Friday, January 24, 2014

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 61-70

संस्कृताध्ययनम् ।

Supplement to Lesson No. 70

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्ततितमस्य  (७०) पाठस्य परिशिष्टम् ।
Many interesting comments received on the lesson make a good study in themselves and merit compiling a supplement.
Comment 1
Oct 29, 2010 Shankara -
Abhyankarji, Are you sure this is a subhashita? I think, this is only a sarasasloka. A subhashita must contain some moral or lesson.
I replied saying – नमो नमः श्रीमन् “शंकर”-महोदय ! मया तु इदम् कस्मिन्श्चित् सुभाषितसन्ग्रहे एव प्राप्तमासीत् । संदेशः तु अस्ति एव, यत् हस्ताक्षरं सुष्ठु एव भवितव्यम् ।
Comment 2 -
October 29, 2010 From Shri. Arvind Kolhatkar, Toronto -
I saw the following verse in your lesson No 70.
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति को न वाचयति।
तस्मादप्यधिको मे यल्लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति॥
The version that I know of the same verse goes as under
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखितं तत्परो न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥
The first version does not agree with the meter.  The second not only goes with the meter but also has a richer content.
Comment 3 -
2010/10/29 Avinash Sathaye – भृ has basic meaning “to carry”. Compare with भार. Feeding is a derived meaning.
I replied – “भर्ता” इति शब्दः “भृ”-धातुतः एतत् सुष्ठु ज्ञापितम् । धन्यवादाः ।
2010/10/29 Avinash Sathaye – I forgot to add that I can see a deeper meaning in the verse, thus answering the criticism of Shankara.
The first husband is probably a really erudite person writing deep thoughts which are not understandable to others.
The second one, who thinks her husband an improvement was blessed with  the one who did not know what he was talking about.
In other words, if you let go of the idea of bad handwriting, it has a a serious meaning in terms of real knowledge.
Both deep and meaningless things are unintelligible and only a wise person can tell which is better.
Comment 4 -
Mr. Eddie Hadley also commented -
I have discovered something magical.
It is called SANSCRIPT (South Asian Network Software Conferring Relatively Immediate Phonetic Transliteration)
Mr. Hadley added how the lesson appears on applying SANSCRIPT - 
caturaḥ sakhi me bhartā yallikhati ko na vācayati ।
tasmādapyadhiko me yallikhati svayaṃ na vācayati ||
1 sandhi-vicchedān kṛtvā samāsānāṃ padāni ca darśayitvā  |
caturaḥ sakhi me bhartā yat likhati kaḥ na vācayati ।
tasmāt api adhika: me yat likhati svayaṃ na vācayati ||
2 samāsānāṃ vigrahāḥ śabdānāṃ vyutpattayaḥ viśleṣaṇāni ca |
This Supplement as a study of the comments -
While Shri. Shankara questioned eligibility of the verse to be called as a सुभाषितम् he has used an interesting word “sarasashloka” to say, what this verse may be called as. The word renders following analysis -
१ सरसश्लोकः ।
१.१ रसेन सह = सरस । उपपद-तत्पुरुषः ।
१.२ सरसः श्लोकः = सरसश्लोकः । कर्मधारयः ।
१.३ रसेन “रस्” १ प (= to tinkle) also १० उ (= to taste, to relish) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भाववाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम (qualitative masculine noun) “रस” (= what has the quality to cause taste, relish, tinkle) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (instrumental i.e. third case, singular) ।
१.४ सह (= with) अव्ययम् (indeclinable) ।
१.५ श्लोकः “श्लोक्” १ आ (= to praise, to compose in verse, to versify) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम (instrumental, masculine noun) “श्लोक” (= a verse) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case singular) ।
१.६ सरसश्लोकः = verse, which has relish in it.
In an earlier lesson, there was some discussion about who a poet is and what poetry is . There it was mentioned that वाक्यम् रसात्मकम् काव्यम् । meaning, if a sentence has relish in it, it becomes poetry !
In poetry नव रसा: nine sentiments are recognized. Well, that gives me a topic for the next lesson !
Both Mr. Aravind Kolhatkar and Mr. Avinash Sathaye suggest that one can and should read deeper meaning.
Since Mr. Aravind Kolhatkar has given a different version, I would first like to do detailed study of that version.
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखितं तत्परो न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यत्-लिखितं तत् पर: न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयं अपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥
२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च |
I think it should be alright to detail only what is new/different.
2.1 Considering comment of Dr. Avinash Sathaye -
भर्ता “भृ” १, ३ उ. (= to carry, to feed, to bear, to support, to foster, to cherish) इति धातुः (verb) । तस्मात् कर्तृवाचकं विशेषणम् “भर्तृ” (= one, who carries along, feeds, supports, fosters, cherishes, hence, husband) ।  अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) |
2.2 यल्लिखितम्
  • 2.2.1 This can be deciphered either as a सन्धि यल्लिखितम् = यत् + लिखितम् or
  • 2.2.2 as a समास
    येन लिखितम् = यल्लिखितम् । तृतीया तत्पुरुषः ।
Since version given by Mr. Kolhatkar has यल्लिखितं in place of यल्लिखति I was wondering how the syntax अन्वय would be.
Taking यल्लिखितम् = यत् + लिखितम् as a सन्धि the syntax becomes meaningful, as यत् (अनेन) लिखितम् i.e. by assuming (अनेन) to be implicit.
That assumption does not become necessary if it is deciphered as a समास “येन लिखितम् = यल्लिखितम् ।”
Deciphering as a समास also matches well with परलिखितम् in the second line.
2.3 परलिखितम् |
  • 2.3.1 परेण लिखितम् = परलिखितम् । तृतीया तत्पुरुषः ।
  • 2.3.2 परेण “पर” (= the other) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (instrumental i.e. third case, singular) ।
  • 2.3.3 परलिखितम् = written by other(s)
2.4 वाचयति ।
This can be deciphered to have two derivations -
  • 2.4.1 वाचयति Verb formed from noun “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) इति धातुः (verb) | तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् च (present tense, third person, singular) |
  • 2.4.2 वाचयति as causative of verb “वच्” २ प. (= to speak) | As causative the meaning would be “to make speak, to cause a speech, to prompt or provoke comment”
I guess, that the “deeper meaning”, which is suggested by both Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar and Dr. Avinash Sathaye, really hinges on interpreting this word “वाचयति” !
“यल्लिखितम् तत् वाचयति = whatever is written prompts or provokes comment.” is a concept which largely applies to all scriptures. What is written always has a deeper meaning.
One who writes only such writings is certainly an “erudite” person, as rightly said by Dr. Avinash Sathaye.
The second line as given by Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति seems to speak of a person who does not bother to read what is written by others nor what is written by himself.
What can that be meaning ?
  • Either the person is not a man of letters
  • Or he is a person, happy in his own world, possibly, happy being engrossed in deep meditation and totally disinterested in worldly arguments !
  • He may choose to speak or write off and on, but would not like to spend further effort in commenting or explaining the meaning of what he has written. He would let the world bother about it !
The second line in the version given by Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar has good import. But, I think, it misses the clarification, that the second line is by the friend of the lady in the first line. Also it misses the poetic charm, the satire, the punch implicit in तस्मादप्यधिको मे ।
Comment 5 -
In response to this supplement Mr. Kiran Paranjape promptly contributed his comment to say -
The version that I know of this is:
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति तत्परो न वाचयति।
तस्मादप्यधिकं मे स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥
It goes well with the meter, too.
Obviously this version from Mr. Paranjape combines good points of both the earlier versions !
One who “reads” वाचयति, would end up discovering ! And Mr. Eddie Hadley has discovered SANSCRIPT !
He added a punch-line at the bottom of his message “Seek, ye shall find !”
I find that the word “discover = remove the cover, unfold” is very interesting.
In ईशावास्योपनिषत् it says “तत् त्वं पूषन्नपावृणु” (= find that out by removing the cover)
Although Dr. Avinash Sathaye suggests leaving aside the thought that the सुभाषितम् speaks of the importance of good handwriting, there is a background, why I focused on the handwriting aspect. We noticed that my grandson does not have as good a handwriting. But good handwriting has been hereditary in our family. What a handwriting my father had ! Every line, simply a lace of pearls ! Hand-writings of my son and myself have also been fairly good. Certainly we want that my grandson should carry that “creed” in his i.e. fourth generation too ! So, I took up this सुभाषितम् to impress on him the importance of good handwriting ! Does not this सुभाषितम् do that in an amusing tone also ? My grandson is both amused and impressed !
Basically what is वाचनम् (= reading) from “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) ?
वाचनम् (= reading) is not just running our eyes over the text. Every reading must register a thought in our mind.
Every writing should also cause वाचनम् (= reading) !
I would not have been re-reading my lessons myself. But such thought-provoking comments really make me re-read and compose this supplement
स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयमपि वाचयति ! :-)
I am deeply obliged for all the comments !
शुभमस्तु |

