Baji Ghorapade on orders of Adilshah of Bijapur. Shivaaji sought his father’s release by intrigues with Shahjahan. But Shahaaji could not forget the insult. He wrote to Shivaaji about Baji Ghorapade, “Swadharmasadhanata sodun yavan dushta turukanche krutyas anukul hovun dagabajiche hunare karun Bajine vartan kele. Tyanche vedhe ghyave.” In other words, “My son, this Baji has joined in the conspiracy of this vicious Turk and betrayed me. I ask you to seek revenge.” Shahaaji has used the word Turk, not Muslim. Clear indication that the ruler was a Turk.
Mustafakhan died shortly after betraying Shahaji. Shivaji killed Afzalkhan in November 1659 and Baji Ghorapade in an open fight in October 1664.

Shivaaji’s contemporaries Poet Bhushan and Chhatrasal, the Bundela king have also used the word Turk to denote foreign Muslim rulers.

If we look at the history of Sikhs we find that their Gurus, be it Guru Nanak, Guru Tegbahaddur or Guru Govindsingh had used the word Turks to denote foreign Muslim rulers.
Nanak wrote, ’Neelbastar ke kapade pahane, Tutuk, Pathani ammal bhaya.’
Some Kashmiri Brahmins were being forced by their Muslim governor to embrace Islam. They sought help from Guru Tegbahadur. He told the Brahmins -
Tum suna dijesu dhig Turkesu imgabo
Ik peer hamara Hindu bhara bhaichara lakhpao
Hai Tegbahadur jagat ujagar ta agar Turk karo
Tispachhe tabahi hum fir sabahee bana hai Turak bhara.
Oh Brahmins, go and tell the tyrant TURKS that we Hindus have a great Guru named Tegbahadur. First you try to convert him to Islam and if you succeed then we will follow.
After this reply three disciples of Tegbahadur were tortured to death in Delhi and Tegbahadur was beheaded.

During his escape from Punjab, Guru Govindsingh had to wear a blue dress to disguise himself as a Pathan. Once the danger was over he torn the clothes and said, ‘Neel bastarake kapade phate Turuk Pathani ammal Gaya.’
I have relieved from the rule of Turks and Pathans.
Govindrao Kale, Peshwa’s envoy at the court of Nizam, wrote to Nana Fadnavis, “This land from beyond Attock (near Rawalpindi) to the seas in the South and South-east (The Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal ) is the land of the Hindus and NOT of Turks. [He Hindunche sthan, Turuksthan navhe ]”
[Ref -Hindutva by Veer Savarkar pp 68/69]

Thus the Marathas were fighting against the Turks who were the foreigner rulers, not native Indian Muslims.

Henry George Keene’s book Turks in India was published. He properly calls Mughals as Turks. Keene was an ICS officer who served in U.P for more than 30 years.

Muslim rulers never regarded themselves as Indian

Mr Pagdi continues -
“In course of time, Mongols and Turks intermarried and there arose a race called Chagtai Turks or Mughals. But in the early days they were despised by other Muslims. In Delhi, Allauddin Khilji even massacred them in 1315. “

“Babar was a Turk from Fargana province of Central Asia (Uzbekistan). His mother tongue was Turkish. His biography is in Turkish. He addresses all communities in India (including Muslims) as Hindusthanis. Babar’s grandson was Akbar whose mother was Hamidabanu, an Irani. Akbar annexed kingdoms of Kashmir, Sindh, Malwa, Gujarat, Bengal and Khandesh even though the rulers were Muslims. In a similar manner, Shahjahan annexed kingdom of Nagar (in Mahaaraashtra). Aurangzeb annexed kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda.”

“Mughals were foreigners, Turks. Even the kings of Bijapur and Golconda considered Mughals as foreigners. Akbar was born in Amarkot, Sindh; Jahangir in Fatehpur Sikri near Agra, Shahjahan in Lahore and Aurangzeb in Dohad, Gujarat. But they all still regarded themselves as Turks. They called themselves as Emperors of Hindusthan. They never called themselves as Hindusthanis. Addressing Indian Muslims they used to say, “We are Turks, you are Hindusthanis.” Aurangzeb had used these words on several occasions. Shahjahan wasted millions of rupees to gain territories in Central Asia (Balkh and Badashakhan) because he considered that part to be his homeland!!”
Manucci the Italian adventurer tells us, “Education of Mughal Princes. Teachers are appointed to princes from the age of five. They are taught Turkish language as it is considered their original language or

Pagdi continues,
Wave of migrants continued.
“The language of Indian Muslims was NOT Farsi (Persian) but Hindusthani  - pre-runner of present day Urdu. Mughals carried out state affairs in Farsi. Until the fall of Mughals, Hindusthani remained a spoken language.
During the Mughal period thousands of Turks from Central Asia continued to flood India.
[In 1540, Babar’s son Humayun was ousted by Shershah. Humayun travelled to Iran and sought help. King of Iran sent his troops with Humayun who regained power in Delhi in 1555. So, once again, Afghans were in control for 15 years.]
After return of Humayun, however we had ministers, regional governors, military officers and men in positions of authorities as Turks or Iranis.“
[Sher Shah’s grandfather had come to India in search of employment in the time of Bahlol Lodi, Afghan king of Delhi.
What about the army of Sher Shah? He invited Afghan soldiers from every part of the country and gave them highest posts in the army. Afghan contingents often consisted of a single clan or tribe. The result was that their natural loyalty was to the tribal leaders rather than to sovereign.

[Ref - Mughal Rule in India by V D Mahajan, 1982 p46 ]

Pagdi continues -
“Noorjahan’s father Giasbeg came from Iran and became Jahangir’s Prime Minister. Noorjahan’s brother Asafkhan became Shahjahan’s Prime Minister, her niece Mumtaz-ul-zamani was wife of Shahjahan, another niece was wife of Muhammad Jafar, another Prime Minister, her third niece was married to Aurangzeb’s Prime Minister Asadkhan. At one time Noorjahan’s relations controlled half the Mughal territory.”

* In the court of Aurangzeb more than 75 percent of officers were either first or second generation Turks or Iranis.
* First Nizam – Nizam-ul-mulk (1671-1748) came from Bukhara in Central Asia (Uzbekistan) along with his father Gaziuddin Firozjang in the days of Aurangzeb. He became Subhadar of the Deccan in 1713, just 6 years after death of Aurangzeb. Distance between Bukhara and Delhi is more than 1,000 miles (1,600 Km)
* First man in the family of Nawabs of Lucknow, Sadatkhan came from Mashahad in East Iran.
* Nawab of Bengal Alivardikhan (grandfather of Siraj-uddaula who was defeated at the battle of Plassey in 1757) came from Iran.
* Forefathers of Sir Sayyad Ahmad khan came from Hirat in Afghanistan.
* Poet Galib’s grandfather was a Turk from Cenrtal Asia.
* Forefathers of Zakir Hussein, 3rd President of India were teachers who migrated into India from Afghanistan in 1712, but by that time the Mughal Empire was rapidly losing its power.

