Saturday, April 9, 2016

The Vishwamitras and Vasishthas in history

 A peculiar feature that any keen reader will observe in our literature is the Vishwamitra-Vasishtha relation. Whether it's Mahabharata or Ramayana, this pair is always present.
But due to excessive lack of vision, our 'great' historians generally confuse these and consider them as existing only in a single era thus ending up concluding that the Indian scriptures are thoroughly confused.

The one click which needs to be understood is that there were many Vasishthas and Vishwamitras in history. Just like the name Narendra is not of a single person but of different people like Narendra Modi or Swami Vivekananda. Similarly, there were many rishis hailing from the Vasishtha and Vishwamitra family who used their patronymic viz Vasishtha or Vishwamitra. 

According to me, there were 11 Vasishthas and 4 Vishwamitras. There existed many other Vasishthas and Vishwamitras but these mentioned are related to popular legends. I will talk about each of them. Their position is explained relative to the Ikshvaku family of kings where Vaivasvat Manu is at number 1, Rama at number 65 and Brihadvala ( Mahabharata era) at number 97. 
But first, let me clarify on the use of word 'eponymous'. It means the name on which an entire tribe or group is named. So an eponymous Vasishtha or an eponymous Vishwamitra is mentioned, it means we are talking of the 'original' rishi from whom the tribe started.

  • Vasishtha I - The first ever Vasishtha to be ever mentioned is the Manas-Putra of Brahmadev who lived in the Swayambhuva Manvantara. He was one of the 7 Saptarshis. His wife was the daughter of rishi Kardama. He is said to have burned down to death. Since the concept of Saptarshis in Swayambhuva Manvantara is still a bit doubtful ,we can neglect this Vasishtha.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 23 generations before Vaivasvata Manu.
  • Vasishtha II - The reference to this Vasishtha comes from only one source, the Bhagwat Purana (9.1.18) where he is called the great-grandfather of Vaivasvata Manu. He had helped Vaivasvata Manu in a Putrakameshthi Yagya for begetting a son. Thus, this Vasishtha can be placed 3 generations before Vaivasvata Manu.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 3 generations before Vaivasvata Manu.
  • Vasishtha III- He was the priest of Ikshvaku himself, of Ayodhya. Ikshvaku had son called Vikukshi who was sent to bring meat of a rabbit. But he ate it on his way and was banished from the kingdom. In the same era, there was another brother of Ikshvaku called Nimi. Vasishtha had promised Nimi that he would perform a Yagya for him but Nimi performed it with another Purohit. Thus Vasishtha got angry and cursed him to leave his body. Thus Nimi became Videha i.e a person without a body. His kingdom thus came to be known as Videha which is located in Bihar. Sita belonged to this kingdom.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 1 generation after Vaivasvata Manu, 64 generations before Lord Rama.
  • Vasishtha IV - He is the most famous among the Vasishthas. Mitra and Varun, the Devas, had ejaculated when they saw Urvashi Apsara and they collected the sperms in pots from which Vasishtha and Agastya were born. Removing aside tangential things,simple meaning of the story is, Vasishtha was born from Urvashi and Mitravarun. Hence he was called Vasishtha Maitravaruni. Urvashi was also the wife of Pururavas Aila. So this Vasishtha is contemporary to Pururavas. At this time, king Purunjaya was ruling Ayodhya.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 3 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 62 generations before Lord Rama.
  • Vasistha V - Haiheyas are a branch of Yadavas. Their kingdom ,called Anupa, used to be in Gujarat and MP. They had a famous king called Kartavirya Arjuna who was killed by Lord Parshurama. The Puranas for the first time mention the personal name of this Vasishtha - Apava. ( Matsya Purana 44). This Apava Vasishtha had cursed Arjuna which resulted in he getting killed by Lord Parshurama.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 30 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 35 generations before Lord Rama.
  • Vasishtha VI - He existed during the time of king Satyavrata Trishanku of Ayodhya. Satyavrata was whisked out of his kingdom. Till his son became capable of ruling, this Vasishtha had taken charge of administering Ayodhya. His personal name is said to be Devaraj. Here,Vishwamitra comes into picture for the first time when Vishwamitra tried to snatch away the Kamdhenu cow from him.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 32 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 33 generations before Lord Rama. 
  • Vasishtha VII - King Bahu was the king of Ayodhya. He was attacked by the Haiheyas and driven out. His son was Chakravartin Samrat Sagara who defeated these Haiheyas forever. But he did not kill them but put restrictions on their living. This was done on the advice of Vasishtha. His personal name was Atharvanidhi.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 41 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 24 generations before Lord Rama.
  • Vasishtha VIII - King Samvarana was the king of Paurava kingdom in Punjab. He was forced to go out of his kingdom by the North Panchala kings with his wife Tapati. On his way, he met Vasishtha who gave him shelter in the Sindhu kingdom.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 49 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 16 generations before Lord Rama.
  • Vasishtha IX - He is the main of all the Vasishthas. He existed during the time of king Kalmashpada of Ayodhya and king Sudas of North Panchala who is the hero of Dasharadnya war ( War of 10 Kings) described in the Rigveda. This Vasishtha was the priest of Kalmashpada. By the trick of Vishwamitra, this Vasishtha was fed meat by Kalmashpada. Thus Vasishtha cursed him to be an animal. This Vasishtha had assisted Sudas in his war against the 10 kings and emerged victorious. He is the composer of majority hymns in the 7th Mandala of Rigveda, but misquoted as Vasishtha Maitravaruni. His personal name was Shreshthabhaja. He had 100 sons among which the most famous was Shakti, whose son was Parashara. His wife was Arundhati, sister of Narada rishi.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 53 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 12 generations before Lord Rama.
  • Vasishtha X - He existed during the time of king Dileep Khatvanga of Ayodhya. He was the one who blessed Dileepa with a son.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 60 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 5 generations before Lord Rama.
  • Vasishtha XI - He existed during the time of Lord Rama. He was the Purohit of Dasharatha. Lord Rama had asked questions about this world to Vasishtha and the answers that he gave are compiled in a scripture called Yoga Vasishtha of 96000 verses.

    Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 65 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, contemporary to Lord Rama.
  • Apart from these, many other Vasishthas have existed till the Mahabharata era.

    • Vishwamitra I - He is the eponymous Vishwamitra. He was a king belonging to the Kanyakubja dynasty in Kannauj. He was a Chandravanshi and a descendant of king Amavasu, son of Pururavas. His father was Gadhi. He existed during the time of king Satyavrata Trishanku of Ayodhya. He tried to take away the Kamdhenu cow from Vasishtha VI but was cursed. Hence he decided to become a Brahmarshi. He was the one who was the Purohit of Satyavrata Trishanku. This Vishwamitra is acclaimed to have created a parallel universe. He was also present during the reign of king Harishchandra, the son of Satyavrata Trishanku. In the sacrifice conducted by Harishchandra, it was he who adopted a kid called Shunacheepa Ajigarti and made him his son called Devaraat. This Vishwamitra had 50 sons like Madhuchhandas, Kata, Utkil,etc who all are composers of the 3rd Mandala of Rigveda. He was in love with Menaka Apsara from whom he begot Shakuntala who was married to the Paurava king Dushyanta.

      Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 32 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 33 generations before Lord Rama.
    • Vishwamitra II - He was present during the war of 10 kings. He was against Sudas. In the earlier days, he was with Sudas and had helped him to expand his kingdom in Punjab till the Indus. This Vishwamitra had conducted a Yagya for Sudas near the river Indus where the Vasishthas were also present. There was a fight between them due to which Vishwamitra killed the 100 sons of Vasishtha.

      Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 53 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 12 generations before Lord Rama.
    • Vishwamitra III - He was present during Lord Rama's times. He was the one who took Lord Rama and Lakshman with him for training and fighting Daityas.

      Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 65 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, contemporary to Lord Rama.
    • Vishwamitra IV - He was present during the Mahabharata times and had come to visit Krishna at Syamantapanchaka mountain. He was the priest of Yudhishtira.