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Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 70

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 70
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्ततितमः (७०) पाठः ।
Just taking up a simpler सुभाषितम्  –
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति को न वाचयति ।
तस्मादप्यधिको मे यल्लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति ||
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यत् लिखति कः न वाचयति ।
तस्मात् अपि अधिक: मे यत् लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति ||
२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च |

२.१ चतुरः “चतुर” (= smart) इति विशेषणम् (adjective) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (first case, singular) |
२.२ सखि “सखी” (= friend) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम (feminine noun) | तस्य संबोधन-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (address or vocative case, singular) ।
२.३ मे “अस्मद्” (= I, we – pronoun of first person) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (genitive case, singular) |
२.४ भर्ता “भर्” १ प (= to feed) इति धातुः (verb) । तस्मात् कर्तृवाचकं विशेषणम् “भर्तृ” (= one, who feeds, hence, husband) ।  अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) |
२.५ यत् (= ) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि (here, neuter) । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (second i.e. accusative case, singular) |
२.६ लिखति “लिख्” १ प (= to write) इति धातुः (verb) | तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् च (present tense, third person, singular) |
२.७ कः “किम्” (= who, what) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) |
२.८ न (= no, not) अव्ययम् (indeclinable) ।
२.९ वाचयति “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) इति धातुः (verb) | तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् च (present tense, third person, singular) |
२.१० तस्मात् “तत्” (= that) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (ablative i.e. fifth case, singular) ।
२.११ अपि (= even, also) अव्ययम् (indeclinable) ।
२.१२ अधिक: “अधिक” (= more) इति विशेषणम् (adjective) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here masculine) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) ।
२.१३ स्वयम् (= self) सर्वनामात्मकं अव्ययम् (basically a pronoun, often used as indeclinable) ।
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

३.१ सखि मे भर्ता चतुरः  = Friend, my husband (is) smart
३.२ यत् लिखति = what (he) writes
३.३ कः न वाचयति । = no one can read
३.४ मे तस्मात् अपि अधिक: = mine (is) even more (smart)
३.५ यत् लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति । = what (he) writes, (him)self does not (cannot) read !
४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ To decipher the meter -
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता । वर्णाः १८
१-१-२ १-१ २ २-२ मात्राः १२
यल्लिखति को न वाचयति । वर्णाः १०
२-१-१-१ २ १ २-१-१-१(२) मात्राः १४
तस्मादप्यधिको मे । वर्णाः ७
२-२-२-१-१-२ २ मात्राः १२
यल्लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति । वर्णाः ११
२-१-१-२ १-२ १ २-१-१-१ मात्राः १५
मात्राः in second line are one short of 15. But for this the verse seems to conform to उपगीति-वृत्तम् ।
४.२ We sent our son to learn typing and stenography, when he was in high-school 8th or 9th standard. Stenography what he learnt came very handy to him, in the college. He could make exhaustive notes of the lectures of the professors. But his notes were only readable for himself ! Of course he could read them himself for sure – unlike the “smarter” (?) husband in the second line of the सुभाषितम् here :-)
४.३ I think, children must acquire adequate typing skills as early as possible. Thirty-forty years back, typing skills were for people, who would settle down for the job of a typist. Now with computers having become a common, rather an essential utility, typing skill has also become an essential skill. Computers will work at their tremendous speed. But if we put in data at our own pace, we are certainly under-utilizing the computer.
४.४ I am often amazed at the speed at which children send “SMS”es even from non-QWERTY keypads, deftly using both their thumbs !
४.५ Concepts of essential skill-sets have changed and keep changing every passing day !
शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 69

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 69
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य नवषष्टितमः (६पाठः ।
In the previous lesson there was the mention of the quotation “मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय”
The complete मन्त्र is -
असतो मा सद्गमय ।
तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय ।
मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय ।
(अनृतान्मा ऋतं गमय
१ सन्धिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा -

असतः मा सत् गमय ।
तमसः मा ज्योतिः गमय ।
मृत्योः मा अमृतम् गमय ।
अनृतात् मा ऋतम् गमय ॥

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानाम् व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

.१ असतः ।
  •  ..१ न सत् असत् । नञ्-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ..२ न (= no, not) अव्ययम् ।
  • ..३ सत् अस्” २ प. (= to be, to existइति धातुः । तस्मात् वर्तमानकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् सत्” (= existing, real, true) adjectival, present tense, derivative from the verbal root । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि ।
  • ..४ असतः असत्” (= non-existent, unreal, untruth, falsehoodइति सामासिकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.२ मा अस्मद्” (= I, we pronouns of first personइति उत्तमपुरुषि सर्वनाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Second case, singular
.३ सत् अस्” २ प. (= to be, to existइति धातुः । तस्मात् वर्तमानकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् सत्” (= existing, real, true। अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि neuter । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
.४ गमय गम्” १ प(= to go to, to reach, to realize, to understand) इति धातुः । तस्य प्रयोजकस्य (= to make one go to, to lead) आज्ञार्थे द्वितीयपुरुषे एकवचनम् । Second person, singular of imperative of causative
.५ तमसः तमस्” (= darknessइति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम neuter common noun  तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.६ ज्योतिः ज्योति” (= flame, lightइति स्त्रीलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम feminine common noun । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । nominative (first) case, singular
.६ मृत्योः मृ” १ आ. (= to die, to deceaseइति धातुः । तस्मात् क्रियावाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम मृत्यु” (= death)masculine noun indicating action । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.७ अमृतम् ।
  •  .१ न मृतम् येन तत् (= that, which does not cause death i.e. that which prevents death,rather, forever)। नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः ।
    ..२ मृतम् मृ” १ आ. (= to die, to deceaseइति धातुः । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् मृत” (= dead)adjectival derivative of past tense । अत्र मृतम् (मृत्युः) एतदर्थेन नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम Here, the adjective is used in the sense of the noun.The adjectival derivative is of neuter gender । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Nominative (First) or accusative (second) case, singular
  • ..३ अमृतम् अमृत” (= nectarइति सामासिकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम compounded neuter common noun। तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Nominative (first) case, singular.
.८ अनृतात् ।
  • ..१ न ऋतम् अनृतम् । Compound word meaning not straightforward, not chaste नञ्-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ..२ ऋतम् ” (= to come forthइति धातुः । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् ऋत” (= straightforward। अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • ..३ अनृतात् अनृत” (= not straightforward, viciousइति सामासिकम् विशेषणम् adjectiival derivative of past tense । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि here neuter । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case singular
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च । 



  • मा असतः सत् गमय । = Lead me from untruth to truth
  • मा तमसः ज्योतिः गमय । = Lead me from darkness to light
  • मा मृत्योः अमृतम् गमय । = Lead me from death to immortality
  • मा अनृतात् ऋतम् गमय । = Lead me from viciousness to chastity
४ टिप्पणयः ।

.१ A mantra has a rhythm of its own. There does not have to be a meter.

.२ I am somewhat confused of the प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः of the words सत्अमृतम् and ऋतम् Since in the second line ज्योतिः is in प्रथमा विभक्तिः the other words should also be considered to be in प्रथमा विभक्तिः But प्रथमा विभक्तिः makes the grammar itself awkward, more so, the English translation becomes quite awkward. I have tried to make the translation as close to the Sanskrit grammar, primarily by considering all these words to be of द्वितीया विभक्तिःBut then प्रथमा विभक्तिः of the word ज्योतिः becomes a problem.
  • ..१ The translation derives only by considering द्वितीया विभक्तिः
.३ In (.) for the word “मा”, I am mentioning it as being of उत्तमपुरुष । In Sanskrit grammar
  • The pronouns of the English third person – He, She, It, They are called as being of प्रथमपुरुष
  • The second person pronoun “you”, both singular and plural is called as being of मध्यमपुरुष or द्वितीयपुरुष
  • the pronouns of the English first person – I, we – are called as being of उत्तमपुरुष or तृतीयपुरुष
  • Declension tables for verbs are also quoted in such order.