Mr Pagdi has given more information in some of his other articles.
* While describing some of Aurangzeb’s campaigns in the Deccan (southern India) during 1682-1707, Mr Pagdi tells us - Siege of Vishalgarh
Aurangzeb’s knights were -
Matlabkhan – a relation of Aurangzeb’s wife Dilrasbanu.
Muhammad Amin Khan – a Turk of 5,000 horse. He came to India from Bukhara in 1686. His cousin Gaziuddin Phirozjung was a General of the Mughals.
Tarbiyatkhan, a relation of Dilrasbanu.
Fatehullakhan Khosti, a Turk from Badkhshan in Central Asia
(Diwali issue of Lokasatta, 1977)

* In 1974 Mr Pagdi visited the battlefield of Panipat. Writing on that occasion he tells us -
“Mughals and Pathans were bitter enemies. However, Aurangzeb went south to crush the Marathas and had to stay there for a long time (1682-1707). Marathas ultimately triumphed. But as a result there was no check on activities of Pathans who settled in thousands in Doab (vast area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna). This gave rise to various lords, such as Hafiz Rahmatkhan of Baireley, Indekhan of Pilibhit, Ali Mahammad Khan, Mahammad Bangash of Farukhabad, and most dangerous of all Najibkhan of Najibgad. It was the last one who invited Ahmadshah Abdalli of Kabul to invade Delhi. This eventually led to battle of Panipat in 1761.
Marathas supported the Nawab of Oudh and Shujauddaula of Lucknow. Maratha General Sadashivrao Bhau wrote, “These Pathans despise Indian Muslims more than they despise Hindus.”
(Sobat weekly, 14 June 1977)

While doing research on true origins of Taj Mahal, I (Godbole) found some interesting information -

Native Muslims under Alien Muslim Rulers

Travellers’ accounts
It is a great fallacy that Indian Muslim ruled India before the Marathas and the British. Not only the Muslim rulers and ruling class was alien to India, but they also despised native Muslims.

Tavernier, the French jewel merchant, famous for his sentence “20,000 men worked on Taj Mahal for 22 years.” tells us –
“Moreover the chiefs are generally fugitives from Persia, people of no birth and of little heart, who attach themselves to those who give most. “
(Travels in India by J B Tavernier – Edited by Dr V Ball, 1889, Volume I p232)

In Volume II pages 176-177 he says –
“I have elsewhere remarked that of the native Muhammadan subjects of the Great Mogul there are but few in position of command; this is the cause why many Persians go to seek fortune in India. Being clever they are successful in finding means to advance themselves in (the profession) of arms, so that in the Empire of the Great Mogol, as well as, in the kingdom of Golconda and Bijapur, the Persians are in possession of the highest posts. ….”

Bernier, the French doctor, who stayed at Aurangzeb’s court for eight years (1658-1665) tells us –
“The majority of his (Great Mogol’s) courtiers are Persians. ….Moreover, the Great Mogol is a foreigner in Hindoustan …. The court itself does now consist as originally, of real Mogols, but a medley of Usbecks, Persians, Arabs and Turks or descendents from all these people: known as I said before, by the general appellation of Mogols. It should be added however that children of third and fourth generation, who have the brown complexion, and the languid manner of this country of their nativity are held in much less respect than new comers, and are seldom invested with official situations; they consider themselves happy, if permitted to serve as private soldiers in the infantry or cavalry. (So what chance did the Indian Muslims have?) If the Omrah’s life were sufficiently prolonged he may obtain the advancement of his children by royal favour, particularly if their persons were well formed, and their complexions sufficiently fair to enable them to pass for genuine Mogols….. “
(Travels in Mughal Empire by F Bernier edited by V Smith 1914 pp 209-212)

Other sources also confirm our findings

Encyclopaedia Britannica (1977 edition) tells us –
Akbar’s administration (1556 to 1605)
The army – Mostly foreign in personnel, Akbar’s army was originally composed of Mogols, Persians, Turks, Uzbeks and Afghans
(Where were the native Indian Muslims?)
[Macropaedia Volume 9 p381]

Historian Sir Yadunath Sarkar tells us -

* Gias Beg a Persian came to India in the last days of Akbar. His daughter Mehrunnisa (Nur Jahan) was married to Jahangir. His son Asaf Khan became Prime Minister of Jahangir and continued in that position under Shahjahan. His second son Itiquad Khan was Subedar of Delhi in 1633.

* Asaf Khan’s son Shaista Khan (whose fingers were cut in 1663 during a daring attack by Shivaji) held various high offices under Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.
* Shaista Khan’s son Buzurg Ummed Khan was Subedar of Bihar (1683 to 1692)
* Mir Shihabuddin was one of high ranking generals of Aurangzeb. He came from Samarkand to seek his fortune at the court of Delhi – October 1669.

* Mirza Miuza a Persian of Mashahad was married to a sister of Aurangzeb’s wife. He was created Musai Khan and Diwan of the Pay Office in September 1688 and Divan of Deccan in June 1689.

* Muhammad Amu Khan came to India from Bukhara in 1687. He rose to the position of Sadr in 1698, Chin Bahadur in 1706 and a Commander of 4,000 horse in 1707.

* Mir Jumla was a similar adventurer. He became Prime Minister of Golconda. Later he betrayed the King of Golconda and joined the Mughals in last days of Shahjahan. His son Muhammad Amin Khan Hafiz was made Mir Bakshi (Chief of all cavalry) by Aurangzeb; and was later made Governor of Gujarat 1672-1682.

(Anecdotes of Aurangzeb and Historical Essays by Yadunath Sarkar, published by M C Sarkar and sons 1912)
Niccolao Manucci, the Italian adventurer who lived in India during 1653 to 1708 tells us – Administration of Mughals
Some Muslim communities -. Pathans.
“They live beyond Sindhu river (i.e. on the west or north). Mughals are cautious about Pathans who believe that they were once rulers in Delhi. Therefore Mughals and Pathans do not get on with each other and do not intermarry. Of course there are divisions among Pathans too.”

In his book New History of the Marathas, 1946, Historian Mr Sardesai tells us

* Nizam Ali’s minister Ghulam Saiyad Khan, called Mushir-ul-mulk came from Persia and secured service under Salabat Jang (Nizam’s Chief Minister) around 1754 and became the first minister in 1775.
(Vol III pp 281-288)
* Aliwardi Khan, a Turk came to India in 1726, became principal military officer and was awarded the title Mahabat Jang by the Mughal Emperor.
* Mir Habib was a clever Persian of Shiraz. He rose to deputy governorship of Orissa (c 1740).
( Vol II p221)
Pagdi continues,
“When the native Muslims were in such hopeless position the work of preventing onslaught of Foreign Muslim invasion was carried out by Rajputs in the north and the Kings of Vijayanagar in the south.”


“Thus the Indian Muslims had nothing to do with the foreign Muslim adventurers who came to rule and administer Indian provinces on behalf of Foreign Muslim rulers. They only had one thing in common – Islam. But Indian (native) Muslims never enjoyed positions of authority or power (military or civil). On the contrary even the Mughal Emperors despised Indian Muslims.”