      Relative position in Ikshvaku Genealogy - 97 generations after Vaivasvata Manu, 32 generations after Lord Rama.
    • Apart from these, there have been many rishis belonging to this line. 
      For detailed look over how many Vasishthas and Vishwamitras are composers of Rigveda

Marriages between Vedic and Non-Vedic tribes brahma vivah, Daivya vivah, paishachu vivah, rakshas vivah, asura vivah, gandharva vivah,

I have already discussed some Exotic Tribes of India like Rakshas , Gandharva and Apsara , Yaksha, etc. We see that these tribes exactly cannot be termed non-Vedic since their origins can also be traced to Vedic rishis but their way of living, their culture and rituals are quite different from the actual Vedic people.
We see that Rakshas are non-Vedic people but in case of Ravana, he is a devotee of Shiva. Daityas are non-Vedic but in case of Bali, he is said to have performed 99 Yagyas with his Purohit Shukracharya.  The Yakshas are non-Vedic but in case of Kubera, he is worshipped as a lord of wealth.The Gandharvas and Apsaras are also seen to be in close relation with the Vedic people. The Kirata, Kimpurusha, Kinnara lived adjacent to Vedic kingdoms and in the Himalayas but not much is mentioned about them.
The Danavas and Daityas ,although belonging to the Asura group, we find that martial relations were established signifying intermixing to some extent.

The style of marriages also seem to be influenced by different communities. Let's see the 8 types of marriages in Hindu customs-

  • Brahma Vivaha - Where the parents of the bride and groom decide the marriage and with the consent of all.
  • Prajapatya Vivaha - Where the bride and the groom are married off at a young age. The responsibility of the bride lies on the groom's father and not on the groom himself till both of them attain the right age. Prajapati directly means one who takes care, Possibly that's why this type is called Prajapatya since the father takes are of the bride.
  • Daiva Vivaha - Where the bride is poor and her marriage is performed as a charity by rich people.
  • Arsha Vivaha - This type is applicable for those communities where the groom has to pay an oblation to the bride to get her. 
  • Asura Vivaha - Where the bride is not suitable for the groom but still they marry. Asura communities seem to have such type of marriages. 
  • Gandharva Vivaha - This is proper love marriage where the consent of parents is not necessary. Gandharvas and Apsaras used to marry the person of their choice. 
  • Rakshas Vivaha -  This type involves abduction of the bride if she is ready for marriage. The Rakshas tribes used to marry in this way. 
  • Paishacha Vivaha - The bride is intoxicated and is not in her senses while marrying. That's why it was called Paishacha vivaha on the name of Pishacha. 
( The tribe names are given to marriage styles but they being given due to peculiar behaviour of those tribe is just my view. )

As I mentioned earlier, the intermixing of these tribes with Vedic people has happened. The Puranas provide valuable information about the kings and rishis who married brides from other tribes. Most of the marriages are from Apsaras and Naga. This seems credible when it comes to geography. The Nagas have lived in the Indian subcontinent but others have lived either far in Himalayas ( Yakshas, Kinnara, Kimpurusha,etc) or far south ( Rakshas) or far east ( Kirata). Less information is available about the martial relations of other exotic tribes like Vidyadhara, Charana, Siddha, Pishacha, Vanara, Pannaga, etc. So a natural interaction would be between people who live next to the Vedic people. Let's view them - 

  • Pururavas Aila and Urvashi - Pururavas was a Chandravanshi king. Urvashi bore 6 sons from him.
  • Prachetas and Pramlocha - Soma was the son of Atri. His adoptive daughter was Pramlocha who was married to Prachetas, a descendant of Dhruva.
  • Trinavindu and Alambusha - Trinavindu was the king of Vaishali kingdom and a Chakravarti Samrat
  • Agnidhra and Purvachitti - Agnidhra was the grandson of Swayambhuva Manu.
  • Raudrashva and Ghrutachi - Raudrashva was a king in the Puru dynasty of Hastinapur.
  • Vishwamitra and Menaka - Although they didn't marry, they bore a daughter Shakuntala who married Dushyanta. Their marriage took place by Gandharva Vivaha.
  • Ruru and Pramadvara - He was a rishi. Pramadvara was daughter of Vishvavasu Gandharva and was brought up by Sthulakesha rishi.
  • Vatsaka and Mishrakeshi - Vatsaka was a Yadava prince.
  • Rucheyu and Jwala - Rucheyu was the son of Raudrashva, the Puru king. Jwala belonged to the Takshaka tribe of Nagas.
  • Arjuna and Ulupi - This couple is quite well known from Mahabharata.
  • Shantanu and Satyavati - Shantanu was the great grandfather of Pandavas and Satyavati was Vyasa's mother.
  • Yadu and Dhumavarna's daughters - Yadu was the son of Yayati and Dhumavarna was one of the Nagas who married his 5 daughters to Yadu.
  • Purukutsa and Narmada - Purukutsa was an Ikshavku king. Son of Mandhata.
  • Kusha and Kumudvati - Kusha was Rama's son. 
  • Somashrava - He was a disciple of rishi Yajnavalkya. His mother was Naga princess and father was Shrutashrava rishi. 
  • Yayati and Sharmishtha - Sharmishtha was the daughter of Vrishaparva Daitya. 
  • Yayati and Devayani- Devayani was the daughter of Shukracharya, the priest of Danavas and Daityas
  • Vishrava and Kaikesi - Vishrava was a descendant of Pulastya and father of Ravana. Kaikesi was daughter of Sumali Rakshas.
  • Bhima and Hidimba - Hidimba was a Rakshasi who met the Pandavas after they fled the Lakshagriha in Varnavati. Ghatotkacha was their son.
Apart from this, there were many inter- marriages between the non-Vedic tribes too. For example, Ravana's maternal grandfather Sunali married an Apsara, Daitya Hiranyakashapu married an Asura princess, daughter of Hiranyakashapu called Sinhika was married to a Danava, Shachi, Indra's wife was the daughter of Danava Puloman., etc.
But strangely, we don't find any Vedic princess being married to a non-Vedic groom.

From this, we can conclude that the ancient people were not that averse in marrying with non-Vedic tribes. Although the names given above are less, at least we can establish that Vedic kingdoms had alliances with these non-Vedic tribes and kingdoms which had the capacity of influencing the politics of the land. In the case of Arjuna and Ulupi, the Naga kingdom to which she belonged supported the Pandavas during the Mahabharata war. Similar was the case with the Rakshas tribes who supported the Pandavas because of Hidimba and Ghatotkacha. 

64 different art forms .64 kala

We often hear in the descriptions of Lord Ganesha or Lord Krishna that they were well versed in 64 art forms or ChatuhShashthi Kala. These are 64 different art forms that are listed which are taught to all as a part of learning. A person knowing all of these along with the 14 Vidyas was known to be near perfection.

This list appears in the Kamasutra under the heading Bahya Kala or external art forms. Here is a list of these art forms.
गीतं - Singing
  • वाद्यं - Playing instruments
  • नृत्यं - Dancing
  • नाट्यं - Acting
  • आलेख्यं - Painting and writing
  • विशेषच्छेद्यं - Aiming at a point
  • तन्दुलकुसुमबलिविकारः - Making offerings of rice and flowers 
  • पुष्पस्तरणं - Covering with flowers
  • दशनवसनाङ्गरागाः - Cleansing teeth,clothes,etc
  • मणिभुमिकाकर्म - Arranging jewels
  • शयनरचनं - Arranging bed
  • उदकवाद्यं - Playing instruments in pots or bowls like Jalataranga
  • चित्रयोगः - Drawing using soil
  • माल्यग्रन्थानविकल्पाः - Preparing garlands of flowers
  • शेखरापीडयोजनं - Decorating crowns,etc
  • कर्णपत्रभङ्गाः - Decorating ears with flowers
  • नेपथ्ययोगाः - Dressing up for acting
  • सुगन्धयुक्तिः - Preparing aromatic perfumes
  • भूषणयोजनं - Making ornaments
  • ऐन्द्राजालं - Magic tricks
  • कौतुमारयोगः - Applying various ointments and pastes on one's body
  • हस्तलाघव - Tricks of hands ( हाथचालाखी )
  • चित्रशाकापूपभक्ष्यविकारयोगः - Preparing vegetables and sweets
  • पानकरसरागासवयोजनं - Preparing various juices
  • सूचिवयकर्म - Stitching with needles
  • सूत्रक्रीडा - Puppetry 
  • वीणाडमरुवाद्यानि - Playing Veena, Damru,etc
  • प्रहेलिका - Cracking riddles
  • प्रतिमाला - Preparing utensils
  • दुर्वाचकयोगः - Speaking in languages that others don't understand
  • वाचनं - Reading
  • नाटकाख्ययिकादर्शनं - Telling stories and acts 
  • काव्यसमस्यापूरणं - Completing incomplete poems
  • पट्टिकावेत्रबाणविकल्पः - Using arrows,etc
  • तर्ककर्माणि  - Debating
  • तक्षणम् - Carpentry
  • वास्तुविद्या - Knowledge of construction
  • रौप्यरत्नपरिक्षा - Testing jewels
  • धातुवादः - Purifying impure metals
  • मणिरागज्ञानं - Seeing the colour of precious stones
  • आकारज्ञानं - Finding quarries of minerals
  • वृक्षायुर्योगवेदः - Calculating the age of trees
  • मेषकुक्कुटलावकयुद्धविधिः - Making lambs,goats,etc fight
  • शुकसारिकप्रलापनं - Teaching parrots to speak
  • उत्सादनं - Flying kites
  • केशमार्जनकौशलं - Art of cutting hair
  • अक्षरमुष्टिकाकथनं - Guessing the words in other's mind
  • म्लेच्छितकुतर्कविकल्पः - Making arguments for deceiving someone
  • देशभाषाज्ञानं - Knowing the other languages 
  • पुष्पशकटिकानिर्मितिज्ञानं - Gardening
  • धारणमातृका - Preparing load bearing objects
  • संवाद्यं - Elocution
  • मानसीकाव्यक्रिया - Composing poems in mind
  • अभिधानकोशः - Knowing lexicography
  • छन्दोज्ञानं - Knowledge of metres of singing
  • क्रियाविकल्पः - Art of writing a treatise
  • चलितकयोगः - Building shrines
  • वस्त्रगोपनानि - Concealing clothes
  • द्युतविशेषः - Gambling 
  • आकर्षक्रीडा - Kusti or Malla Yuddha
  • बालक्रीडानकादि - Preparing toys for kids
  • वैनायकीविद्याज्ञानं - Art of vanishing problems
  • वैजयकीविद्याज्ञानं - Art of winning
  • वैतालकीविद्याज्ञानं-  Knowledge of Tantras