  • A suggestion came forth, that the grammar of each word should also be given in English, and not just in Sanskrit text using Devanagari script. If I should give grammar in English as per terminology of English grammar, I should give Sanskrit grammar as per Sanskrit terminology. This will cause a great change of mentioning “first person” as per English grammar and calling the same pronoun as being of उत्तमपुरुष orतृतीयपुरुष as per terminology of Sanskrit grammar. The converse will also happen. For the first-person pronouns, I shall rather use the term उत्तमपुरुष instead of तृतीयपुरुष This may help to avoid, at least partially, the confusion.

४.४ The fourth line is not often quoted. I do not know whether it is there in the original text. I even do not know which the original text is. But I did come across the fourth line also, sometime, somewhere. As such, it does make the mantra more comprehensive, since truth and falsehood in the first line are certainly different from chastity and viciousness in the fourth line.
.५ Here darkness is ignorance and flame or light is knowledge.
  • .५.१ प्रज्वालितो ज्ञानमयः प्रदीपः ।
  • .५.२ Even in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता
यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्जुन ।
ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात् कुरुते तथा ॥४-३७॥
सर्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन् प्रकाश उपजायते ।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्यात् विवृद्धम् सत्त्वमित्युत ॥१४-११

.६ Death मृत्यु: and immortality अमृतम् are also in the idiomatic sense. “Even if one dies, one’s name should live.”
शुभमस्तु ।
-o-O-o-
 

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 68

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 68
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य अष्ट-षष्टितमः (६८) पाठः ।
Now in this lesson एकादशः मन्त्रः of ईशावास्योपनिषत्  –
विद्याम् चाविद्यां च यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह |
अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययामृतमश्नुते  || ११ ||
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |
विद्याम् च अविद्यां च यः तत् वेद उभयं सह |
अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्यया अमृतं अश्नुते || ११ ||
२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च |

२.१ विद्याम् “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि “विद्या” | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.२ च (= and) अव्ययम् |
२.३ अविद्याम् |
  • २.३.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.३.२ न (= not) अव्ययम् |
  • २.३.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि “विद्या” |
  • २.३.४ अविद्याम् “अविद्या” (= what should not be learnt) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.४ यः “यत्” (= He who) ) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.५ वेद “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्य भूतकाले तृतीय-पुरुषे एकवचनम् |
२.६ उभयम् “उभय” (= both) इति सर्वनाम | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.७ सह (= with, together) अव्ययम् |
२.८ मृत्युम् “मृ” ६ आ. (= to die) इति धातुः | तस्मात् क्रियावाचकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “मृत्यु” |  तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ||
२.९ तीर्त्वा “tRU ” १ प. (= to cross over) इति धातुः | तस्मात् त्वान्तं अव्ययम् |
२.१० अमृतम् |
  • २.१०.१ न मृतम् येन तत् = अमृतम् | नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः |
  • २.१०.२ न (= not) अव्ययम् |
  • २.१०.३ मृतम् “मृ” ६ आ. (= to die) इति धातुः | तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “मृत” (= deceased, dead) | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | प्रायः नाम अपि मृतम् = मरणम् (= death) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  • २.१०.४ अमृतम् “अमृत” (= nectar, immortality) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२.११ अश्नुते “अश्” ५ आ. (= to get) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे एकवचनम् |
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

३.१ यः विद्याम् च अविद्यां च उभयम् सह तत् वेद । = He, who understands “That” alongwith understanding of what is knowledge and what is not knowledge
३.२ अविद्यया मृत्युम् तीर्त्वा = by understanding what is not knowledge one would transcend death
३.३ विद्यया अमृतं अश्नुते | = by understanding what is knowledge one gets immortality
४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ As mentioned in the notes in previous lesson श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and आचार्य विनोबा भावे have given different connotations of the words “विद्या” and “अविद्या”
४.२ In this मन्त्र the thought is carried forward to derive the conclusion that understanding both “विद्या” and “अविद्या” should finally lead to understanding “That”, i.e. “ईशतत्त्व” or “परमात्मतत्त्व”.
४.३ The statements (३.२) and (३.३) are again somewhat challenging to grasp their full import. Possibly the famous मन्त्र “मृत्योर्मामृतम् गमय” also connotes the same conclusion as is presented by these two statements (३.२) and (३.३)
४.४ विनोबाजी ’s definition of “अविद्या” as the state devoid of sensibility appeals to be a good definition to understand how knowledge of this state would lead one to transcend death. A state devoid of sensibility is akin to death. Achieving that state at a conscious level is transcending death !
४.५ The concept of death can as well be understood to be idiomatic. One can transcend death conceptually. There is an interesting episode in महाभारतम्. After the epic battle, there was the ceremony for enthroning युधिष्ठिर as the king. Many Brahmins had come from all over the kingdom and also from all friendly kingdoms. Among those Brahmins was also a demon चार्वाक disguised as a Brahmin. Just when the ceremonial rituals were about to commence, चार्वाक challenged युधिष्ठिर that he was not eligible to be the king. युधिष्ठिर also never wanted to be a king with any strain of non-approval in anyone’s mind. He listened patiently to चार्वाक’s arguments. चार्वाक argued, “Eh yudhiShThira, You have been a party in a war where hundreds of thousands of lives were lost, hundreds of thousands of mothers lost their sons, hundreds of thousands of wives lost their husbands, hundreds of thousands of sisters lost their brothers, hundreds of thousands of innocent children lost their fathers. You are a killer, a gruesome murderer. Only atonement for a murderer is to penalise oneself to death.”
युधिष्ठिर very calmly replied, “Oh Brahmin, do you not know that I have been a famous king, who ruled from my capital in इन्द्रप्रस्थ ? I have been such a king, of whom there is no equal. I have been a king who had no equal in the entire history of human race. I am a king, who shall have no equal anytime in the future. I say this with great pride. Pride is suicidal. So, by indulging in self-praise I have committed suicide. Secondly, oh Brahmin, by your argument, you have inflicted insult on  a king. Insult is virtual death for a king. So, I have already atoned myself by dying twice.”
Pride and insult were both “अविद्या”. युधिष्ठिर was knowledgeable of this “अविद्या” and transcended death by that knowledge !
४.६ श्रीमान् आदिशङ्कराचार्य explains “अविद्या” saying “अविद्या” is following prescribed practices, without questioning “why” of those prescriptions. By logic of the converse, “विद्या” means pursuing the field of knowledge with the spirit of enquiry, inquiring also about the ईशतत्त्व ! And if this pursuit leads to “realisation” of that “ईशतत्त्व”, that then would be the pinnacle of “विद्या”, immortality! “विद्यया अमृतं अश्नुते” !
४.७ There is another episode again in महाभारतम्, which in a way exemplifies this. After running the affairs of the state honourably for hundreds of years, पाण्डव-s alongwith द्रौपदी decided to retire to the heavens. But in the final climb, युधिष्ठिर was left alone. However one dog kept him company all along. Finally युधिष्ठिर and the dog arrived at the gates of the heaven. इन्द्र had known that युधिष्ठिर was on his way and sent his charioteer माताली to receive युधिष्ठिर ! “Welcome, Sir !” said माताली.  युधिष्ठिर beckoned the dog also to join. At that, माताली said, “Sorry, Sir ! But dogs are not allowed admission here.” युधिष्ठिर replied, “I have not known of any code of justice where you forsake a friend who has given you company all along in a long journey. If you do not admit this dog, then I also would not seek entry into such unjust heaven !” माताली was perplexed because it was beyond his diktat to make an exception.
Suddenly, Lord यम made his appearance from nowhere. He said to माताली, “Admit him !” माताली started to say something like “But, Sir …..!”  He was looking around for the dog. But there was no dog !
Lord यम said, “I was that dog. I accompanied युधिष्ठिर  all along. I did so, to test युधिष्ठिर’s sense of justice !”
Turning to युधिष्ठिर, यम said, “Welcome my son ! You have passed the test !”
Sense of justice is “विद्या” By the knowledge of “विद्या” युधिष्ठिर  got uninhibited admission into the heavens ! विद्ययामृतमश्नुते !
४.८ Among spiritually accomplished souls, there are said to be those who more pursue the spiritual path with the spirit of inquiry, विद्याभ्यसनम्. There are also those, who pursue the path of following prescribed practices हरि -पाद-सेवनम्
४.९ If I may say so, from my understanding, Chapters 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 17 and 18  in गीता  are more of विद्याभ्यसनम् category. Chapters 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 are of हरि-पाद-सेवनम् category.
४.१० These three मन्त्राः of ईशावास्योपनिषत्  advise that one should understand both “विद्या” and “अविद्या”. In turn the advice is that one should study all chapters of गीता !
४.११ Reference in (४.३) above, to the other famous mantra “मृत्योर्मामृतम् गमय” brings to mind that all the three lines of that मन्त्र together summarise the import of these three मन्त्राः 8th, 9th and 10th in ईशावास्योपनिषत्  It should be appropriate to study that other mantra also wholesomely in the next lesson and explore the correlation !
शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 67