“It would be absurd for Indian Christians to boast that they ruled India for hundred and fifty years during the British Raj or that they ruled over Goa for more than four centuries. In a similar manner it is absurd for Indian Muslims to boast that they ruled India for a thousand years. Rulers were Turkish Muslims (not from present day Turkey). Their period can be called Turkish Muslim Era. In the histories of Iran, Russia and China, historians do use the term Turkish Era, but they never call it a Muslim Era. [You may call Turkish Muslim Era] But in India the English caused havoc by calling the Turkish Era as Muslim Era. It also created an unjustified ego and ambition in the minds of Indian Muslims. Indian Muslims rejoiced at the atrocities of Muhammad of Ghazni and Aurangzeb and feel sorry for death of Afzulkhan at the hands of Shivaji.”

“It is very important that the Indian Muslims need to be educated and awakened to historical reality. They need to be proud of Rana Pratap, Shivaji and the Kings of Vijayanagar Empire. Indian Muslims got no respect or positions of authority during the Turkish Era and have no reason to praise that era.”

“In this context one needs to study the uprising of Bangladeshis against the rule West Pakistanis (1971), Sindhis are trying to preserve their identity & mother tongue from onslaught of Punjabi and Urdu. Muslims in Sindh have now started to consider Hindu King Dahir as their ancestor and hate Muhammad bin Kasim as an aggressor.”

Another fantasy

“British rulers created yet another fantasy. They said that they took over rule from hands of Muslims. Nothing can be farther from truth. They had to wage bloody battles with Marathas, Sikhs and Gurkhas. But the fantasy created by the British echoes in the thoughts of likes of Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan.”
The British rulers had to offer political reforms to respond to pressures from the revolutionaries and militants. In 1909 when the Morley – Minto reforms were announced, some Indian Muslims complained that they got nothing, even though they were granted separate electorates. Times (of London) and Evening News (of London) commented, “We had conquered India from the Muslims. We should try to keep them happy.”
(Savarkar’s newsletter dated 12 February 1909)

History of India as told by its own Historians – This works in eight volumes by Elliot and Dowson was published during1867 to 1877.  It covers the period from 711 to 1857 (invasion of Sindh to last Mughal Emperor). But the title is very misleading. The authors only deal with various Muslim rulers in India. Thus creating an impression that India had no history before the Muslim rulers and of course the British took over from Muslim rulers.

British propaganda

The British started to tell Hindus that if the British depart, Muslims would rule over them as in the past. To the Muslims they said, “If we leave Hindus would revenge the past Muslim rule.” And thus they created a picture of straightforward, brave Muslim but timid and businessman Hindu who is only interested in making money and has no honour. One can sense this in histories written by English authors, their biographies, storey books and novels. For example, Mother India, Verdict on India.
This impasse must end. Muslims must feel part and parcel of Indian society. The distance between Hindus and Muslims must end. This work of enlightenment is difficult but not impossible. True history must be taught. Muslims share the same history as Hindus. That truth must be emphasised all the time. That will reduce the sense of alienation among Muslims.

Let us now look at some other facts -

British nourish Muslim arrogance

(1) One should remember that during the British Raj, 70% of soldiers were Muslims, giving them a false sense of pride that before the British, Muslims were indeed the rulers of India. This British policy of recruitment did not change even in 1920s after they faced the real danger of Amir of Afghanistan invading India as per invitation by Gandhi and the Ali brothers openly advocating Muslim soldiers not to oppose the Amir!

There is also an important point of note. The Muslim soldiers were exclusively from Punjab and the Northwest Frontier Province. Muslims from other provinces were never recruited. But even this point was not exploited by Hindu politicians.

(2) Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) may sound like an innocent department. But they played a mischief in 1910. It was divided into two circles (divisions), namely Muhammadan and British monuments; AND Hindu and Buddhist Monuments. Thus equating Muslims with British – leading to an inflated feeling among Muslims that they were at par with the British. It was natural therefore that if British were to leave Muslims should take over and rule India once again.

(3) Savarkar, while in internment in Ratnagiri gave startling news. On 22 July 1924 New York Times published an article by one Mr Arthur Havtar. The author prophesised that though in India Muslims are only one fifth of the population they are very strong and powerful. If at any time the English were to abandon their rule in India in a hurry Muslims would take over power.
One can imagine what effect this news would have had on minds of Indian Muslims and how widely they would have spread this news among their people.

(4) 1997 marked 50th anniversary of Indian independence. On that occasion on 14th August 1997, Evening Standard of London wrote in its editorial -

A birthday celebration
“INDIA and Pakistan celebrate the 50th anniversary of their independence at midnight tonight. Curiously, however, they are not marking the occasion with
anything like the enthusiasm with which it is being remembered here. In Delhi and Karachi the party mood has been muted and the media coverage slight. Here, the newspapers and TV screens have for the past week been filled with Raj nostalgia and whither-the-sub-continent speculation. The anniversary means far more to Britain, where it evokes such deep feelings about the lost Empire and the end of a glorious era, than it does to India. Not all that this introspection says about us is healthy. We might benefit from more honesty about our colonial past, unsure as we are about our present and future as a
medium-sized European power. Yet on this day we have every right to look back with pride at our dealings with the sub-continent and the legacy we left behind.”
“Notwithstanding all its vast problems India, too, should be proud of its achievements as a secular state in the last 50 years. If hoopla is absent in the anniversary celebrations, that is more to do with the way Indians look at time — what the great Jawaharlal Nehru described in 1947 as the idea of India travelling on a road for "trackless generations" — than any lack of confidence. That a country of a billion people, with 40 languages and a dozen ethnic groups which have a history of violent rivalry, can work as a democracy is extraordinary. There is extreme poverty, but in the last 25 years the country has become self-sufficient in food. Corruption in public life is endemic — spawning the popular joke about the Indian theory of relativity defined as
"everything is for the relatives". Yet the country is stable. The caste system that has caused such misery for millions is changing — Mahatma Gandhi's dream that one day a Dalit, or "untouchable", would lead the country came true last year when KR Narayanan became president.”

“Pakistan is less of a success story. For more than half its brief history it has been a military dictatorship and it has never had a government that was voted, rather than summarily forced, out of office. Poverty is increasing and the economy is stagnant. Yet its existence has almost certainly saved the lives of millions of people who faced a real risk of massacre in inter communal violence if British India had not been partitioned. The three wars on the sub-continent have been costly; but not as costly and disastrous as might have been.”

[These words clearly shows the British mentality. The paper cleverly hides the fact that K R Narayan was a Christian taking orders from the Pope.]

Reality of Indian history during mediaeval times was evident by the existence of Caste System among the Muslims of India. This has been a taboo subject. Hindus are totally ignorant about it and Muslims always keep quiet about it. Let us examine it in detail. We are only interested in castes with foreign sounding names. Here is the summary

Caste among Indian Muslims

British administrators carried out Census in India every 10 years. It had been their unwritten policy to depict Hindus as a community divided into thousands of sections but Muslims as a homogenous people. They therefore did not divide Muslims even into Sunnis and Shias.

There were no Muslim castes in the 1881 Census, whereas information in 1872 and 1891 Census was very incomplete. We find full information in 1901 Census.
From the information compiled under the British administration we find 309 castes, which are common to both Hindus and Muslims.