It thus appears from the list that these art forms cover almost all of the aspects of human life from dressing, art and craft, sports, learning and general chores.


Upanishads are the theological texts of Hinduism which contain the most basic philosophy on which the Hindu thought is based. Along with the Bhagvat Geeta, they form the core of the Hindu understanding of the universe. They impart a  philosophical and spiritual angle to the various Vedic rituals and hence these texts have multilevel interpretations. A scholar can go deep and deep but still he will find the same verses will have infinite meanings that reflect upon the keen sense of metaphysical understanding that our ancestors had.
The most heard quotes from Hindu philosophy are none but Upanishadic verses right from Aham Brahmasmi, Tatvamasi to Satyameva Jayate.

Each of the 4 Vedas i.e Rigveda, Yajuveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda are divided into 4 parts i.e

  • Samhita - The texts that contains verses and hymns to be recited
  • Brahmana - Meanings of certain words and verses
  • Aranyaka - To be recited in the forests. They are similar to Brahmanas
  • Upanishad - They explain the deep philosophical meaning of Vedic verses and rituals
Thus Upanishads themselves are a part of Vedas. There exist more than 200 Upanishads ranging from few pages to fat books. The list of 108 various Upanishads occur in the Muktikopanishad where the names of almost all of the major Upanishads occur. 
The most famous Upanishads of Hindu thought are Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya, Aitareya, Isha, Prashna, Mundok, Kena, Shwetashwatara, etc. 

Another logical conclusion is that every Veda has it's own Upanishad which propounds the contents of that particular Veda. Here is a small classification of Upanishads according to the Vedas they belong to - 




There are infinite sites and honourable Swamis who deal with the philosophical aspect of the Upanishads. This post is mainly meant to deal with the historical and geographical aspect of the Upanishads. 


The Vedic culture mainly comprised of rituals which were basically established to please Gods, live longer or to get priceless gifts from Gods. The Yagyas that were conducted mainly dealt with rituals which included fire, horse, oblations,etc. Now these Yagyas cannot be conducted silently. Thus verses were composed by different families of rishis for their particular Yagyas which were to be recited. This gave rise to a large number of Yagyas for different purposes. All of this is mechanical and ritualistic worship. 

Human mind is always in the pursuit of knowing the deep secrets of the universe and what lies in the infinite space around us. Just as science and rituals are the food for your brain, philosophy and spirituality is the food for your mind. The rishis came to know that a level of perfection and ultimate pleasure can be attained through meditation and becoming one with the Supreme.With time, the rishis started focusing on some basic questions of our existence. Their inborn curiosity led them to find as to who is controlling all that is around us. Consequently, the deep meanings of Vedic verses and the various rituals was taken into account. To quote an example, the Upanishads discuss the deep meaning of why a horse is tied to a pole and faces east during a Ashwamedha Yagya. The consequent result was a concept called "Brahman" or the supreme being. This Brahman is what is driving everything around us.  It is the chemical X that is present in every bit of the universe that makes it function what it is destined to. 

Without going much into philosophy, let's focus on the consequences of this. With a new style of thinking taking shape, the same rituals began to be viewed with completely different angle. The knowledge began to be divided into two types-  Gyankanda and Karmakanda literally meaning philosophy and rituals way of understanding things. Consequently, knowledgeable people started conducting debates about the in depth understanding of the Brahman.  Kings began conducting such debates. Handsome awards were given to the winner. The conversations of such people were recorded and further compiled into scriptures which came to be known as Upanishads. It should be noted that philosophy has existed from the start of civilization but it came out in full force when Upanishads were compiled as texts dealing only with philosophy. These scriptures were compiled, assigned a meter and faithfully transmitted orally. Having such a precious doctrine in them ,these scriptures were declared as Shrutis i.e scriptures to be heard and transmitted where not even a word is to be changed.

The brahmins belonging to that particular branch of Vedas were taught that particular Upanishad. But with time, all these scriptures were made open to all and they got a common name "Vedanta" literally meaning the end point of Vedas. 

Authorship of the Upanishads is a bit complicated issue since very few names are mentioned. But from what information we get, majority of the authors were Brahmins and Kshatriyas. The Varna system being flexible then, even a Shudra was made a Brahmin based on his knowledge. There are many instances where the kings themselves outwitted the Brahmins showing that knowledge was not the sole premise of Brahmins. Kings like Janaka Videha, Ajatshatru Kashiraj, Ashwapati Kekaya,etc won debates with Brahmins who had come to teach them. Shudras like Satyakama Jabala won many debates. Another interesting feature is that we find mention of two women namely Gargi Vachaknavi and Maitrayee who also used to participate in the debates. This shows the high social ranking of women in those times. 


Now coming to the main point- geography of Upanishads. 
If we look at the names of different places mentioned and the kings belonging to different kingdoms, the geography can be broadly classified into Kuru- Panchala region and Kashi-Videha region. In the Kuru-Panchal region, we have kings like Jaivahan Panchal and rishis like Uddalaka. Uddalaka is said to have roamed in the Kuru region to gather Brahmins for a debate. The epicentre for philosophy was of course, the Kashi-Videha region with it's most powerful theologist, Yajnavalkya. He was the one who had defeated almost all people from different parts of Bharat. He was the chief theologist in Videha's king Janaka's court. Because of him, Videha had emerged as an important center for philosophy. 
In addition, in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, we have a reference of Indradyuma Bhallaveya having learnt from king Ashwapati Kekaya, the father of Ram's step mother Kaikeyi. Regions like Gandhara are also mentioned.
Upanishads were composed. Majority of the Upanishads were composed during, just before and just after the era of Rama and king Janaka of Videha. As I have said earlier, king Janaka used to host debates in his kingdom where Yajnavalkya was his chief theologian. Most of the names, thus, appearing with Yajnavalkya become his contemporary. We would see how this is the case as we begin placing the Upanishads. 

All the placing of rishis and sages is done with respect to king Janaka who was one generation before Shri Rama. 

Kaushitaki Upanishad 
The composer of this Upanishad is Kahod Kaushitaki. He was the contemporary of king Janaka and Yajnavalkya. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad  ( 3.5) has a conversation between Yajnavalkya and Kahod Kaushitaki. Plus, Mahabharata ( 3.132 and 133) mention the story where Janaka had organized a debate in his Videha kingdom where Kahod's son Ashtavakra and Ashtavakra's mama Shvetaketu had gone there to debate with Bandi, the son of Varuna. It also gives the information of Shvetaketu's family as Aruni --> Uddalak --> Shvetaketu . 
This would be clear by the following - 

This places the Kaushitaki Upanishad one generation prior to Shri Rama.