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 67
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्त-षष्टितमः (६७) पाठः ।
Having studied नवमः मन्त्रः of ईशावास्योपनिषत्  in the previous lesson, now दशमः मन्त्रः –
अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्यया अन्यदाहुरविद्यया |
इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नस्तद्विचचक्षिरे || १० ||
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |
अन्यत् एव आहुः विद्यया अन्यत् आहुः अविद्यया |
इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नः तद् विचचक्षिरे || १० ||
२ समासानां विग्रहाः, शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः, विश्लेषणानि  च |

२.१ अन्यत् (= different) इति सार्वनामिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.२ एव (= only) अव्ययम् ।
२.३ आहुः “अह्” १ आ. १० उ. (= to say) इति धातुः | तस्य भूतकाले तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
  • Optionally the धातुः is taken to be “ब्रू” (= to say) २ उ. |
२.४ विद्यया “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” | तस्य तृतीया विभाक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.५ अविद्यया |
  • २.५.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.५.२ न (= not) अव्ययम् |
  • २.५.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” |
  • २.५.४ अविद्यया “अविद्या” (= what is not knowledge) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.६ इति (= all this) अव्ययम् |
२.७ शुश्रुम “श्रु” ५ प. (= to hear, to listen to) इति धातुः | तस्य भूतकाले प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
२.८ धीराणाम्  “धीर” (= wise, bold) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |
२.९ ये “यत्” (= he, it, those who) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभाक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |
२.१० नः “अस्मद्” (= I, we) इति प्रथमपुरुषि सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य द्वितीया  विभाक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |
२.११ तद् (= that) इति तृतीय-पुरुषि सर्वनाम | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
२.१२ विचचक्षिरे “वि + चक्ष्” २ प. (= to explain in detail) इति धातुः | तस्य परोक्षभूते तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

विद्यया अन्यत् एव आहुः | =
  • (They) said, “(It is) different from knowledge.
अविद्यया अन्यत् आहुः | =
  • (They) said, “(It is) different from what is not knowledge.
ये नः विचचक्षिरे इति तद् धीराणां शुश्रुम | =
  • Those who explained in detail to us, from those wise (sages), (we) learnt “that” like this.
४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः terms “विद्या” to mean the practice of “ज्ञानयोग” and “अविद्या” to mean the practice of कर्म-योग” Possibly those who practice कर्म-योग will follow the diktats without questioning “why”. There is some logic in terming such indulgence in a specified practice, without questioning “why”, as “अविद्या”.
४.२ आचार्य विनोबा भावे calls “विद्या” to mean “sensibility” (जाणीव in Marathi) and “अविद्या” to mean a state devoid of sensibility (नेणीव in Marathi). By this definition, “अविद्या” seems to be conceptually similar to the concept of a “null set” in mathematics ! That is some smart logic of आचार्य विनोबा भावे ! No wonder why he was so much respected as being an आचार्य
  • आचार्य विनोबा भावे also makes an interesting observation that तृतीया विभक्तिः employed for the words विद्यया and अविद्यया is actually to be interpreted as being पञ्चमी विभक्तिः । He even explains how such switching of विभक्तिः has been validated in other scriptures also.
  • Such nuances come to notice only when doing word-by-word study. Scriptures like ईशावास्योपनिषत् have to be studied as minutely.
  • The study has to be further carried forward in a spiritual pursuit. But I think one needs His grace to be able to make any progress on the spiritual path.
४.३ Both agree that “That”, which is explained by the sages to the ऋषि is “ईशतत्त्व” or “परमात्मतत्त्व” And “That” is of course different from “विद्या” and also different from “अविद्या”
४.४ Actually these connotations of “विद्या” and “अविद्या” as termed by श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and by आचार्य विनोबा भावे are mentioned by them in their commentaries on the previous नवमः मन्त्रः also. It was only my thinking that these connotations should rather be put forth for deliberation when discussing this दशमः मन्त्रः ।
४.५ This is only a glimpse of how an उपनिषत् becomes a philosophical heavy weight ! Such philosophical statements are admittedly beyond my capacity to make any more elaboration. The ऋषि himself says that this was explained to him by wise sages. To “realise” full import of such heavy-weight philosophical statements, one needs to progress very far on the path of spiritual pursuit. Honestly I do not know, whether I am even at the “start” point of that spiritual path.
शुभमस्तु |

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Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 66

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 66
संस्कृतभाषायाः   नूतनाध्ययनस्य  षट्-षष्टितमः  (६६) पाठः ।
In the previous lesson, there was the mention of विद्याभ्यसनं व्यसनम् . There is a thought-provoking advice in ईशावास्योपनिषत् about what all should be learnt as विद्याभ्यसनम् The advice is in a triplet of मन्त्राः 9th 10th and 11thWe shall have to study them one by one. Here is नवमः मन्त्रः –
अन्धं  तमः  प्रविशन्ति  येऽविद्यामुपासते  |
ततो भूय इव ते तमः य उ विद्यायां रताः || ९ ||
१ संधि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।
अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति ये अविद्यां उपासते ।
ततः भूयः इव ते तमः ये उ विद्यायां रताः || ९ ||
२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

२.१  अन्धम्  “अन्ध” (= blind) इति विशेषणम्  | अत्र नपुम्सकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
२.२  तमः “तमस्” (= darkness) इति नपुम्सकलिङ्गि नाम |  तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
२.३ प्रविशन्ति “प्र + विश्” ६ प. (= to enter) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम्  |
२.४ ये  “यत्” (= he, it) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा  विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
२.५ अविद्याम्  |
  • २.५.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.५.२ न (= not) अव्ययम्  |
  • २.५.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणं “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” |
  • २.५.४ अविद्याम् “अविद्या” (= what should not be learnt) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
२.६ उपासते | ”उप + आस्”  २ आ. (= to sit near, to practice, to indulge in) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
२.७ ततः (= then, therefore, further, furthermore) अव्ययम् |
२.८ भूयः (= again, also) अव्ययम् |
२.९ इव (= as if, like that) अव्ययम् |
२.१० ते “तत्” (=he, it) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
२.११ उ (= uh) अव्ययम् |
२.१२ विद्यायाम्  “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणं “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
२.१३ रताः “रम्” २ आ. (= to enjoy) इति धातुः | तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणं “रत” (= engaged) | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि |  तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

ये अविद्यां उपासते (ते) अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति | = those who indulge in what should not be learnt, enter blinding darkness.
ततः ये विद्यायां रताः उ ते भूयः तमः (प्रविशन्ति) इव | = Furthermore, those who are engaged in what should be learnt, uh ! they also (enter into) darkness of sorts!
४ टिप्पणयः  |