There are 122 castes who are only Muslims. The reason may be that all Hindus of that caste were converted to Islam for whatever reason.

Very roughly, in 1901

Total population of Muslims in British India
(including the princely states)

Muslims who shared same castes as Hindus were
(or 33.84% of Muslims)
Muslims of other castes

This includes - Arabs

                      - Moghul

                      - Pathans

                      - Sayyads

-  Shekhs 

Other Muslims (trades)

(0.49% of Muslim population)

(0.58% of Muslim population)

(5.45% of Muslim population)

(2.15% of Muslim population)

(45.97% of Muslim population)

(17.43% Muslim population )







It is therefore interesting who these Shekhs are –

Census of Bengal 1901

(Note – It should be remembered that Bengal included Bihar and Orissa also)
The Superintendent for the Province of Bengal says -

Page 439
Conventional division of Shekh, Saiad, Moghul and Pathan has very little application to the province. In the proper sense of the words the Shekhs should be Arabs, Saiads the descendents of Ali (Muhammad’s son-in-law)
But in Bengal both groups include a great number of persons of purely local origin. This is especially the case with Shekh, which in many parts, instead of connoting a foreigner, does exactly the reverse, and raises the presumption that the persons who so describe themselves are converts of Indian origin.

Census of Bombay Province 1901

The caste figures for the Musalmans in Table XIII such as attari, kasai or chapparband, must be received with great caution. As already explained the majority of Indian converts to Islam have a fondness for returning themselves as Sheikhs of the Kureshi stock, or even as Sayads, and nearly one million of the total Musalman population will be found under the tribal name of Sheikh (No. 847). It is, therefore, more than probable that the figures given opposite the caste entries fall very short of the correct total for the Musalmans following the occupation that the caste name suggests.

.. But the term Sheikh is one used now-a-days by almost all Hindu converts to Islam. The total number of Sheikhs enumerated in the Presidency at this Census was 967,000. Only a minute section of this collection could be Arabs.

Census of Kashmir state 1901

This is a very numerous class and represents the descendents of the original Hindus who were converted to Islam by Musalman conquerors. Their Karm or tribe name usually resembles those of the Hindus, but they appear to have lost all traces of the old customs, which they inherited from their Hindu ancestors.
We would find similar remarks about Shekhs in other provinces. As a matter of interest let us see where the Shekhs were located in 1881.

% of total Shekhs
Central Province


Central India

Note – Burma was part of British Indian Empire till 1935
Above distribution shows how hollow the claims of Indian Muslims to be different from Hindus are. Burma was never conquered by any Muslim king. How can it have any Shekhs? The same goes for Assam
Next are Pathans - only 5.45% of Muslim population.

Then come Sayyads, but they only amount to 2.15% of the Muslim population. Moreover they are the priestly class (like Brahmins) and could never claim to have ruled any part of India in the past.

Moghuls are 0.68% of Muslim population

Arabs are 0.49% of Muslim population

It is very strange that only 45,152 Muslims regarded themselves as Turks!

And thus not even a tiny section of Muslims could have claimed to be descendents of former rulers of (parts of) India. Unfortunately this reality of life was ignored by Hindus and Muslims with disastrous consequences.

We should remember that the above information was collected by Muslim enumerators and compiled by British officers. It must be said in all fairness that these Census Reports were available through well known booksellers in India. Unfortunately Hindus did not study them.

In 1918 (3 January) Two or three khojas were present at a public meeting of Gandhi in Mumbai. They said, “We are Hindus (satpanthis).” Instead of taking advantage of this information Gandhi retorted, “Aga Khan was President of Muslim League. How can you be called Hindus?”
(Gandhi – A detailed chronology by Dalal, published 1971 by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p 16)

Mr Pagdi tells us -
“In the recent past we know of many Muslims who had Hindu ancestors. For example-
Urdu poet Musaphi (original Rajput)
Historian Shibali Nemani (Rajput)
Well-known Urdu poet Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Kashmiri Brahmin)
Sir Phirozkhan Noon – (Rajput)
Zulphikhar Ali Bhutto – (Rajput)
Prime Minister of Hyderabad state the Nawab of Chhatari  - (Rajput)
Poet Laureate of Pakistan Hafiz Jalandhari (Chauhan – Rajput)
Prime Minister of Hyderabad Sir Akbar Hyderi (Hindu from Gujarat)
Labour minister who recently died, Abid Ali Japharbhai (Hindu from Kutch)
Revolutionary and writer, Ubedulla Sindhi (Sikh)
Revolutionary Abdulkarim (brother of Acharya Kripalani)

Boharis and Momins of Gujrat, majority of Muslims of Kashmir, Jats in western Punjab, majority of Muslims of Bangladesh were undoubtedly descendents of Hindus. One can take a clue from the titles Pandit, Bhat, Jutshi (astrologer) among Kashmiri Muslims, Kitchlu and other surnames give away their origin.”
[In the old Bombay Province, Khojas and Memons of Kutchh were Hindu converts. They followed inheritance as per Hindu Law till 1920.]
“These are without doubt Muslims who can be called Indian. That does not mean the rest are not Indians. Today all Muslims must regard themselves as Indians whatever their forefathers were.“
One can add -
Muhammad Ali Jinnah & Poet Iqbal had Hindu grandfathers. Gandhi himself had pointed out in 1940 that Sir Sikandar Hiyat Khan’s forefathers were Hindu Brahmins. Fazul Huq, the Chief Minister of Bengal had Hindu forefathers. How could they, all of a sudden start to say that, they, the Muslims are different from Hindus, have their own history, culture, values, language and identity?? No one asked this question.
Jinnah declared that Urdu was the language of Muslims, but he himself could not speak a single word in Urdu. He used to speak in English and some one would translate it into Urdu for the audience. But no one laughed at this. Even the fanatical Moplas of Kerala regarded Malyalam as their mother tongue, not Urdu.
[Note – The British have not changed one little bit. In U.K. in 2011 a census was carried out by the Government. All Christians are counted as one. There is no way of knowing how many are Catholics, how may are Orthodox. Same applied to Muslims. All Muslims are counted as one. No space to say if you are a Shia or Sunni or Ahmedia, but Hindus? Oh, that is a different matter. Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists are counted separately!]

Disastrous consequences
Let us see now turn to the disastrous consequences of this falsified history. First, the Khilafat Movement. Hindu politicians led by Gandhi were obsessed with making concessions to Muslims. This led to the Khilafat Movement in the 1920s.

* Khalifat movement
The First World War ended on 11 November 1918. Turkey, the ally of Germany was defeated and it was obvious that Britain and France would disintegrate the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Its Sultan was Khalifa. As Prophet Mohammed was both a political and religious leader, his successors also had both roles. Of course, there were many feuds and many Khalifs but the Sultan of Turkey was Khalif since 1517. He was also the ruler of the vast Ottoman Empire.
Arabs resented Turkish rulers. During World War I, Arabs, with the help of the British, threw yoke of Sultan of Turkey. (Remember the film Lawrence of Arabia?)