Aitareya Upanishad 
This Upanishad is composed by Mahidasa Aitareya, who belonged to a lower caste but was elevated to the post of a Brahmin. He has also composed Aitareya Brahmana, Aitareya Arnyaka,etc. But late additions have also been made to his Brahmana and Aranyaka. We take the help of Sankhyayana Grihya Sutra ( 4.10 and 6.1). It gives the list of teachers of that scripture. This list starts from Kahod Kaushitaki --> Suyajna Sankhyayana --> Mahidasa Aitareya. Apart from these, Ashvalayana Grihya Sutra ( 3.4) inserts Paingya in between Kahod and Suyajna.  See the following



This places Aitareya Upanishad 4 generations before Shri Rama. 

Katha Upanishad 
This Upanishad is a conversation between young Nachiketa and Yama. Nachiketa is said to be the son of Auddalak i.e grandson of Uddalak in Katha Upanishad (1.1.11). Elsewhere, his father is said to be Vajashravas. That could be his personal name. But the placing is clear. 
Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishad These are very easy to place since majority of the people they talk are having a conversation with Yajnvalkya in the court of king Janaka of Videha. If you place the different kings and rishis listed in the these two Upanishads, we conclude that some of them were before Yajnavalkya, some contemporary who had conversation with him and others are later than him. This shows that the conversations were recorded and later on compiled into an Upanishad.
Another way of placing these two Upanishads is by the reference of Indradyumna Bhallaveya. He had a debate with Yajnavalkya. Indradyumna claims in Chandogya Upanishad (5.11) and Shatpatha Brahmana ( that he was counselled by Ashwapati Kekaya which Ramayana mentions to be the father of Kaikeyi, Rama's step mother. So these two Upanishads can indeed be placed in the Ramayanic era.
Since we have placed these Upanishads, we can make a list of names whom are either contemporary or 1-2 generations before/after these Upanishads. All the names appear in Brihadaranyaka (BU) and Chandogya (CU) and Shatapatha Brahmana (SB) -

  • Pravahana Jaivali Panchal - BU (6.2)
  • Ajatshatru Kashi - king of Kashi and his son Bhadrasena Aajatshatru - SB (
  • Uddanka Saulbhayana - BU ( 4.1.3)
  • Budhila Ashvatarashvi - CU (5.16)
  • Patanjala Kpya - BU (3.7.1)
  • Barku Varshna BU (4.1.4)
  • Bhujyu Lahyayani BU (3.3)
  • Gardabhivipeeta Bharadvaja BU (4.1.5)
  • Gargi Vachaknavi BU (3.6)
  • Jaratkarava Artabhaga BU (3.2)
  • Jitvan Shaileeni BU (4.1.1)
  • Ushasta Chakrayana CU (1.10.1)
  • Vidagha Shakalya SB (, BU (3.9)
  • Chaikitayana Dalbhya and his son Brahmadatta Chaikitaneya - CU (1.8)
  • Gargya Balaki - BU (2.1) has a discussion with Ajatshatru Kashi
Besides, these Upanishads also mention Kahod Kaushitaki, Ashtavakra, etc who also were contemporaries of Yajnavalkya. 
As we have seen, Mahidasa Aitareya was 4 generations before Shri Rama. Chandogya being contemporary to Shri Rama, it mentions that Mahidasa Aitareya lived for 116 years - CU (3.16.7). It also mentions the story of Satyakama Jabala who existed some generations after Yajnavalkya thus confirming my proposition that these two Upanishads are compilation of dialogues which were compiled later.

Brihad Jabala Upanishad 
As the name suggests, the composer is Satyakama Jabala. He was a Shudra who was taught by his teacher Haridrumata Gautama. His story appears in Chandogya  (4.4.3).  Now, the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (6.3.7) also gives a list of teachers from Uddalaka till Satyakama Jabala. Chandogya (4.10) adds another name of Upakoshala Kamlayana as the pupil of Satyakama Jabala. Following will demonstrate it -
This places the Brihad Jabala Upanishad at 3 generations after Shri Rama. This is also coroborated by a reference to a dialogue between Yajnavalkya and king Janaka that is quoted in Brihad Jabala (7). 

This is a relatively late Upanishad. The placing becomes clear by one reference to king Hiranyanabha of Ayodhya where the rishis had gone to interact with him. PU (6.1)
The rishis who were present were Sauryayani Gargya, Shaivya Satyakama.,Sukesha Bharadvaja, Kaushalya  Ashvalayana, Kabandhi Katyayana, Bhargava Vaidarbhi. 
King Hiranyanabha was 18 generations after Shri Rama. 

This Upanishad cannot be properly 'placed' but it is definately before the times of Yajnavalkya.
As a matter of fact, sage Vaishampayana was the mama and teacher of Yajnnavalkya. Vaishampayana had taught the Yajurveda to Yajnavalkya. At that time, there was only one Yajurveda. Yajnavalkya due to his arrogance was asked to give back all his knowledge. So he gave it back. After worshiping the Sun God, he refined the Yajurveda and made it accurate. The original version taught by Vaishampayana came to known as Krishna Yajurveda and the version of Yajnavalkya came to be known as Shukla Yajurveda. 
Ishopanishad is a part of Yajurveda. Since it is present in both the Yajurvedas, we can be sure that it existed before Yajnavalkya and Vaishampayana. 

Soma - The Energy Drink of Ancient India

No separate introduction is needed for Soma. A drink, a booster of energy, a giver of energy,wealth and health, a God. There are many dimensions to a single name. Owing to it's ample references in the Rigveda and all other post-Vedic scriptures, we can conclude that Soma surely was an important constituent of Yagyas and for pleasing Gods.

An entire 9th Mandala of the Rigveda is dedicated to Soma. Soma is the third-most mentioned noun in the Rigveda with nearly 1500 mentions.  Almost in every Yagya, an oblation is offered to Soma. Apart from that, there are separate Soma-Yagyas. The Soma was either consumed by the people, believed to be consumed by Gods like Indra,Varuna,Mitra or offered to the fire, Agni. It depended on the usage of the plant.

Soma Characteristics 

It becomes important to discuss characteristics of Soma.

  • Soma is a plant found on mountains. That is why Soma has adjectives like Parvatavrudha and Giristha. Rigveda (RV) 9.18.1 clearly mentions that Soma was found on mountains. So does Atharvaveda (3.21.10). 
  • A proper description is given by well-known Ayurvedic scholar Sushruta in his Sushruta Samhita saying that Soma is found growing on mountains like Himalayas, Sahyadri, Mahendra, Malya, Arbuda, Devgiri, Vindhyas,etc. It also mentions that Soma grows in aquatic habitats like Sindhu (Indus) river, Manas Sarovar, etc. This just proves that there were many varieties of Soma whihc were used.
  • Since the varieties existed, the color also varied. Colors like brown,green, ornage and bright red existed.
  • The confirmation also comes from Avesta, in both Yasna and Vendidad, where Haoma ( i.e Soma) is said to be growing on mountains. The Avestan and Vedic rituals were quite common in those days like fire worship, sun worship and Soma consumption. 
  • There is a lot of debate among modern day scholars regarding the actual Soma herb. Various species like Euphedra, Sarcostemma, etc
  • The description of Soma plant comes in the commentary of Dhurtaswamin. It says Soma is dark,sour, without leaves, milky and fleshy, produces phlegm and vomiting and is a food for goats.  

Preparation of Soma

The preparation of Soma also finds mention in the Rigveda. It is mentioned throughout that the Soma plant is pressed and the juice is obtained. The stalk of the Soma is pressed as mentioned in RV (9.67.28) and RV  (9.74.2). The Sanskrit name for stalk is Amsu. The stalk is said to be pressed with stones RV (10.94.1). The stones are 4 in number and the Rigveda mentions that the Soma flows like a 'flood' after being pressed. 

Now the juice is not consumed just like that. Proper purification is required for making it consumable. RV (9.3.9) mentions that the Soma is passed through woolen straining cloth for purifying it. At other places, a fleece or a sieve is also used. The Soma that is thus purified is called Pavamana or pure Soma. This pure Soma is given to Indra. The Soma is mixed with water or milk and consumed by others. Oblations to other Gods are offered by mixed Soma. 

