Friday, January 24, 2014

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 29

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 29
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य नव-विंशतितमः (२९) पाठः ।
As mentioned in lesson # 27, in the context of good speech, we should also discuss the सुभाषितम् -
सत्यम् ब्रूयात् प्रियम् ब्रूयात् न ब्रूयात् सत्यमप्रियम् |
प्रियम् नानृतं ब्रूयात् एष धर्मः सनातनः ||
In lesson # 27 I had mentioned the last part as “एतत् सज्जन-लक्षणम्” Actually it should read as above.
१. सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।
सत्यम् ब्रूयात् प्रियम् ब्रूयात् न ब्रूयात् सत्यम् अ-प्रियम् |
प्रियम् न अन्-ऋतं  ब्रूयात् एषः धर्मः सनातनः ||
२. समासानां विग्रहाः ।
अनुक्र.सामासिक-शब्दःपूर्वपदम्उत्तरपदम्समासस्य विग्रहःसमासस्य प्रकारः
अप्रियम्प्रियप्रियम् ननञ-तत्पुरुषः
अनृतम्अन्ऋतन ऋतम्नञ-तत्पुरुषः
३. शब्दशः विश्लेषणम् ।
अनुक्र.संज्ञासंज्ञायाः प्रकारःमूल-संज्ञालिङ्गम्विभक्तिःवचनम्शब्दार्थः
ब्रूयात्क्रियापदम्should speak
ऋतम्विशेषणम्ऋतनपुं.द्वितीयाएक.Appropriate, truthful
धर्मःसामान्यनामधर्मपु.प्रथमाएक.Code of Righteous conduct
सनातनःविशेषणम्सनातनपु.प्रथमाएक.Eternal, perpetual
४ धातुसाधितानां विश्लेषणम् ।
There is no धातुसाधितम् in this verse.
५ क्रियापदानां विश्लेषणम् ।
अनुक्र.शब्दःधातुःगणःपदम् (अत्र)प्रयोजकः ?प्रयोगःकालः / अर्थःपुरुषःवचनम्
ब्रूयात्ब्रूउ. (प.)कर्तरिविध्यर्थःतृतीयएक.
६ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।
(मनुजः) सत्यम् ब्रूयात् ।(Man) should speak the truth
(मनुजः) प्रियम् ब्रूयात् ।(Man) should speak likeable
(मनुजः) अप्रियम् सत्यम् न ब्रूयात् ।(Man) should not speak the truth, which is not likeable
(मनुजः) प्रियम् (इति) अनृतम् न ब्रूयात् ।(Man) should not speak likeable, which is not appropriate or truthful
एषः सनातनः धर्मः (अस्ति) ।This is the eternal code of righteous conduct
७ टिप्पणयः ।
1It comes to mind that this सुभाषितम् underlines the importance of composing one’s thoughts and strategizing how to say, what one wants to say. Conforming to this eternal code of righteous conduct, there would be need to strategize every utterance. Alternatively one may have to cultivate one’s habits only in such manner that no improper utterance would ever get uttered. Would that not be so very difficult and challenging ? Maybe such habit can develop only after long practice of वाङ्ग्मयं तपः !
2I had read that the oath to be taken by one in the witness box in courts of law is “I shall tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but truth”.
3On strategies of what to speak, what not speak, there would be occasions when one may have to deliver the bitter truth in the interest of larger good. One such instance was when (I think in सुन्दर-काण्डम् in श्रीरामायणम्) विभीषणः had to disagree with रावण the demon king to release सीता from captivity to save the kingdom. He prefaced what he wanted to say by saying, 
सुलभाः पुरुषा राजन् सततं प्रियवादिनः ।
अप्रियस्य तु पथ्यस्य वक्ता श्रोता च दुर्लभः ।।
It would be good to take up this for the next lesson.
4There is the story for children of a king who got so much impressed by the art of singing that he ordered that everybody will speak only musically. The king had a parrot. The parrot was very much a pet of the king. But one day the parrot died. People were worried how to break the news to the king, that too musically. Somehow the prime minister dared and sang the news to the king, using all the आलापाः longish notes, etc. When the meaning dawned on the king’s mind, he got annoyed with the Prime Minister why he had to sing with all those longish notes. But soon the king realized his own mistake of his orders. There is another proverb in Sanskrit, “राजा कालस्य कारणम्” !

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