Why were these events in a far off land of interest to Indian Muslims? But as they were brought up to think that they were foreigners and once rulers of India, they got into their heads that the Sultan of Turkey must remain as Khalifa, their temporal and spiritual leader. And Gandhi was so obsessed with seeking co-operation of Indian Muslims that he immediately supported the Khilafat movement. Strangely Jinnah had opposed this movement saying – it is like going to stone ages.

No Congressman asked, “There are millions of Muslims in North Africa in countries such as Nigeria, Tunisia, Algeria and Libya. But they are not agitating for the Sultan of Turkey. Millions of Iranians who are Shias never accepted any authority of the Sultan of Turkey as Khalifa. So, why should Indian Muslims feel affinity to him?” They of course, did not put that question to likes of Maulana Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali.

After the end of World War I the principle of right of self-determination of nations was being put forward as key to new formation of Europe. This was the major principle of the Peace Conference. In 1919,Tilak, while in London, wrote to The French Prime Minister M Clemenceau and American President Woodrow Wilson that like European countries, India too must have right of self-determination. Both leaders acknowledged letters of Tilak.
It was astonishing therefore that Gandhi, Nehru and Bose were flagrantly denying that right to Arabs who did not want to be ruled by Turks. And as a result even Indian Muslims were mocked, ridiculed and despised by Arabs.

Monstrous ambitions of Indian Muslims was aroused by the Khilafat movement leading to most horrific atrocities committed by Moplas on Hindus of Kerala in 1921. In the end the British had to send in the Army to crush the Moplas.
This was followed by Muslim riots in Gulburga, Nagpur, Lucknow, Shajahanpur, Jabalpur, Kohat and many other places in India.

* We can go back to our country
On 11 May 1938, Maulana Shaukat Ali met Savarkar and told him,” If tomorrow there is a catastrophe in India we Muslims will go back to our countries, but you Hindus have nowhere else to go.”
(public speech at Ajmer, 20 May 1938, S S V 4, p348)

Arrogance of Muslims

Pagdi tells us, “We see a kind of arrogance in the writings of Sir Sayyad Ahmad, Poet Latif Hussein Hali, journalist Vahibuddin Salim. They say, “We came to Hindusthan and we ruled.” Vahibuddin Salim in his poem says -
Oh Indians, racially we are different to you, but you honoured us, gave us everything, positions of power, respect and honour. How can we thank you?”

Garche hamame miltijulti teri komiyat na thee. Hamame atha Hindosita go buye Insinayat na thee.

Tune lekin apani akhonpar liya hamako bitha.

Apani akhanopar bithakar tune ijjat kee hame

Tune apane hukmdanopar fajeelat do hame

Tune rahat dee, famarat dee hame

Tune sarabat dee, hukumad dee, riyasad dee hame

Shukra kis kis miharbanika kare to ada

The family of poet Altaf Hussein Ali, stayed in India for hundreds of years. Still he echoes the same sentiments as above. Same applies to thoughts of Sir Sayyad Ahmad. They may be true in a few cases. But vast majority of Indian Muslims are descendents of converted Hindus. They cannot share above thoughts.

• Pagdi tells of his own experience. In 1933 he was appearing for examination for entry into land revenue service under the Nizam. Pagdi came across a Muslim candidate named Abu Turab. Pagdi did favour to him and by copying Pagdi’s paper Abu Turab passed the qualifying examination. They met again a few years later. Abu Turab was transferred to Marathawada (a Marathi speaking area). Pagdi said, “You better learn some Marathi to make your life easy and understand the issues you have to deal with, in the same way as we learn Urdu and Farsee.”
Abu Turab replied, “There is no need for us (Muslims) to learn your mother tongue. It is you (Hindus) who need to understand us (Muslims).”

In 1963 Pagdi wrote, “So arrogant were the remarks of Abu Tarab that even after 25 years I cannot forget them. That reminds me of the cinema Benhur. Benhur was Jew and his childhood friend named Masala, a Roman was sent to Palestine as Governor. Welcoming Masala, Benhur said, “It is good that you are appointed as Governor, I welcome you as someone who knows the Jews well.” Masala replied, “What is the necessity of we Romans to know the Jews? It is they (Jews) who need to understand us.” Abu Tarab and Muslims in Hyderabad harboured and expressed same arrogance.
(Vida rangato asa, by Pagdi. 1963, pp65/66)

• Dr B R Ambedkar provides an example in his book Thoughts on Pakistan published in 1946 (pp 303/304).
In a manifesto on Hindu-Muslim relations issued in 1928 Khwaja Hasan Nazami declared :
“ Musalmans are separate from Hindus; they cannot unite with the Hindus. After bloody wars the Musalmans conquered India, and the English took India from them. The Musalmans are one united nation and they alone will be masters of India. They will never give up their individuality. They have ruled India for Hundreds of years, and hence they have a prescriptive right over the country. The Hindus are a minor community in the world. They are never free from internecine quarrels; they believe in Gandhi and worship the cow; they are polluted by taking other people’s water. The Hindus do not care for self-government; they squabble. What capacity have they for ruling over men? The Musalmans did rule, and the Musulmans will rule.
(Times of India 14 March 1928)

• Dr B R Ambedkar provides yet another example in his book Thoughts on Pakistan published in 1946 (pp 303/304).

Far from rendering obedience to Hindus, the Muslims seem to be ready to try conclusions with the Hindus again. In 1926 there arose a controversy as to who really won the third battle of Panipat, fought in 1761. It was contended for the Muslims that it was a great victory for them because Ahmad Shah Abdalli had 1 lakh of soldiers while the Mahrattas had 4 to 6 lakhs. The Hindus replied that a victory to them – a victory to the vanquished – because it stemmed the tide of Muslim invasions. The Muslims were not prepared to admit defeat at the hands of Hindus and claimed that they will always prove superior to the Hindus. To prove the eternal superiority of Muslims over Hindus it was proposed by one Maulana Akbar Shah Khan of Najibabad in all seriousness, that the Hindus and Muslims should fight, under test conditions, fourth battle on the same fateful plain of Panipat. The Maulana accordingly issued a challenge to Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya in the following terms :
“If you Malaviyaji, are making efforts to falsify the result at Panipat, I shall show you an easy and excellent way (of testing it). Use your well-known influence and induce the British Government to permit the fourth battle of Panipat to be fought without hindrance from the authorities. I am ready to provide … a comparative test of the valour and fighting spirit of Hindus and the Musalmans. … As there are seven crores of Muslims in India, I shall arrive on a fixed date on the plain of Panipat with 700 Musalmans representing the seven crores of Muslims in India and as there are 22 crores of Hindus I allow you to come with 2,200 Hindus. The proper thing is not to use cannons, machineguns or bombs; only swords and javelins and spears, bows and arrows and daggers should be used. If you cannot accept the post of generalissimo of the Hindu host, you may give it to any descendents of Sadashivarao or Vishwasrao so that their scions may have an opportunity to avenge the defeat of their ancestors in 1761. But any way do come as a spectator; for on seeing the result of this battle you will have to change your views, and I hope there will be end of the present discord and fighting in the country. …. In conclusion I beg to add that among the 700 men that I shall bring there will be no Pathans or Afghans as you are mortally afraid of them. So, I shall bring with me only Indian Musalmans of good family who are staunch adherents of Shariat.” (Times of India 20 June 1926)

The above example does show arrogance of Muslims, but it also illustrates inferiority complex of Hindus. Ambedkar was so obsessed with anti-Hindu phobia that he took for granted the Muslim boasts. What a pity that his own caste Mahars, though formerly treated as untouchables, are warriors and the Indian Army even had a Mahar Regiment. 2,200 Mahars (who are also covered by the term Marhatta) could have easily called bluff of Muslims. But Ambedkar did not do that.