The Soma is collected in Darbhas or pots and it's oblation is offered in Grahas or vessels. The Soma is either directly fed to fire RV (1.94.14) and RV (8.42.11) or is drank like that by the priests and the Yajamana. An instance mentioned in the Bhagvata Purana where king Marutta of Vaishali dynasty had conducted a never-like-before Yagya. The priests and Indra himself were given infinite Soma and they got intoxicated by it.  Ashwini Kumaras had no right to drink Soma but rishi Chyavana gave them Soma to drink in return of them granting him youth. Other kings like Dasharath, Nimi, Sharyati,etc have also performed Somyagyas.

Vaivasvata and Trita Aptya, both composers of Rigveda, are said to have excelled in the preparation of Soma. 

Eulogies and Allegories of Soma

Pertaining to it's important position in the rituals, certain eulogies were created in the name of Soma. 
  • Soma bestows supreme energy. Indra is said to drink Soma and under it's intoxication, goes on a war with Vritrasura and defeat him.
  • The person who drinks Soma becomes pure at heart as it washes away the sins.
  • Soma drives away all the enemies and prevents it's drinkers from coming in contact with any unwanted tribe. Besides, it bestows the best of health.
  • Treasures like cows, wealth,etc are received. 
  • Soma is said to be brought on the Earth from the heavens and thus it pleases the Gods the most. Soma is said to be like a smell that spreads everywhere and attracts the Gods towards it, thus inviting the Gods to bless the Yagya being performed. 
  • Being the best of all the herbs, Soma is also said to be the king of all herbs (Vanaspati). He is also called the king of people. 
  • Soma is also considered to be the moon or Chandra with the 27 Nakshatras as his wives. 
  • Soma also is equated to trees, birds, cows, mind,etc at different places in the Rigveda. 

Soma-Yagyas or Somyaga

Since Soma has such an important position in Yagyas, let's talk something about Somyagas. Every Yagya is not a Somyaga. Soma is offered only in specific Yagyas to Gods like Indra,Mitra,Varuna,etc. We find that Somyagas have continued from the Vedic period right till the Brahmana-Sutra period. 

There are 3 types of Ygyas mainly - Pakayagya, Haviryagya and Somyagya. Each has 7 types. The 7 types of Somyaga is mentioned by different rishis like Gautama, Satyavrata Samashrami and Dhurtaswamin. They are -
  • Agnishtoma
  • Atyagnishtoma
  • Ukthyah
  • Shodashi
  • Vajapeya
  • Atiratra
  • Aptoryamah
Different scriptures like Yajurveda, Ashvalayana and other Grihya Sutras deal with Somyagas and the rituals and verses to be recited there. Let's not go deep in the rituals of Somyaga. But one thing to note is that in almost every ritual you have one Soma hymn from Rigveda being recited to please Soma. 
For example - In the Sankhyayana Grihya Sutra (1.26.3), depending upon the star in which the child is born, oblations are given. Oblation to Soma in a Yagya is given if the child is born in the Mrugashirsha star.

Apart from this, we also find in the Grihya Sutras an option to using Soma like Kusha needles,etc. It could be because of the decline in the use of Soma as also it becoming less available. 

The rituals might show slight variance, but the concept of using Soma in Yagyas has lasted for centuries and continues even today. The Yagyas are done for the betterment of general public or for specific purposes. 
From   Ashutosh Kulkarni

Saturday, April 2, 2016

Origin of universe per Vedas

As per Ancient Indian Astronomers Theories ~
The Origin Of the Universe is mentioned in Nasadiya Sukta of Rig Veda. 

In the Book no. X. (Mandalam) of Rig Veda, 129th Hymn (Suktam) deals with the origin of the universe and creation. Original text and translations are given as follows -

Nasadiya Suktam

नास॑दासी॒न्नो सदा॑सीत्त॒दानी॒म् नासी॒द्रजो॒ नो व्यो॑मा प॒रो यत्।

किमाव॑रीव॒: कुह॒ कस्य॒ शर्म॒न्नंभ॒: किमा॑सी॒द्गह॑नं गभी॒रम्॥१॥

nāsa̍dāsī̱nno sadā̍sītta̱dānī̱m nāsī̱drajo̱ no vyo̍mā pa̱ro yat |

kimāva̍rīva̱ḥ kuha̱ kasya̱ śarma̱nnaṁbha̱ḥ kimā̍sī̱dgaha̍naṁ gabhī̱ram ||1||


न मृ॒त्युरा॑सीद॒मृतं॒ न तर्हि॒ न रात्र्या॒ अह्न॑ आसीत्प्रके॒तः।

आनी॑दवा॒तं स्व॒धया॒ तदेकं॒ तस्मा॑द्धा॒न्यन्न प॒रः किञ्च॒नास॑॥२॥

na mṛ̱tyurā̍sīda̱mṛta̱ṁ na tarhi̱ na rātryā̱ ahna̍ āasītprake̱taḥ |

ānī̍davā̱taṁ sva̱dhayā̱ tadekaṁ̱ tasmā̍ddhā̱nyanna pa̱raḥ kiñca̱nāsa̍ ||2||


तम॑ आसी॒त्तम॑सा गू॒ळ्हमग्रे॑ऽप्रके॒तं स॑लि॒लं सर्व॑मा इ॒दं।

तु॒च्छ्येना॒भ्वपि॑हितं॒ यदासी॒त्तप॑स॒स्तन्म॑हि॒ना जा॑य॒तैकं॑॥ ३॥

tama̍ āasī̱ttama̍sā gū̱ḻhamagre̍’prake̱taṁ sa̍li̱laṁ sarva̍mā i̱daṁ |

tu̱cchyenā̱bhvapi̍hitaṁ̱ yadāsī̱ttapa̍sa̱stanma̍hi̱nā jā̍ya̱taika̍ṁ || 3 ||


काम॒स्तदग्रे॒ सम॑वर्त॒ताधि॒ मन॑सो॒ रेत॑: प्रथ॒मं यदासी॑त्।

स॒तो बन्धु॒मस॑ति॒ निर॑विन्दन् हृ॒दि प्र॒तीष्या॑ क॒वयो॑ मनी॒षा॥४॥

kāma̱stadagre̱ sama̍varta̱tādhi̱ mana̍so̱ reta̍ḥ pratha̱maṁ yadāsī̍t |

sa̱to bandhu̱masa̍ti̱ nira̍vindan hṛ̱di pra̱tīṣyā̍ ka̱vayo̍ manī̱ṣā ||4||


ति॒र॒श्चीनो॒ वित॑तो र॒श्मिरे॑षाम॒धः स्वि॑दा॒सी ३ दु॒परि॑ स्विदासी ३ त्।

रे॒तो॒धा आ॑सन्महि॒मान॑ आसन्त्स्व॒धा आ॒वस्ता॒त्प्रय॑तिः प॒रस्ता॑त्॥५॥

ti̱ra̱ścīno̱ vita̍to ra̱śmire̍ṣāma̱dhaḥ svi̍dā̱sī 3 du̱pari̍ svidāsī 3 t |

re̱to̱dhā āa̍sanmahi̱māna̍ āasantsva̱dhā ā̱vastā̱tpraya̍tiḥ pa̱rastā̍t ||5||


को अ॒द्धा वे॑द॒ क इ॒ह प्र वो॑च॒त्कुत॒ आजा॑ता॒ कुत॑ इ॒यं विसृ॑ष्टिः।

अ॒र्वाग्दे॒वा अ॒स्य वि॒सर्ज॑ने॒नाथा॒ को वे॑द॒ यत॑ आब॒भूव॑॥६॥

ko a̱ddhā ve̍da̱ ka i̱ha pra vo̍ca̱tkuta̱ āajā̍tā̱ kuta̍ i̱yaṁ visṛ̍ṣṭiḥ |

a̱rvāgde̱vā a̱sya vi̱sarja̍ne̱nāthā̱ ko ve̍da̱ yata̍ āaba̱bhūva̍ ||6 ||


इ॒यं विसृ॑ष्टि॒र्यत॑ आब॒भूव॒ यदि॑ वा द॒धे यदि॑ वा॒ न।

यो अ॒स्याध्य॑क्षः पर॒मे व्यो॑म॒न्त्सो अ॒ङ्ग वे॑द॒ यदि॑ वा॒ न वेद॑॥ ७॥

i̱yaṁ visṛ̍ṣṭi̱ryata̍ āaba̱bhūva̱ yadi̍ vā da̱dhe yadi̍ vā̱ na |

yo a̱syādhya̍kṣaḥ para̱me vyo̍ma̱ntso a̱ṅga ve̍da̱ yadi̍ vā̱ na veda̍ || 7 ||


1.Neither existence nor nonexistence was there, Neither matter nor the space around was there,
What covered it, where it was and who made it protected?
Why, that plasma, all pervading, deep and profound?