४.१ श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and आचार्य विनोबा भावे both call every stanza in ईशावास्योपनिषत् as “मन्त्रः”. Every syllable in a मन्त्र has a weightage मात्रा of its own ! Weightages are related to stress exerted and time spent in the pronunciation of the syllable. Weightages are three (1) unstressed अनुदात्त (2) stressed उदात्त or (3) elongated प्लुत Every syllable has to be pronounced by its appropriate weightage. In this manner every मन्त्र gets a rhythm of its own. The rhythm has the capacity to cause reverberations in all the surrounding environment. The reverberations have the capacity to “cleanse” the environment !
Every quotation in वेदाः is a मन्त्रः ।
An उपनिषत् is also called as वेदान्त. So every quotation in an उपनिषत् is also a मन्त्र.
ईशावास्योपनिषत् is वेदान्त of यजुर्वेद.
४.२ The ऋषि whosoever composed this ईशावास्योपनिषत् speaks in this मन्त्र ९ about two classes of people – (1) those who indulge in what should not be learnt and (2) those who stay engaged in what should be learnt. The मन्त्र is thought-provoking because the ऋषि makes the statement that both classes of people enter darkness. The statement is thought-provoking, especially because it says, those who stay engaged in what should be learnt also enter into darkness.
विनोबाजी interprets this as suggesting that one should know, at least for complete knowledge even that what should not be learnt.
I think the statement can be clearer with some example. I have thought of this example. How to stay healthy is something what should be learnt. Conversely how to fall sick is something which should not be learnt. But knowledge and practice of staying healthy will be incomplete without the knowledge of what makes us fall sick. So, knowledge of what should not be learnt yet becomes complimentary to the knowledge of what should be learnt. Maybe the proverb “Half knowledge is dangerous” has this logic only ! Knowing only what should be learnt becomes half knowledge.
How to stay healthy and what can make us fall sick are two sides, positive and negative, of the same field of knowledge. For complete knowledge there should be knowledge of both the sides.
Possibly a good example of positive and negative is in the field of photography. In old style of photography, they would put a film in the camera. Click of the camera would expose the film to light reflected by the object. “Developing” the exposed film would make a negative. The negative is used to expose another coated paper. Coating on this other coated paper would also suffer exposure. Washing the coating would reveal the positive image. Thus positive image emerges by intelligent use of the negative !!
All digital screens also, before images appear on them, are dark. That darkness, negativity becomes positive when images appear.
४.३ Complete, more comprehensive significance of this मन्त्र will emerge after studying the other two मन्त्र-s also.
शुभमस्तु |

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Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 65

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 65
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य पञ्च-षष्टितमः (६५) पाठः ।
In the previous lesson there was the mention of addictions व्यसनम् Here is a सुभाषितम् which gives a positive twist to the meaning of the word व्यसनम् -
व्यसनान्यत्र बहूनि व्यसनद्वयमेव केवलं व्यसनम् ।
विद्याभ्यसनं व्यसनं अथवा हरिपादसेवनं व्यसनम् ।।
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानाम् पदानि च दर्शयित्वा -
व्यसनानि अत्र बहूनि व्यसन-द्वयम् एव केवलं व्यसनम् ।
विद्या-अभ्यसनम्  व्यसनं अथवा हरि-पाद-सेवनं व्यसनम् ।।
२ समासानाम् विग्रहाः शब्दानाम् व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च -
२-१ व्यसनानि “वि + अस्” २ प (= to be addicted) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “व्यसन” (= addiction) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२-२ अत्र  (= here) अव्ययम् ।
२-३ बहूनि बहु (= many, multifold) इति अनिश्चित-संख्यावाचकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२-४ व्यसन-द्वयम् ।
  • २-४-१ व्यसनयोः द्वयम् = व्यसन-द्वयम् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-४-२ व्यसनयोः “वि + अस्” २ प (= to be addicted) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “व्यसन” (= addiction) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च ।
  • २-४-३ द्वयम् “द्वि” (= two) इति संख्यावाचकम् विशेषणम् । तस्मात् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “द्वय” (= pair, couplet) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-४-४ व्यसन-द्वयम् = a couplet of or a pair of addictions
२-५ एव (= only) अव्ययम् ।
२-६ केवलम् (= only) अव्ययम् ।
२-७ विद्याभ्यसनम्  ।
  • २-७-१ विद्यायाः अभ्यसनम् = विद्याभ्यसनम् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-७-२ विद्यायाः “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to understand, to learn) इति धातुः । तस्मात् विध्यर्थि स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “विद्या” (= addiction) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-७-३ अभ्यसनम् “अभि + अस्” २ प. (= to be at, to be wholesomely at, to focus at, to study) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “अभ्यसन” (= studying, learning) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-७-४ विद्याभ्यसनम् = to be addicted at studying, at learning, at gaining knowledge
२-८ अथवा (= or) अव्ययम् ।
२-९ हरि-पाद-सेवनम् ।
  • २-९-१ हरेः पादौ = हरिपादौ । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-९-२ हरिपादयोः सेवनम् = हरिपादसेवनम् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-९-३ हरेः “हृ” १ उ. (= to take, to take away, to lead) इति धातुः । तस्मात् कर्तृवाचकं पुल्लिङ्गि विशेषनाम “हरि” (= He who takes away (worldly miseries), Lord VishNu) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-९-४ पादौ “पाद” (= foot) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च ।
  • २-९-५ हरिपादयोः “हरिपाद” (= foot of Lord VishNu) इति सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च ।
  • २-९-६ सेवनम् सेव् १ आ. (= to serve, to render service) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “सेवन” (= service, rendering service) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।
व्यसनानि अत्र बहूनि (सन्ति) । = There are many addictions (possible)
व्यसन-द्वयम् एव केवलं व्यसनम् । = Only a couple of addictions are (worthwhile)
विद्या-अभ्यसनम्  व्यसनं अथवा हरि-पाद-सेवनं व्यसनम् = Either addiction of study or addiction of service at Lord’s feet (should be the addictions).
४ टिप्पणयः ।
४-१ First, to find the meter of the verse -
व्यसनान्यत्र बहूनि । वर्णानां संख्या ८
१-१-२-२-१ १-२-२ कुलमात्राः १२
व्यसनद्वयमेव केवलं व्यसनम् । वर्णानां संख्या १४
१-१-२-१-१-२-१ २-१-२ १-१-२ कुलमात्राः १८
विद्याभ्यसनं व्यसनं । वर्णानां संख्या ८
२-२-१-१-२ १-१-२ कुलमात्राः १२
अथवा हरिपादसेवनं व्यसनम् । वर्णानां संख्या १३
१-१-२ १-१-२-१-२-१-२ १-१-२ कुलमात्राः १८
एतत् आर्या-वृत्तम् । Actually आर्या-वृत्तम्  has nine sub-divisions. Most common आर्या-वृत्तम् has १५ कुलमात्राः in the fourth line. Here we have १८.
४-२ By using the word व्यसनम् repetitively, the poet has struck a sweet rhythm ! Such adornment of repetitive sounds is called as अनुप्रासः This adornment is a शब्दालङ्कारः, because it uses शब्द (= sound) to adorn the poetry.
४-३ The poet has said it all and said it so sweetly ! There should be nothing to add.
शुभमस्तु ।
-o-O-o-

Comments on Lesson 64

Comments on Lesson 64
I am ever indebted to Dr. Avinash Sathaye for his scholarly comments. They provoke me into further study. Basic purpose of the lessons is study.
Study also means exploring the field of knowledge with the spirit of inquiry. “My thoughts” on comments of Dr. Avinash Sathaye should hence be please read in that manner, that the thoughts are only with the spirit of inquiry, not at all for indulging into arguments !
Comments of Dr. Avinash SathayeMy thoughts on the comments
कलह . The traditional derivation is कलं हन्ति इति।कलं हन्ति इति कलह: is wonderful ! Because कल means “soft, pleasing sound” ! And कलह: (= quarrel) would certainly kill “हन्ति”  symphony, a harmony or कल a soft, pleasing sound !
If ह = हन्ति, then ह becomes an उपपद similar to other उपपदानि,
such as क = करोति as in नाशक or द = ददाति as in पयोद
If ह is an उपपद meaning ह = हन्ति, is it so mentioned in dictionaries ?
It seems उपपदानि are an important aspect of formation of words in Sanskrit.
root लह् ?Admittedly root लह्  is my discovery !
word lahari does not come from लह् It has a different etymologyWhat is the etymology of “lahari” ?
it is inappropriate to match शास्त्र  with modern idea of Science.
In गीता and other traditional books, the प्रमाणभूत शास्त्र  is the धर्मशास्त्र  and not modern science or scientific thought.
The matching of शास्त्र   and Science is a modern invention.
Since शास्त्र is derived from धातुः ” शास्” meaning “to rule” शास्त्र derived with उपपद त्र would mean an edict, a governing principle.
The governing principle whether for philosophy or for a scientific phenomenon merits to be termed as शास्त्र.
Even गीता dwells on many scientific thoughts.
For example in 17th chapter there are 3 श्लोकाः on आहारशास्त्र
In 6th chapter शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य details good शास्त्र useful even for installation of machinery !
In 2nd chapter “क्रोधात् भवति संमोहः” dwells on science of psychology.
If scientific thoughts should have a different word, which other word, other than शास्त्र ?
The word विनोद is used in the sense of play/game.
In मानसोल्लास many विनोद are described which are simply sporting/betting activities of different kinds.
Since विनोदः is derived from “वि + नुद्” ६ उ (= to excite)
“विनोद = excitement” would give a wide compass to what all can be termed as विनोद
It can be games, plays, jokes, also “sporting/betting activities as described in मानसोल्लास”
मानसोल्लास itself means excitement of the mind !
So मानसोल्लास = विनोद
काव्य does mean poetry in many places.
the original meaning of कवि was a seer – कविः क्रान्तदर्शी
In the statement कविः क्रान्तदर्शी the word क्रान्तदर्शी means क्रान्तं दर्शयति असौ
क्रान्तदर्शी would literally mean a historian, because क्रान्तं literally means “what has already happened”
How would  क्रान्तदर्शी then mean a “seer” ?
To say that “original meaning of कवि was a seer – कविः क्रान्तदर्शी, how do we know how original (= ancient ?)
is this statement कविः क्रान्तदर्शी ?
Most important point for further study arising from comments of Dr. Sathaye is study of उपपदानि
In one lesson, there was the study of उपसर्गाः । In that context study was done of the श्लोकः -
उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते ।
How good it would be if there is another श्लोकः on उपपदानि also !
By the way, it comes to mind that words to be used in sentences पदानि would have inflictions from three inflicts – उपसर्गाः उपपदानि and प्रत्ययाः
It seems that they should be understood really in that order, because
  • उपसर्गाः are prefixes,
  • उपपदानि are towards the end, but before प्रत्ययाः and
  • प्रत्ययाः are suffixes at the end.
Well, अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनी will certainly have some सूत्राणि about these.
Comments are welcome !
 