The much publicised Muslim riot of Bombay in 1929 had given answer to arrogance of Muslims. Before the riot, Muslims boasted that one Muslim is superior to 29 Hindus, and that too ordinary Indian Muslim. One Pathan would easily overpower 100 Hindus. And what happened in practice? At the very outset it was Pathans who were running away and pleading that the riot should stop!! (S.S.V part 4, 1965, pp213-217). But Ambedkar does not quote this example.

As for the battle of Panipat, one should only remember that just four days after the battle, the victorious Ahmad Shah Abdalli sent a letter to the Maratha Peshwa Balaji Bajirao, asking for a re-conciliation!! Why would a victor do that? The answer is simple. He knew at heart that Marathas would seek revenge and were quite capable of avenging their defeat. A few months after the battle Balaji Bajirao died and when his 16 year old son Madhavrao became a Peshwa (July 1761), same Ahmad Shah Abdalli paid his respects and sent presents to Madhavrao. Ambedkar easily forgets this history, may be because he too only read the history as written by English. But we have to remember that after the battle of Panipat, Abdalli himself had expressed astonishment at bravery of Marathas and admitted that such a battle was unprecedented.
But Ambedkar did not want to know!!

Perverted history still haunts

Bhutto became Prime Minister of Pakistan, after freedom struggle of Bangladesh in December 1971. His mother was Hindu. But her conversion to Islam put fantastic ideas into head of Bhutto and he said that he would wage a war with India for a thousand years.

Things have not changed even in the year 2012. We have received following E Mail
Date: Tue, 13 Mar 2012 19:44:26 -0700
Subject: Re: [media_monitor5] Myth of Aryan Invasion

Pakistan tried to tell the world that they are Arabs and started teaching even Arabic in schools but Saudi and other Gulf nations objected and told them that they are not for their stock. / Shadi

[The author could not be specific. He says that this is an old story.]
This just shows how deep the effects of works of British Historians have been.
1901 Census of British Indian Empire revealed that out of the Muslim population, only 0.49% counted themselves as Arabs. And yet in 2012 Pakistanis claim to have their origins in Arabia.

Effect on minds of Hindus in the 20th century

* The name Hindusthan

Poet Iqbal composed the famous poem Sare Jahanse Achha Hindoostan Hamara
There are many lands on earth, but only our Hindoostan is dear to us.
And yet same Iqbal demanded Pakistan in 1930 on the basis that Muslims were different people from Hindus!!

As Pagdi remarked earlier even Mughal Emperors used to say that they were rulers of Hindusthan. Surprisingly enough even a map printed in London in 1808 clearly shows (so called) India as Hindoosthan, its western boundary is with Iran (I do have a copy of such a map). And the same name is used on many maps of Globe. But once the British started to use the meaningless word India, Hindus loved it because it removes the word Hindu. Even after the partition in 1947 Hindus were not prepared to call their land as Hindusthan, Nehru suggested the name Bharat and yet even that name was never adopted. Have you ever heard of an Embassy of Bharat anywhere? So shameless have we become that even while speaking in our mother tongues, be it Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali or whatever Hindus continue to use the word India!!

* Thousand years of slavery

In February 1937 Dr Ambedkar was to address the conference in Punjab arranged by Jatpat Todak Mandal (Society for abolishing of the caste system) of Lahore. Conference was cancelled but he had printed his speech in English. In it he said, “The Hindus’ has been a life of a continuous defeat. It is a mode of survival of which every Hindu will feel ashamed.” Savarkar replied to such senseless remarks and later, in 1952 he delivered his famous series of speeches – Six Glorious Epochs of Indian History, which are available in book form.

One can say that Dr Ambedkar was prejudiced, having declared on 13 October 1935 that he would not die as a Hindu. But his sentiments were echoed 60 years earlier even by Gopalrao Agarkar, Tilak’s contemporary. Agarkar was born in poverty but still studied and passed M A. examination. He however refused to accept service under the British Administration. He started his movements for social reforms, which he believed to be necessary before fight for political independence could be started. He was a staunch Hindu, but he still wrote in 1880, “How can we say that we had a golden past when we were ruled by Muslims for more than 700 years and now the British have been ruling over us for more than 100 years.”

In 1968 Prof P N Oak of New Delhi proved that Taj Mahal was an ancient Rajput Temple Palace and not a Mausoleum built by Shahjahan. His research indicated the extent to which Indian history has been falsified. And yet many of Mr Oak’s followers still use the phrase “Thousand year slavery of Hindus” without thinking. It has been a thousand year of struggle to keep the identity and freedom of the Hindu people. The struggle could have been won over much shorter period if only Hindus had learnt from their history.

Muslims were once the rulers of India (?)

Accessing Hinduism by Helen Kanitkar and Duncan Macpherson was published in 1999. Helen was a Welshwoman married to my friend Hemant Kanitkar of London.
In Module Four : The Modern Historical Context the authors say on pp28/29 –
Hinduism and Islam
“… When Muslims ceased to rule India, however, they found it difficult to reconcile themselves to the prospect of being a minority out of power.”

Exceptions to the rule

Savarkar (1883 – 1966)
* We must remember that there were some leaders who were aware of the truth. Veer Savarkar was such a person. In 1910 he was sentenced to Transportation for Life twice to Andaman Islands, some 1000 miles from Chennai. He narrates his experiences during World War I

I (Savarkar) said to fellow prisoners. “Don’t get carried away by emotions. We have to see how we can use this war to our advantage. It is natural that we sympathise with Germans (and her allies like Turkey). But we must be careful. We do not want to change one ruler (English) for another (German). Most accepted my argument. I also said – what good would it be for us if Turkish Sultan or Amir of Afghanistan was to become ruler of India?
Muslim prisoners objected to that. The Sultan of Turkey was a God to them. How many stories and legends had grown around him as the Khalifa in their sacred writings! They were taught in their cradle to worship the name of that Sultan with feelings of sanctity and reverence. That personage was to invade India and I said that his rule will bring no good to India. What a blasphemy to say so. That the rule of the Sultan over India would be a foreign rule was a proposition beyond their understanding. If among the prisoners there was a Maulavi or a Muslim with some education who knew something of history, I would tell him of the atrocities committed by Arabs on Iranians, by Turks on Arabs, by Pathans and Iranians on each other and finally by all these and Mughals on Indian Muslims. Even though the Maulavi or little educated Muslim accepted the historical truth of my arguments he would still say – ‘ It is in India’s interest that Sultan of Turkey should invade India and establish a Muslim rule there.’ Muslim prisoners were devoid of any national self-respect. Added to that was their religious fanaticism and utter ignorance of world affairs. Their bloating knew no bounds.