2.Neither death nor immortality was there and there was neither day nor night was in existence ,
But for that breathless there was one breathing on its own which in persistence,
There was nothing else there, surely nothing was there.

3.It was complete darkness concealed in darkness and an uninterrupted contentment of fluid Out comes in material form and shape
That one lying deep inside, on its own intent ending.

4.In the cosmic mind, all pervading Desires, the primal seed made its first appearances and from there the wise men, seeking deep in their heartfelt
Could see the link between ‘that is’ and ‘that is not’.

5.Reins of the link, a grid of crisscross lines , Holds all the seeds and mighty forces,
Microcosmic forces within and macro forces out above.

6.Who really knows, who can declared that when it started from and where ?
And where will this creations ends?

The Seekers sought it entered later –
No one knows when all this manifestation started  

7.That one, out of which the all the creation came may hold the reins or not,
Perceiving all from above, That one alone
Knows the beginning or may be not in knowing , 
No one knows , No one knows , No one knows !

Monday, March 28, 2016

Swami vivekanand

स्वामी विवेकानंद के 8 पाठ : .

1. “एक विचार लो, उस विचार को अपनी जिंदगी बना लो, उसके सपने देखो, उसके बारे में सोचो, अपने हर अंग, मस्तिष्क, शरीर, नसें, ग्रंथिया से उसके बारे में सोचो, हर दूसरे विचार को त्याग दो। यह सफल होने का सबसे अच्छा तरीका है, और इसी तरह से बहुत सी महान आत्मायें उतपन्न होती हैं।”
2. “आपको अपने अंदर से ही आगे आना होगा, कोई आपको नहीं सिखा सकता , कोई आपको अध्यात्मिक नहीं बना सकता है। यहां कोई शिक्षक नहीं है, सिर्फ आपकी आत्मा ही आपको सिखा सकती है”
3. “सभी शक्तियां आपके अंदर हैं, आप उनसे सबकुछ कर सकते है। उनमें विश्वास रखिए, कभी नहीं सोचिए की आप कमजोर हैं, कभी यह भी ना सोचें की आप थोडे मुर्ख हैं। आप सबकुछ कर सकते हैं, वह भी बिना किसी की दया से। खडे हो और अपनी दिव्यता को महसुस करो।”
4. “आपका सबसे बड़ा शत्रु खुद आपका खुद को कमजोर सोचना ही है।”
5. “हमेशा निडर रहो, निर्भीक होकर अपने विचारों को वहां तक जाने दो जहां तक वह जाने देते हैं, निजरता से उनका जिंदगी भर पालन भी करो।”
6. “हम वही होते हैं जो हमारे 'विचार' हमें बनाते है, इसलिए इसका ध्यान रखो कि आप क्या सोचते हो। शब्द तो आते-जाते रहते हैं, पर 'विचार' हमेशा साथ रहते हैं।”
7. “ना तो ज्यादा बोलो और ना ही अनदेखा करो.., आपको हर तरफ से ज्ञान मिल सकता है।” ........ और सबसे बडी बात ...
8. “जो आग हमें जलाती है वही हमें पालती भी है तो यह आग की गलती नहीं है कि आप जल रहे हैं।”
------------ Hardik Savani ------------

Sunday, March 27, 2016

Ramcharitmanas aranya Kand

जय सियाराम जय सियाराम जय सियाराम जय जय सियाराम

श्रीरामचरितमानस–अरण्यकाण्ड दोहा संख्या 038से आगे .......

चौपाई :

गुनातीत सचराचर स्वामी। राम उमा सब अंतरजामी॥
कामिन्ह कै दीनता देखाई। धीरन्ह कें मन बिरति दृढ़ाई॥
क्रोध मनोज लोभ मद माया। छूटहिं सकल राम कीं दाया॥
सो नर इंद्रजाल नहिं भूला। जा पर होइ सो नट अनुकूला॥
उमा कहउँ मैं अनुभव अपना। सत हरि भजनु जगत सब सपना॥
पुनि प्रभु गए सरोबर तीरा। पंपा नाम सुभग गंभीरा॥
संत हृदय जस निर्मल बारी। बाँधे घाट मनोहर चारी॥
जहँ तहँ पिअहिं बिबिध मृग नीरा। जनु उदार गृह जाचक भीरा॥

भावार्थ:- (शिवजी कहते हैं-) हे पार्वती ! श्री रामचंद्रजी गुणातीत (तीनों गुणों से परे), चराचर जगत् के स्वामी और सबके अंतर की जानने वाले हैं। (उपर्युक्त बातें कहकर) उन्होंने कामी लोगों की दीनता (बेबसी) दिखलाई है और धीर (विवेकी) पुरुषों के मन में वैराग्य को दृढ़ किया है॥ क्रोध, काम, लोभ, मद और माया- ये सभी श्री रामजी की दया से छूट जाते हैं। वह नट (नटराज भगवान्) जिस पर प्रसन्न होता है, वह मनुष्य इंद्रजाल (माया) में नहीं भूलता॥ हे उमा ! मैं तुम्हें अपना अनुभव कहता हूँ- हरि का भजन ही सत्य है, यह सारा जगत् तो स्वप्न (की भाँति झूठा) है। फिर प्रभु श्री रामजी पंपा नामक सुंदर और गहरे सरोवर के तीर पर गए॥ उसका जल संतों के हृदय जैसा निर्मल है। मन को हरने वाले सुंदर चार घाट बँधे हुए हैं। भाँति-भाँति के पशु जहाँ-तहाँ जल पी रहे हैं। मानो उदार दानी पुरुषों के घर याचकों की भीड़ लगी हो!॥

दोहा :

पुरइनि सघन ओट जल बेगि न पाइअ मर्म।
मायाछन्न न देखिऐ जैसें निर्गुन ब्रह्म॥39 क॥
सुखी मीन सब एकरस अति अगाध जल माहिं।
जथा धर्मसीलन्ह के दिन सुख संजुत जाहिं॥39 ख॥

भावार्थ:- घनी पुरइनों (कमल के पत्तों) की आड़ में जल का जल्दी पता नहीं मिलता। जैसे माया से ढँके रहने के कारण निर्गुण ब्रह्म नहीं दिखता॥उस सरोवर के अत्यंत अथाह जल में सब मछलियाँ सदा एकरस (एक समान) सुखी रहती हैं। जैसे धर्मशील पुरुषों के सब दिन सुखपूर्वक बीतते हैं॥39 (क-ख)॥
सभी स्नेही मानसप्रेमी साधकजनों को हमारी स्नेहमयी राम राम |

जय सियाराम जय सियाराम जय सियाराम जय जय सियाराम

श्रीरामचरितमानस–अरण्यकाण्ड दोहा संख्या 037से आगे .......

चौपाई :

बिटप बिसाल लता अरुझानी। बिबिध बितान दिए जनु तानी॥
कदलि ताल बर धुजा पताका। देखि न मोह धीर मन जाका॥
बिबिध भाँति फूले तरु नाना। जनु बानैत बने बहु बाना॥
कहुँ कहुँ सुंदर बिटप सुहाए। जनु भट बिलग बिलग होइ छाए॥
कूजत पिक मानहुँ गज माते। ढेक महोख ऊँट बिसराते॥
मोर चकोर कीर बर बाजी। पारावत मराल सब ताजी॥
तीतिर लावक पदचर जूथा। बरनि न जाइ मनोज बरूथा॥
रथ गिरि सिला दुंदुभीं झरना। चातक बंदी गुन गन बरना॥
मधुकर मुखर भेरि सहनाई। त्रिबिध बयारि बसीठीं आई॥
चतुरंगिनी सेन सँग लीन्हें। बिचरत सबहि चुनौती दीन्हें॥
लछिमन देखत काम अनीका। रहहिं धीर तिन्ह कै जग लीका॥
ऐहि कें एक परम बल नारी। तेहि तें उबर सुभट सोइ भारी॥