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 64

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 64
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुः-षष्टितमः (६४) पाठः ।
It has been a satisfying feeling to be doing these lessons based on good sayings सुभाषितानि । There is a सुभाषितम् which says just that, when speaking about how wise people spend their time and how the fools do. Here it is -
काव्यशास्त्रविनोदेन कालो गच्छति धीमताम्।
व्यसनेन तु मूर्खाणां निद्रया कलहेन वा ॥
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानाम् पदानि च दर्शयित्वा -
काव्य-शास्त्र-विनोदेन कालः  गच्छति धीमताम् ।
व्यसनेन तु मूर्खाणां निद्रया कलहेन वा ॥
२ समासानाम् विग्रहाः शब्दानाम् व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च -
२-१ काव्य-शास्त्र-विनोदेन
  • २-१-१ काव्यम् च शास्त्रम् च विनोदः च एतेषाम् समाहारः = काव्य-शास्त्र-विनोदः । समाहार-द्वन्द्वः ।
  • २-१-२ काव्यम् “कव्” १ आ (= to describe, to picturize) इति धातुः । तस्मात् “काव्य” (= poetry, poetic thought) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-१-३ शास्त्रम् “शास्” २ प (= to govern, to rule) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “शास्त्र” (= order, principle, diktat, rule, science) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-१-४ विनोदः “वि + नुद्” ६ उ (= to excite) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “विनोद” (= excitement, exciting thought) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-१-५ काव्य-शास्त्र-विनोदेन “काव्य-शास्त्र-विनोद” इति सामासिकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२-२ कालः  “काल” (= time) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२-३ गच्छति “गम्” १ प (= to go) इति धातुः । तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
२-४ धीमताम् ।
  • २-४-१ धी + मत् ।
  • २-४-२ मत् = अस्य अस्ति । = has inherent
  • २-४-३ धी (= intellect) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम ।
  • २-४-४ धीमताम् “धीमत्” (= intelligent, wise) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२-५ व्यसनेन “वि + अस्” २ प (= to be astray) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “व्यसन” (= addiction) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२-६ तु (= however) अव्ययम् ।
२-७ मूर्खाणाम्  “मूर्ख” (= fool) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२-८ निद्रया “निद्रा” (= sleep) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२-९ कलहेन ।
  • २-९-१ क + लह् ।
  • २-९-२ “क” उपसर्गः नकारात्मकः । “सु”-उपसर्गस्य विरुद्धः अर्थः । “ka” is a prefix lending negative meaning. This prefix makes antonyms of words having prefix “su”
  • २-९-३ लह्  (= to flow like a breeze or like a wave) इति धातुः । From this लहरिः means wave
  • २-९-४ कलहेन “कलह” (= quarrel) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-९-५ सुलह =agreement, resolving of disagreement
  • २-९-६ सुलह > < कलह are antonyms !
२-१० वा (= ) अव्ययम् ।
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।
धीमताम् कालः काव्य-शास्त्र-विनोदेन गच्छति । = Time of the wise goes (is spent) by poetic thoughts, scientific thoughts and/or by exciting thoughts.
मूर्खाणां तु व्यसनेन निद्रया वा कलहेन (गच्छति) । = However (time) of fools (is spent) by addictions, by sleeping or by quarreling.
Intelligent people (dhīmān) spend their time studying the literature and shastras.
The dumb people (mūrkhāḥ) spend (waste) their time in sleeping and quarrels!
४ टिप्पणयः ।
४-१ There is a popular quote – “Great minds discuss ideas, average minds discuss events, small minds discuss people.” — Eleanor Roosevelt In her quote Madam Roosevelt speaks of three classes of people. This सुभाषितम् speaks of two classes of people.
Interestingly however three-fold categorization is discussed about many things in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता especially
  • in the fourteenth chapter गुण-त्रय-विभाग-योगः
  • in the seventeenth chapter श्रद्धा-त्रय-विभाग-योगः and
  • in the eighteenth chapter -
  • ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुण-भेदतः ।।१८-१९।।
  • बुद्धेर्भेदं धृतेश्चैव गुणतस्त्रिविधं शृणु ।।१८-२९।।
  • सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं ।।१८-३६।।
What Madam Roosevelt calls as “ideas” (Great minds discuss ideas), that is detailed exceedingly well here by the word काव्य-शास्त्र-विनोदेन
४-२ Before people would start raising eyebrows about “सुलह > < कलह are antonyms !” let me state that this etymology of these words is my discovery ! In India the word सुलह is quite common, especially among Hindi-speaking people. By historical perspective, Urdu is a language which evolved from a mix of Hindi Pharsi (Persian) and/or Arabic. So a word like सुलह sounds to be an Urdu word. I have always believed it to be so. But now when thinking of सुलह in the context of कलह with the prefixes “क” and “सु” certainly making antonyms in Sanskrit, I am feeling more than convinced that I am not off the mark in this discovery. It is a great feeling that the word सुलह which I had taken for so long to be Urdu sounds to be very much a Sanskrit word !!
४-३ The word काव्यम् also is interesting. In Apte’s dictionary it is mentioned “काव्यम् is defined by writers on Poetics in different ways.
  • वाक्यम् रसात्मकं काव्यम् as per साहित्य-दर्पण
  • रमणीयार्थ-प्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् as per रसगंगाधर
  • तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि as per काव्यप्रकाश
  • There can be poetry even in a prose composition. An eminent example is कादंबरी by बाण
४-४ The word शास्त्रम् is also interesting. Some detail of शास्त्रम् is already given at २-१-३. Importance of scientific validity is very much emphasized in the sixteenth chapter in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता -
तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्य-व्यवस्थितौ ।
ज्ञात्वा शास्त्र-विधानोक्तं कर्म कर्तुमिहार्हसि ।।१६-२४।।
४-५ The word विनोदः is often taken to mean “a joke”. More appropriate translation however is “excitement” or “that, what would cause an excitement”.
शुभमस्तु ।
-o-O-o-
 