The Muslim prisoners started to preach, ‘Germany was sure to beat England and conquer India. The Sultan of Turkey would personally crown the German Kaiser as the Emperor of India, and Muslims would get high positions and big jobs in the Indian Empire. Those who would not be Muslims then, were going to be severely punished.’ Savarkar of course effectively countered this Muslim propaganda.

Savarkar continues, “The fact of Turkey entering the war on the side of Germany against England, fired the imagination of the Muslims; and man, woman and child began to dream of Muslim Raj in India. And when occasionally they came to hear that the Amir of Afghanistan had made a common cause with the Germans and the Turks, their enthusiasm knew no bounds. The Pathans were so entrapped by the prospect that their tongues began to wag like the croaking of frogs in a pool of water before the advent of the monsoon. If one Pathan raised one rumour, another multiplied it tenfold, and so long as Anvar Beg was in the field, he was reported to have decimated thousands of British regiments or taken the city of Basra. About the Amir of Afghanistan, the reports were still more extravagant. It was not enough for him to cross the Indus (Sindhu), but he must knock today at the door of Lahore, and march another day on to Sirhind. The petty officers, moving in and out of prison, brought in fantastic news that produced convulsion among the prisoners…… But behind the ridiculous behaviour of the Pathans there was one quality, which I never failed to impress upon those who simply laughed at them. I always asked my Hindu brethren not to forget how enthused they were, to a man, over the prospect of Muslim Raj in India or over the invasion of India by a Muslim power. This pride of race and religion was a virtue worthy of emulation, and it was this pride that would instantly translate itself into action at the right moment and with the right opportunity. The Hindus lacked this pride, this fervour, this unity of action, and therefore, they had suffered.”

“This was a matter of compliment for the Pathans but was full of menace to the Hindus, and the Hindus must be ever vigilant about it. Eternal vigilance was the price of liberty. Also they had to bear it well in mind that the Musulman imbibed this religious fervour and this spirit of Pan-Islamism with their mother’s milk. In every Muslim household he was taught from his childhood to love his religion and to stand by the Muslim Raj. What had the Hindus to show in comparison with this fervour, with this ardent, burning passion? Not one in ten thousand Hindus knew or cared to know what was Hindusthan, what was Hindu power, Hindu Raj, or the meaning of the term Hindu. What then of a common bond of sympathy among them?”
(My Transportation for Life, pp 349/354)

In 1921 Savarkar was sent back to mainland India and being kept in various prisons for another three years, was released from prison but had to live in internment in Ratnagiri. He moved to other places on some occasions with the permission of the Governor of Bombay Province.

* In November 1924, in Mumbai, Savarkar met the Muslim leader Maulana Shaukat Ali. The Maulana told Savarkar, “ You see things are quite different for Hindus and Muslims. Historically we Muslims have always beaten you Hindus (we have hit you with shoes). Therefore you Hindus can only rise if you co-operate with Muslims.”
Savarkar was of course not going to accept such remarks. He retorted, “It is true that we Hindus suffered defeats at the hands of Muslims, but we had avenged our defeats and defeated you Muslims on every battlefield from Attock (near Rawalpindi) to Rameshwar.”

The British therefore always despised Savarkar and praised Gandhi who was perfectly happy to live under a Muslim Rule, whether he was the Amir of Afghanistan or Nizam or Jinnah.

Dr Munje (1872 - 1948)
Dr Munje of Nagpur was another such person.  Once one Muslim student came met Munje. He started the conversation very politely and then suddenly said, “We Muslims ruled over India for 700 years.” Doctor intervened,” You are mistaken. You are a Hindusthani Muslim. The Muslim rulers were foreigners such as Afghans and Mughals. At present the English are ruling over us, would you say that the Anglo-Indians or Indian Christians are the rulers?”
The Muslim understood what Dr Munje had stated
(Dr Munje’s biography, part II by Mrs Veena Hardas, 1981, p425)

But Hindus considered Savarkar and Dr Munje as Hindu extremists and followed Gandhi and Nehru.

Effect on minds of Hindus in the 21st century
It is astonishing that today, even staunch Hindus do not know the true history. Take for example the book Architects of RSS by Dr V R Karandikar, former Head of Marathi Department, Fergusson College, Pune, India, published in 2003. On pages 31 and 32 we find –
The Muslims came to India as invaders. The English also occupied this country as rulers. They had no involvement with this nation’s earlier history and heritage. In fact, as conquerors they wanted to wipe it out. Even during the struggle for independence, the Muslims ever felt proud of having once established a mighty empire in this country. One can understand this, as the Muslim rule was a part of the history of mediaeval period. The Hindus do not feel any need of denying it. How can history be disowned? But, then, the Hindus are also aware that their history stretches more than two thousand years beyond the Muslim and Christian conquests of Bharat. In their new awakening of self-respect they also knew that they could overthrow the English rule and be free to re-establish the old glory of their country. On the contrary, Muslims could never forget that they were the absolute rulers here, and therefore they did not feel it necessary to develop a feeling of fraternity with the earlier people in this country. The English rulers saw great advantage in this aggressive mentality of the Muslims and they in fact, encouraged it. One cannot but admire the courage, ambition, and confidence of these two societies. But then the safety and the future of this country was also a sincere concern of the Hindus who cared for the same.”

The author was born in around 1918. Just look at the blunders he has repeated. Even the British rulers did not describe their conquest as Christian conquest!!.

One can but feel astonished at how the falsified history has moulded the thinking of even staunch Hindus.

* Recently I came across a booklet in Marathi entitled, “Why the Congress does not like Savarkar?”
It has been written by Arvind Vitthal Kulkarni. Second edition was published in January 2005. The author, a staunch supporter of Savarkar uses the phrase, “Hindus had developed certain phobias due to 1,000 years of slavery.”

* In December 2005 a large gathering of Hindus was held in Pandharpur, Maharashtra. On that occasion the monthly magazine Hindubodh of Pune wrote on page 5  - Reservation for Christians and Muslims
Item 3 - Just 200 years ago Muslims were the rulers. How can they now say that they are economically backward?
Item 3 - In India, Muslims ruled for 1,000 years but still they could not wipe out Hindu Dharma.

Facts about Muslim rule in India
(1) Sindh ruled by Hindoos, until conquered by the Moslems, A.D. 711
Governed by the deputies of the Ommiad Caliphs, A.D.750
Governed by the deputies of the Abbasides, till annexed by Mahmud of Ghazni to his dominions in A.D. 1025
Governed by a Sindhi tribe called the Sumrah, A.D. 1054
The Sammah Rajputs overthrew the Sumrahs A D. 1315

Conquered by Shah Beg Urghun, prince of Kandahar, A.D 1519.
Annexed by the English, 1843

Reference -
Sindh and the races that inhibit the valley of Indus. by Richard F Burton, Reprinted by Oxford University Press, 1973

Thus, Sindh was ruled by Hindoos for nearly 500 years. We have simply forgotten this history.