भावार्थ:- विशाल वृक्षों में लताएँ उलझी हुई ऐसी मालूम होती हैं मानो नाना प्रकार के तंबू तान दिए गए हैं। केला और ताड़ सुंदर ध्वजा पताका के समान हैं। इन्हें देखकर वही नहीं मोहित होता, जिसका मन धीर है॥ अनेकों वृक्ष नाना प्रकार से फूले हुए हैं। मानो अलग-अलग बाना (वर्दी) धारण किए हुए बहुत से तीरंदाज हों। कहीं-कहीं सुंदर वृक्ष शोभा दे रहे हैं। मानो योद्धा लोग अलग-अलग होकर छावनी डाले हों॥ कोयलें कूज रही हैं, वही मानो मतवाले हाथी (चिग्घाड़ रहे) हैं। ढेक और महोख पक्षी मानो ऊँट और खच्चर हैं। मोर, चकोर, तोते, कबूतर और हंस मानो सब सुंदर ताजी (अरबी) घोड़े हैं॥ तीतर और बटेर पैदल सिपाहियों के झुंड हैं। कामदेव की सेना का वर्णन नहीं हो सकता। पर्वतों की शिलाएँ रथ और जल के झरने नगाड़े हैं। पपीहे भाट हैं, जो गुणसमूह (विरुदावली) का वर्णन करते हैं ॥ भौंरों की गुंजार भेरी और शहनाई है। शीतल, मंद और सुगंधित हवा मानो दूत का काम लेकर आई है। इस प्रकार चतुरंगिणी सेना साथ लिए कामदेव मानो सबको चुनौती देता हुआ विचर रहा है॥ हे लक्ष्मण ! कामदेव की इस सेना को देखकर जो धीर बने रहते हैं, जगत् में उन्हीं की (वीरों में) प्रतिष्ठा होती है। इस कामदेव के एक स्त्री का बड़ा भारी बल है। उससे जो बच जाए, वही श्रेष्ठ योद्धा है॥

दोहा :

तात तीनि अति प्रबल खल काम क्रोध अरु लोभ।
मुनि बिग्यान धाम मन करहिं निमिष महुँ छोभ॥38 क॥
लोभ कें इच्छा दंभ बल काम कें केवल नारि।
क्रोध कें परुष बचन बल मुनिबर कहहिं बिचारि॥38 ख॥

भावार्थ:- हे तात ! काम, क्रोध और लोभ- ये तीन अत्यंत दुष्ट हैं। ये विज्ञान के धाम मुनियों के भी मनों को पलभर में क्षुब्ध कर देते हैं ॥ लोभ को इच्छा और दम्भ का बल है, काम को केवल स्त्री का बल है और क्रोध को कठोर वचनों का बाल है, श्रेष्ठ मुनि विचार कर ऐसा कहते हैं ॥38 (क-ख)॥

गोस्वामी तुलसीदासरचित श्रीरामचरितमानस, अरण्यकाण्ड, दोहा संख्या 038, टीकाकार श्रद्धेय भाई श्रीहनुमान प्रसाद पोद्दार, पुस्तक कोड-81, गीताप्रेस गोरखपुर
गोस्वामी तुलसीदासरचित श्रीरामचरितमानस, अरण्यकाण्ड, दोहा संख्या 039, टीकाकार श्रद्धेय भाई श्रीहनुमान प्रसाद पोद्दार, पुस्तक कोड-81, गीताप्रेस गोरखपुर

Why not to sleep facing head to north

अक्सर हमें हमारी माँ और बुढ़े लोग हमें कहते हैं कि इस तरफ पैर करके मत सो इस दिशा में पैर करके आपको नहीं सोना चाहिए इत्यादि। हम उनसे सवाल तो बहुत पुछते हैं कि आखिर क्यों नहीं इस दिशा में पैर रखकर नहीं सोना चाहिए, या इस दिशा में ही क्यों पैर रखने चाहिए। दरअसल यह कोई अंधविश्वास नहीं है यह वैज्ञानिको द्वारा सिद्ध बात है। हम इसलिए आज इसको लिख रहे हैं क्योंकि बहुत से लोग अभी भी इस बात से अनभिज्ञ हैं। आईये तो जानते हैं उत्तर दिशा में ही पैर करके क्यों सोना चाहिए दिक्षिण में क्यों नहीं।।

 “वास्तु शास्त्र के अनुसार सोते समय पैर को उत्तर दिशा की ओर रखना चाहिए” जानिये वैज्ञानिक कारण:-

1. मनुष्य के सिर सकारत्म उर्जा का स्त्रोत है ,इसे चुम्बकीय उत्तर माना गया है |
2 .जब हम उत्तर में सिर करके सोते हैं तो हमारा सिर और उत्तर दिशा की सकारात्मक उर्जा एक दुसरे का प्रतिरोध [प्रतिकर्षित] करते हैं । वैज्ञानिक मानते हैं कि पृथ्वी का चुंबकीय नोर्थ पोल हमारे सिर के चुंबकीय पोल से मिलकर के एक दूसरे का प्रतिरोध करता है जिससे लोगों की स्मरण शक्ति पर असर पड़ता है।
3.इस प्रतिरोध के फलस्वरूप रात को सोते समय नीद में बाधा उत्पन्न होता है ,नीद गहरी नही होती ,दिन भर हाथ पैर मे दर्द की शिकायत लोग करते हैं ।
4.सनातन धर्म के अनुसार मृतक को उत्तर दिशा में सिर रखकर दरवाजे के पास सुलाने का विधान है।
5.इसलिए उत्तर दिशा में सोने से हमारी प्रतिरोधक क्षमता कम हो जाती है और बीमार होने की सम्भावना बड जाती है ।
6. दक्षिण की ओर सिर होने से नींद अच्छी आती है। इससे सुबह मन शांत रहता है और तनाव पर नियंत्रण करना आसान होता है।

पौराणिक कारण

7.  माँ पार्वती जब स्नान कर रही थी उस समय नवनिर्मित गणेश जी द्वार पर लोगों को अंदर आने से मना कर रहे थे ,भगवान शिव को अंदर आने से मना करने पर भगवान शिव ने गणेश जी सिर काट दिया । माँ पार्वती के आग्रह पर –भगवान शिव ने अपने अनुचर को आदेश दिया कि जो भी इस पृथ्वी पर उत्तर दिशा में सिर करके सो रहा हो उसका सिर काटकर ले आवो ,उस युग में लोग शास्त्र के अनुकूल शयन करते थे इसलिए कोई भी व्यक्ति उत्तर दिशा की ओर सिर करके सोते नही मिला । अंत में अनुचरों को हाथी का एक बच्चा उत्तर दिशा में सिर करके सोते मिला ,हाथी के उस बच्चे का सिर काटकर भगवान गणेश जी को जीवित किया गया । हाथी के बच्चे का सिर इसलिए कटा क्योंकि वो उत्तर दिशा में सिर करके सो रहा था , कलयुग में क्यों हम शिव जी अनुचरों को अपने घर आमंत्रित करें —
8 .इसलिए दक्षिण में सिर करके और उत्तर में पैर करके सोयें इससे भगवान शिव प्रसन्न ही होंगे।
9. शास्त्रों के अनुसार दक्षिण दिसा यमराज की दिशा है। इसी दिशा में यमराज के दूत घूमते हैं और दक्षिण मैं पैर करके सोने से वह हमारी उम्र को कम कर देते हैं।
10. सोते समय पूर्व की ओर पैर नहीं होने चाहिए। इससे जीवन में विभिन्न दोषों का प्रवेश होता है। यह सूर्यदेव की दिशा है। अतः ऋषियों ने इस ओर पैर कर सोना निषिद्ध माना है।

Shiva mantra

॥ श्रीशिवाष्टकम् २ ॥ श्रीगणेशाय नमः । प्रभुमीशमनीशमशेषगुणं गुणहीनमहीश-गलाभरणम् । रण-निर्जित-दुर्ज्जयदैत्यपुरं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ १॥ गिरिराज सुतान्वित-वाम तनुं तनु-निन्दित-राजित-कोटीविधुम् । विधि-विष्णु-शिवस्तुत-पादयुगं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ २॥ शशिलाञ्छित-रञ्जित-सन्मुकुटं कटिलम्बित-सुन्दर-कृत्तिपटम् । सुरशैवलिनी-कृत-पूतजटं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ ३॥ नयनत्रय-भूषित-चारुमुखं मुखपद्म-पराजित-कोटिविधुम् । विधु-खण्ड-विमण्डित-भालतटं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ ४॥ वृषराज-निकेतनमादिगुरुं गरलाशनमाजि विषाणधरम् । प्रमथाधिप-सेवक-रञ्जनकं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ ५॥ मकरध्वज-मत्तमतङ्गहरं करिचर्म्मगनाग-विबोधकरम् । वरदाभय-शूलविषाण-धरं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ ६॥ जगदुद्भव-पालन-नाशकरं कृपयैव पुनस्त्रय रूपधरम् । प्रिय मानव-साधुजनैकगतिं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ ७॥ न दत्तन्तु पुष्पं सदा पाप चित्तैः पुनर्जन्म दुःखात् परित्राहि शम्भो । भजतोऽखिल दुःख समूह हरं प्रणमामिशिवं शिवकल्पतरुम् ॥ ८॥ ॥ इति शिवाष्टकं सम्पूर्णम् ॥