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 63

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 63
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रिषष्टितमः (६३) पाठः ।
In the previous lesson there was the mention of the quotation शरीरमाद्यम् खलु धर्मसाधनम् from कुमारसम्भवम् सर्ग ५-३३ by the greatest of poets महाकविः कालिदासः The complete shloka where this quotation is the last line does make a good study. Here it is -
अपि क्रियार्थम् सुलभं समित्कुशम् ।
जलानि अपि स्नानविधिक्षमं ते।
अपि स्वशक्त्या तपसि प्रवर्तसे ।
शरीरमाद्यम् खलु धर्मसाधनम्॥
१ सन्धिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा -
अपि क्रिया-अर्थम् सुलभं समित्-कुशम् ।
जलानि अपि स्नान-विधि-क्षमं ते।
अपि स्व-शक्त्या तपसि प्रवर्तसे ।
शरीरम् आद्यम् खलु धर्म-साधनम्॥
२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानाम् व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।
२.१ अपि (= also, even if) अव्ययम् । It is also used to transform an affirmative sentence into an interrogative.
२.२ क्रिया-अर्थम् ।
  • २.२.१ क्रियायाः अर्थः येन तत् =क्रियार्थम् । बहुव्रीहिः ।
  • २.२.२ क्रियायाः “कृ” ८ उ. (= to do) इति धातुः । तस्मात् क्रियावाचकम् स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “क्रिया” (= action, ritual) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.२.३ अर्थः “अर्थ” (= purpose) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.२.४ क्रियार्थम् = for the purpose of ritual, as needed for the ritual
२.३ सु-लभम् ।
  • २.३.१ सुष्ठु लाभः यस्य तत् = सुलभम् । उपपद बहुव्रीहिः ।२.३.२ सुष्ठु (= good, easy) अव्ययम् ।२.३.३ लाभः “लभ्” १ आ. (= to get) इति धातुः । तस्मात् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “लाभ” (= gain) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
    २.३.४ सुलभम् = easy to get
२.४ समित्-कुशम् ।
  • २.४.१ समित् च कुशम् च = समित्कुशम् । समाहार-द्वंद्वः ।
  • २.४.२ समित् (= sacrificail sticks of wood for sacred fire) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.४.३ कुशम् “कुश” (= grass) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२.५ जलानि “जल” (= water) इति इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२.६ स्नान-विधि-क्षमम् ।
  • २.६.१ स्नानस्य विधिः = स्नानविधिः । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २.६.२ स्नानविधये क्षमम् = स्नानविधिक्षमम् । चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २.६.३ स्नानस्य “स्ना” २ प. (= to bathe) इति धातुः । तस्मात् कृतिवाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “स्नान” (= bath) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.६.४ विधिः “वि + धि” ५ प. (= to satisfy) इति धातुः । तस्मात् कृतिवाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “विधि” (= specific or appropriate action) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.६.५ स्नानविधये = for appropriate bath
  • २.६.६ क्षमम् “क्षम्” १ आ. ४ प. (= to be able) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भाववाचकम् विशेषणम् “क्षम” (= capable, suitable) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.६.७ स्नानविधिक्षमम् = suitable for appropriate bath
२.७ ते “युष्मद्” (= you, pronoun of second person) इति सर्वनाम । तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२.८ स्व-शक्त्या ।
  • २.८.१ स्वस्य शक्तिः = स्वशक्तिः । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २.८.२ स्वस्य “स्व” (= self) इति विशेषणात्मकम् सर्वनाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.८.३ शक्तिः “शक्” ५ प. (= to be able) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भाववाचकम् स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “शक्ति” (= ability, capability, strength, power) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.८.४ स्वशक्त्या “स्वशक्ति” (= own strength) इति सामासिकम् स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२.९ तपसि “तप्” १ प. (= to heat, to do penance) इति धातुः । तस्मात् कृतिवाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “तपस्” (= penance) । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२.१० प्रवर्तसे “प्र + वृत्” १ आ. (= to resolve) इति धातुः । तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने द्वितीय-पुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
२.११ शरीरम् “श्री” ९ उ. (= to dress, to shine with glory) इति धातुः । श्रीयते इदम् = शरीरम् (= that which dresses (a skeleton ?))। तथा च श्रीयते अनेन = शरीरम् (= that which becomes the agent to attain shine and glory ?) । “श्री”-धातुतः करणवाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “शरीर” (= body) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२.१२ आद्यम् “आदि + अ = आद्य” “आदि अस्ति = आद्य” (= first, foremost) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
२.१३ खलु (= truly, really) अव्ययम् ।
२.१४ धर्म-साधनम् ।
  • २.१४.१ धर्मस्य साधनम् = धर्मसाधनम् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २.१४.२ धर्मस्य “धर्म” (= righteous conduct or undertaking) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.१४.३ साधनम् “साध्” ५ प. (= to achieve) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “साधन” (= means to achieve) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।
It seems that before proceeding with the अनुवादाः i.e. interpretation of the shloka one should also bear in mind the background. The background is well-detailed by Mr. Shashikant Joshi at his blog  CLICK HERE This is detailed in Note (४.३) below. Keeping that background in mind, अनुवादाः become easier by assuming some words to be implicit.
(दृश्यते यत्) क्रिया-अर्थम् समित्-कुशम् अपि सुलभम् । = (Looks like) sacrificial wood-sticks and grass are available easily for the rituals
जलानि अपि ते स्नान-विधि-क्षमम् । = waters are also appropriate for (purifying) bath
स्व-शक्त्या तपसि अपि प्रवर्तसे । = you seem to have made up good resolve to do penance
(तथापि) शरीरम् आद्यम् धर्म-साधनम् खलु । = yet body is truly the first and foremost means for (all or any) righteous undertaking.
(यद्यपि) = (यदि) + अपि क्रिया-अर्थम् समित्-कुशम् सुलभम् । (Even if) sacrificial wood-sticks and grass are available easily for the rituals
(यद्यपि) = (यदि) + अपि जलानि ते स्नान-विधि-क्षमम् । (even if) waters are also appropriate for (purifying) bath
(यद्यपि) = (यदि) + अपि स्व-शक्त्या तपसि प्रवर्तसे । (even if) you seem to have made up good resolve to do penance
(तथापि) शरीरम् आद्यम् धर्म-साधनम् खलु । yet body is truly the first and foremost means for (all or any) righteous undertaking
Since अपि is also used to make an interrogative sentence, optional translation अनुवादाः can also be
अपि क्रिया-अर्थम् समित्-कुशम् सुलभम् । = Are you getting wood [for fire rituals, yaGYa] and kusha grass easily [making bed]?
अपि जलानि ते स्नान-विधि-क्षमम् । = is the water suitable for bathing?
अपि स्व-शक्त्या तपसि प्रवर्तसे । = are you doing penance according to your abilities only [and not overexerting yourself]?
शरीरम् आद्यम् धर्म-साधनम् खलु = [for] the body is surely the foremost instrument for all [good] deeds [actions, duties]
४ टिप्पणयः ।
४.१ By analyzing the verse to find its meter -
अपि क्रियार्थम् सुलभं समित्कुशम् । वर्णानाम् संख्या – १२
(१-२ १)-(२-२ १)-(१-२ १)-(२-१-२) कुलमात्राः १८
जभान-ताराज-जभान-राजभा = गणाः ज-त-ज-र
जलानि अपि स्नानविधिक्षमं ते । वर्णानाम् संख्या – १२
१-२-१ १-२ २-१-१-२-१-२ २ कुलमात्राः १८
जभान यमाता सलगं यमाता = गणाः ज-य-स-य
अपि स्वशक्त्या तपसि प्रवर्तसे । वर्णानाम् संख्या – १२
१-२ १-२-२ १-१-२ १-२-१-२ कुलमात्राः १८
जभान ताराज जभान राजभा = गणाः ज-त-ज-र
शरीरमाद्यम् खलु धर्मसाधनम् ॥ वर्णानाम् संख्या – १२
१-२-१-२-२ १-१ २-१-२-१-२ कुलमात्राः १८
जभान ताराज जभान राजभा = गणाः ज-त-ज-र
Except for the second line where गणाः are different other three lines conform to “वंशस्थविल”-वृत्तम्
अस्य वृत्तस्य लक्षणपदम् – वदंति वंशस्थविलं जतौ जरौ ।
Actually in the second line the syllabic count is also made to be 12 by keeping the words जलानि and अपि separate. In normal course they could have been composed by their sandhi i.e. as जलान्यपि That would have made the syllabic count one short !
४.२ There is some mismatch in the number of the adjective स्नान-विधि-क्षमम् which is singular and the noun जलानि which is plural. All these confusions in the second line make a point to verify whether there is some error in the version, I got of this shloka, especially in the second line.
४.३ Here are excerpts of the background of this shloka well-detailed by Mr. Shashikant Joshi at his blog
CLICK HERE
  • ४.३.१ This quotation शरीरमाद्यम् खलु धर्मसाधनम् is also the motto of AIIMS – All India Institute of Medical Sciences, premiere medical institute in New Delhi, akin to John Hopkins of USA.
  • ४.३.२ When पार्वती decided that she would marry only Shiva, she tried to impress Shiva with her beauty. She became an attendant at his Ashram. at the appropriate moment, prodded by indra, and aided by vasant (spring), kAmadeva shot the arrow of desires at shiva, just when pArvatI was in the range of his vision. Shiva was disturbed but only for a moment. He quickly regained his focus, found the culprit to be kAma (desire), vanquished it by burning it to ashes with his third eye of knowledge. i.e. he killed his desire through the laser of his knowledge-eye.
  • Though the ploy of kAmadeva failed and Shiva did not pay any heed to her beauty, pArvatI resolved to win him with harsh penance and austerity. When her mother heard of this resolve, that her flower-delicate princess-daughter of tender age will do penance like hardened ascetics, in the cold snowy himAlayas, she tried to stop her, and said ‘u maa’ (उ मा) “oh [dear] no!”. and from that day on, pAravtI is also called ‘umA’