(2) In 1294, Allauddin Khilji of Delhi invaded Maharashtra and reached Devagiri the capital. Ramdevrao Yadav accepted defeat. But there were many fierce battles till 1318 when Khiljis finally subdued Marathas. Then followed an age of darkness. One shudders to look into the horrors of those times.
However, three centuries later rose Shahaji Bhonsle. He tried exciting adventures for five years. He even challenged the might of Mughal Emperor Shahjahan (1633-36). Though he did not succeed, such dangerous moves prepared his men for adventures in future. He was forced to accept service under Adilshah of Bijapur and move south to Karnatak. When his son Shivaji was 11 years old Shahaji sent his assistants involved in his adventures.

Shivaji began his freedom struggle in 1648 and eventually was crowned King in 1674.
Marathas were defeated in 1818 by the forces of the (English ) East India Company.

(3) Gujarat
Allauddin Khilji subdued Gujarat by 1317. Until then it was ruled by Rajputs.

So, where is the Thousand years of slavery? Afghanistan became Muslim only in 1025. Even they cannot claim to be Muslims for 1,000 years. That is the reality of our history.

(4) Assam
This province was never ruled by any Muslim ruler.

Where do we go from here?

(1) In 1977 Setu Madhavrao Pagdi was invited to attend Shivajayanti (birthday of Shivaji) function in Bhivandi, which has a large Muslim population. Muslims were invited for the celebrations and did attend. Pagdi explained the theme of this article. This is the gust of his findings –
Shivaji’s struggle was mainly political. First against the Adilshah of Bijapur and then the Mughal Badshah of Delhi. Both were Turks. It is incorrect to say that Marathas had some affinity towards Adilshah as he was a southerner. Well known historical researcher Dr Muhammad Naim has published a book entitled Foreign relations of Bijapur kingdom. He says – “ Bijapur was mainly the kingdom of Afafis (foreign Muslims who came across the seas like Turks, Persians.) The ruling class (senior knights) were Afafis. From central government to provincial administration officer class – was dominated by Afafis. This immigration did not stop till 1686.” Then what can we say about the Mughals? They were Turks from central Asia and were keenly aware of this till the death of Aurangzeb (in 1707). Some say that Aurangzeb used to address Muslims as Hindusthanis!. The officer class in civil and military was 60 to 65% Turks and Iranis (Persians) similar to proportion of British in the ICS cadre till 1947.

At the peak of Mughal power Indian Muslims were not found in any positions of authority. The Ministers, Governors of Provinces (Subedhar), heads of departments and generals were without exception Turks or Iranis, very rarely Pathans. The Boharis of Gujarat, Kokani Muslims on the west coast, Muslims in the south or even those who had been converted to Islam for 15 to 20 generations in Bengal, Uttar Pradesh or Sindh had no place in the administration. They had no value as far as the rulers were concerned.

It is fantasy of Indian Muslims that they were rulers before the British. Rulers were Turks from central Asia. The status and treatment meted out to Indian Muslims were no different to those of Indian Christians under the British Raj.

This enlightenment is essential. If truth is told repeatedly it will magnify the incredible achievement of Shivaji. The work is difficult but not impossible. We need confidence. One of the assistants of American General George Marshall used to say ‘what is impossible, we can do tomorrow. Only miracles will take some time.’

In Bhivandi, as usual I was introduced. During my lecture I explained work of Shivaji. I explained his attack on Bhivandi on 24 October 1657. I was busy with the Irani fort officer of Mahuli, Aurangzeb’s Turkish officers like Mahabhatkhan, Bahadurkhan, Uzbeckkhan and Iranis like Shaisthakhan and Namdarkhan. I forgot myself when describing these persons. I was trying to explain the position of Indian Muslims during this Maratha – Mughal struggle.
I was trying to bring the Muslims in audience from fantasy to reality. I was explaining to them that they were NOT descendents of the Turks from Central Asia who were the rulers in Shivaji’s times.

I was talking for one hour and forty-five minutes.

The reaction of Muslims was encouraging. After his lecture Pagdi took tea with Mr Gafud Said, a well-known local resident. He said, “It would have been much better if such lectures had taken places in the past.” Pagdi understood what he meant.
Pagdi therefore remarked, “Enlightenment on this subject is not easy. It is difficult, but possible. Yes, it can be done.”

We do not know if Pagdi delivered series of lectures, but he had shown the way.
[ Ashi hee Shivajayanti (Sobat weekly 13 May 1977) ]

(2) We urgently need periodic maps of Hindusthan showing provinces ruled by Hindu rulers.

(3) We must stress that other countries were under foreign domination for centuries. For example, Romans (Italians) once ruled over a huge empire stretching from England / Wales to Romania in Europe and from Tunisia to Libya in North Africa and from Egypt to Turkey in the East. But in course of time that empire collapsed and Italians were ruled by foreigners. First by the Germans (Lombards) for 200 years (571 to 771), then by the Franks (773 to 873). By 843 Arabs (Moors) captured the port of Bari on the Adriatic Sea and occupied much of Southern Italy and Sicily. Italy was ruled by the Spanish from 1563 to 1713 and by Austrians from 1713 to 1870. But no one talks about 1,300 years of slavery.

Spain and Portugal were ruled by Romans for 500 years and then by Moors (Arabs) for 700 years. Again, no one talks about 1,200 years of slavery.

In English

Ambedkar Dr B R Thoughts on Pakistan, 1946

Bernier F Travels in Mughal Empire edited by V Smith 1914

Census of India of 1901, Government of India publication

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1977

Kane P V, History of Dharmashastras Vol II

Kanitkar Helen and Macpherson Duncan
Accessing Hinduism, Melisende, London 1999.

Karandikar Dr V.R - Architects of RSS, 2003

Mahajan V D Mughal Rule in India, 1982

Sardesai New History of Marathas, 1946

Sarkar, Sir Yadunath Anecdotes of Aurangzeb and Historical Essays, published by M C Sarkar and sons 1912

Savarkar V D Hindutva 1926

Savarkar V.D  - My Transportation for Life, 2nd edition 1984.
                         - Six Glorious Epochs of Indian History, 2nd edition 1985.

Tavernier J B Travels in India   – Edited by Dr V Ball, 1889

In Italian
Manucci Niccolao, Storia Do Mogor

In Marathi

Hardas Mrs Veena - Dr Munje’s biography, part II, 1981

Kulkarni.Arvind Vitthal  - Congressla Savarkar nakot, Karan, 2005
Pagdi, Setumadhavrao,
* Amhala khotach itihas shikaval jato ka? (Kirloskar magazine, Nov 1974)
* Vida rangato asa, 1963,
* Ashi hee Shivajayanti (Sobat weekly 13 May 1977)
* Panipatachi mati (Sobat weekly, 14 June 1977)
* Vishalgadacha vedha (Diwali isue of Lokasatta, 1977)

Purandare B M Raja Shivachhatrapati (in Marathi) 1976

Samagra Saavarkar Vangmaya part 4, 1965

Saavarkar, Balarao – Biography of Veer Saavarkar, Ratnagiri Era, 1972

this is copy of-
book- Dr V S Godbole on 27 January 2004, revised 8 and 25 February, 25 and 31 July 2004, 8 July and 16 October 2005, 31 January, 17 March,
28 May and 16 December 2012.

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