  • pArvatI did penance that was unheard of. Penances are known to be different grades of hardships, which ascetics were doing. Some would eat no grain. Some would eat only fruits, no roots, since eating the root kills the plant. Some would eat only fallen fruit. Some gave up fruits also and only survived on leaves. Some would only eat fallen leaves.What hardships! All were self-inflicted to experience the freedom from desires and control of kAma.
  • But pArvatI went one step further. Because Shiva was not yet impressed with her penance, she vowed not to eat even the fallen leaves! people cried out at such harsh vow, and old ascetics tried to convince her to leave such hard resolves. but she stuck to her resolve. She was called aparNA (अपर्णा), a-parNa-aa = one without [eating] leaves..
  • Over time, pArvatI was looking bodily weak, more like a sannyAsI than a young maiden princess. Moved by this, Shiva came to her, disguised as an ascetic
  • After accepting her hospitality, he said this shloka.
४.४ There is an interesting proverb in Hindi सिर सलामत तो पगडी पचास meaning “if the head is in its place, one can wear fifty varieties of head-gear.”
४.५ This shloka presents what minimum essentials are needed for doing penance or for performing a यज्ञ – समित्, कुश, स्नानम्, स्वशक्तिः शरीरम् i.e. sacrificial wood, grass, bath, mental resolve and able body. This brings to mind a shloka in the ninth chapter in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता -
पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति ।
तदहं भक्त्युपहृतं अश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः ॥९-२६॥
पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं and भक्तिः are the minimum essentials for performing पूजा God becomes pleased with a पूजा performed by offering just पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं (some leaves, flowers, fruit and water) But most important is to offer these with whole-hearted devotion भक्तिः
४.६ Speaking of minimum essentials, it comes to mind how five essential elements for fulfilment of tasks rather elements of management are enlisted in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता
पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे ।
सांख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् ॥१८-१३॥
अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम् ।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टाः दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम् ॥१८-१४॥
In 1989 I was researching for most ancient quote of management thought. And in the course of that research I landed at this couplet of verses. Interestingly the management thought mentioned here is not just as old as श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता As can be seen, the management thought quoted here is mentioned to be from the सांख्य तत्त्वज्ञान sAnkhya philosophy, which is said to have evolved towards कृतान्ते i.e. towards the end of कृतयुग The measurement of time or periods of existence of life are said to be over four eras कृत-त्रेता-द्वापार-कलि. Present era is said to be कलियुग. The era of the rein of kurus and the epic battle of mahAbhAratam is said to be of द्वापारयुग.
The elements of management listed here are five – अधिष्ठानम् कर्ता करणं चेष्टाः दैवम्
Classical theory of economics speaks of four factors of production – Land, Labour, Capital, Organisation.
And modern management sciences speak of 6 M’s – management of men, machines, materials, methods, money and market.
It is fascinating to see quite some one-to-one correspondence in these 5-4-6 elements of management !
Even in this shloka,
  • समित्, कुश, sacrificial wood, grass, are materials पृथग्विधम् करणम्
  • स्नानम्, bath तपः यज्ञः are चेष्टाः
  • स्वशक्तिः mental resolve is Organisation दैवम् and
  • शरीरम् able body is कर्ता
४.७ In all the above narration translation of कुश is mentioned as grass. But the blades of grass used in the ritual of performing a यज्ञ are specific variety of grass also called as दर्भ
४.८ Translation of स्वशक्तिः is more mentioned by me as mental resolve. Mental resolve is of course a strength. But it needs to be supplemented by able body. Interestingly, most faculties have feminine words in Sanskrit and a good summary is given in
कीर्तिःश्रीर्वाक्च नारीणाम् स्मृतिर्मेधाधृतिःक्षमा ॥श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता १०-३४॥
A far more comprehensive list of faculties is interwoven in दुर्गास्तुतिः -
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु विष्णुमायेति शब्दिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥6॥
या देवी सर्वभेतेषु चेतनेत्यभिधीयते। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥7॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु बुद्धिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥8॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु निद्रारूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥9॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु क्षुधारूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥10॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषुच्छायारूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥11॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु शक्ति रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥12॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु तृष्णारूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥13॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु क्षान्तिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥14॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु जातिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥15॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु लज्जारूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥16॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु शान्तिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥17॥
यादेवी सर्वभूतेषु श्रद्धारूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥18॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु कान्तिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥19॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु लक्ष्मीरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥20॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु वृत्तिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥21॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु स्मृतिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥22॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु दयारूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥23॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु तुष्टिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥24॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु मातृरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥25॥
या देवी सर्वभूतेषु भ्रान्तिरूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥26॥
इन्द्रियाणामधिष्ठात्री भूतानां चाखिलेषु या। भूतेषु सततं तस्यै व्याप्तिदेव्यै नमो नम:॥ 27॥
चितिरूपेण या कृत्स्नमेतद्व्याप्य स्थिता जगत्। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नम:॥28॥
Today, when I am posting this lesson, it is the auspicious day of दुर्गाष्टमी ! So, I take the opportunity to include major portion of दुर्गास्तुतिः here !!
४.९ It is mother’s benevolence which endows us with all our faculties. That may be the logic why most faculties have feminine words in Sanskrit. The elders ordain and bless saying मातृदेवो भव, पितृदेवो भव, आचार्यदेवो भव, अतिथिदेवो भव ।
  • It should be noted here that these phrases have a sandhi in each of them मातृदेवो भव = मातृदेवः भव
  • Also all these words मातृदेवः पितृदेवः आचार्यदेवः अतिथिदेवः are compound words
  • मातृदेवः = माता देवः एव यस्य सः । बहुव्रीहिः । meaning “Be one for whom mother is God only.”
  • पितृदेवो भव = Be one for whom father is God only
  • आचार्यदेवो भव = Be one for whom teacher is God only
  • अतिथिदेवो भव = Be one for whom a guest is God only.
  • अतिथि is an interesting word too. It is a compound न तिथिः यस्य सः = अतिथिः । नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः । It means अतिथि is such guest, who comes without appointment, unannounced !
There is an interesting episode mentioned in श्रीसाईसच्चरितम् Mai Tarkhad from Bandra, Mumbai once stayed for a while in Shirdi. Once when she was about to take her lunch she saw a stray dog coming her way. She gave a piece of bread to the dog. The dog was followed by a stray pig. She gave another piece to the pig also. In the afternoon she went to the mosque to have दर्शन of श्रीसाईबाबा And very casually Baba said to her, “I was very happy today and really had a good stomachful” Mai was perplexed. She had not offered any प्रसाद to Baba that day. She said as much “But I did not offer any प्रसाद to you today.” To that Baba said, “But you did offer pieces of bread to the dog and to the pig, didn’t you ?” That was some evidence of the faculty of “omnipresence” of Godhood ईशतत्त्व !!
ईशावास्यमिदम् सर्वम् यत्किञ्च जगत्यां जगत् ।
तेन त्यक्तेन भुञ्जीथाः मा गृधः कस्य स्विद्धनम् ॥
४.१० Culture gets passed on by every little ordain and blessing from the elders to the younger generation, say by saying मातृदेवो भव, पितृदेवो भव, आचार्यदेवो भव, अतिथिदेवो भव । Of course the deep meaning of it all should also be explained and imbibed on the young minds.
शुभमस्तु ।