Saturday, March 26, 2016

मृत्यु के बाद आत्मा दूसरा शरीर कितने दिनों के अन्दर धारण करता है

मृत्यु के बाद आत्मा दूसरा शरीर कितने दिनों के अन्दर धारण करता है? किन-किन योनियों में प्रवेश करता है? क्या मनुष्य की आत्मा पशु-पक्षियों की योनियों में जन्म लेने के बाद फिर लौट के मनुष्य योनियों में बनने का कितना समय लगता है? आत्मा माता-पिता के द्वारा गर्भधारण करने से शरीर धारण करता है यह मालूम है लेकिन आधुनिक पद्धतियों के द्वारा टेस्ट ट्यूब बेबी, सरोगसि पद्धति, गर्भधारण पद्धति, स्पर्म बैंकिंग पद्धति आदि में आत्मा उतने दिनों तक स्टोर किया जाता है क्या?
– मृत्यु के  बाद आत्मा कब शरीर धारण करता है, इसका ठीक-ठीक ज्ञान तो परमेश्वर को है। किन्तु जैसा कुछ ज्ञान हमें शास्त्रों से प्राप्त होता है वैसा यहाँ लिखते हैं। बृहदारण्यक-उपनिषद् में मृत्यु व अन्य शरीर धारण करने का वर्णन मिलता है। वर्तमान शरीर को छोड़कर अन्य शरीर प्राप्ति में कितना समय लगता है, इस विषय में उपनिषद् ने कहा- तद्यथा तृणजलायुका तृणस्यान्तं गत्वाऽन्यमाक्रममाक्रम्यात्मानम् उपसँ्हरत्येवमेवायमात्मेदं शरीरं निहत्याऽविद्यां गमयित्वाऽन्यमाक्रममाक्रम्य् आत्मानमुपसंहरति।। – बृ. ४.४.३ जैसे तृण जलायुका (सुंडी=कोई कीड़ा विशेष) तिनके के अन्त पर पहुँच कर, दूसरे तिनके को सहारे के लिए पकड़ लेती है अथवा पकड़ कर अपने आपको खींच लेती है, इसी प्रकार यह आत्मा इस शरीररूपी तिनके को परे फेंक कर अविद्या को दूर कर, दूसरे शरीर रूपी तिनके का सहारा लेकर अपने आपको खींच लेता है। यहाँ उपनिषद् संकेत कर रहा है कि मृत्यु के बाद दूसरा शरीर प्राप्त होने में इतना ही समय लगता है, जितना कि एक कीड़ा एक तिनके से दूसरे तिनके पर जाता है अर्थात् दूसरा शरीर प्राप्त होने में कुछ ही क्षण लगते हैं, कुछ ही क्षणों में आत्मा दूसरे शरीर में प्रवेश कर जाता है। आपने पूछा है- आत्मा कितने दिनों में दूसरा शरीर धारण कर लेता है, यहाँ शास्त्र दिनों की बात नहीं कर रहा कुछ क्षण की ही बात कह रहा है। मृत्यु के विषय में उपनिषद् ने कुछ विस्तार से बताया है, उसका भी हम यहाँ वर्णन करते हैं- स यत्रायमात्माऽबल्यं न्येत्यसंमोहमिव न्येत्यथैनमेते प्राणा अभिसमायन्ति स एतास्तेजोमात्राः समभ्याददानो हृदयमेवान्ववक्रामति स यत्रैष चाक्षुषः पुरुषः पराङ् पर्यावर्ततेऽथारूपज्ञो भवति।। – बृ. उ.४.४.१ अर्थात् जब मनुष्य अन्त समय में निर्बलता से मूर्छित-सा हो जाता है, तब आत्मा की चेतना शक्ति जो समस्त बाहर और भीतर की इन्द्रियों में फैली हुई रहती है, उसे सिकोड़ती हुई हृदय में पहुँचती है, जहाँ वह उसकी समस्त शक्ति इकट्ठी हो जाती है। इन शक्तियों के सिकोड़ लेने का इन्द्रियों पर क्या प्रभाव पड़ता है, इसका वर्णन करते हैं कि जब आँख से वह चेतनामय शक्ति जिसे यहाँ पर चाक्षुष पुरुष कहा है, वह निकल जाती तब आँखें ज्योति रहित हो जाती है और मनुष्य उस मृत्यु समय किसी को देखने अथवा पहचानने में अयोग्य हो जाता है। एकीभवति न पश्यतीत्याहुरेकी भवति, न जिघ्रतीत्याहुरेकी भवति, न रसयत इत्याहुरेकी भवति, न वदतीत्याहुरेकी भवति, न शृणोतीत्याहुरेकी भवति, न मनुत इत्याहुरेकी भवति, न स्पृशतीत्याहुरेकी भवति, न विजानातीत्याहुस्तस्य हैतस्य हृदयस्याग्रं प्रद्योतते तेन प्रद्योतेनैष आत्मा निष्क्रामति चक्षुष्टो वा मूर्ध्नो वाऽन्येभ्यो वा शरीरदेशेभ्यस्तमुत्क्रामन्तं प्राणोऽनूत्क्रामति प्राणमनूत्क्रामन्तं सर्वे प्राणा अनूत्क्रामन्ति सविज्ञानो भवति, सविज्ञानमेवान्ववक्रामति तं विद्याकर्मणी समन्वारभेते पूर्वप्रज्ञा च।। – बृ.उ. ४.४.२ अर्थात् जब वह चेतनामय शक्ति आँख, नाक,जिह्वा, वाणी, श्रोत्र, मन और त्वचा आदि से निकलकर आत्मा में समाविष्ट हो जाती है, तो ऐसे मरने वाले व्यक्ति के पास बैठे हुए लोग कहते हैं कि अब वह यह नहीं देखता, नहीं सूँघता इत्यादि। इस प्रकार इन समस्त शक्तियों को लेकर यह जीव हृदय में पहुँचता है और जब हृदय को छोड़ना चाहता है तो आत्मा की ज्योति से हृदय का अग्रभाग प्रकाशित हो उठता है। तब हृदय से भी उस ज्योति चेतना की शक्ति को लेकर, उसके साथ हृदय से निकल जाता है। हृदय से निकलकर वह जीवन शरीर के किस भाग में से निकला करता है, इस सम्बन्ध में कहते है कि वह आँख, मूर्धा अथवा शरीर के अन्य भागों-कान, नाक और मुँह आदि किसी एक स्थान से निकला करता है। इस प्रकार शरीर से निकलने वाले जीव के साथ प्राण और समस्त इन्द्रियाँ भी निकल जाया करती हैं। जीव मरते समय ‘सविज्ञान’ हो जाता है अर्थात् जीवन का सारा खेल इसके सामने आ जाता है। इसप्रकार निकलने वाले जीव के साथ उसका उपार्जित ज्ञान, उसके किये कर्म और पिछले जन्मों के संस्कार, वासना और स्मृति जाया करती है। इस प्रकार से उपनिषद् ने मृत्यु का वर्णन किया है। अर्थात् जिस शरीर में जीव रह रहा था उस शरीर से पृथक् होना मृत्यु है। उस मृत्यु समय में जीव के साथ उसका सूक्ष्म शरीर भी रहता, सूक्ष्म शरीर भी निकलता है। आपने पूछा किन-किन योनियों में प्रवेश करता है, इसका उत्तर  है जिन-जिन योनियों के कर्म जीव के साथ होते हैं उन-उन योनियों में जीव जाता है। यह वैदिक सिद्धान्त है, यही सिद्धान्त युक्ति तर्क से भी सिद्ध है। इस वेद, शास्त्र, युक्ति, तर्क से सिद्ध सिद्धान्त को भारत में एक सम्प्रदाय रूप में उभर रहा समूह, जो दिखने में हिन्दू किन्तु आदतों से ईसाई, वेदशास्त्र, इतिहास का घोर शत्रु ब्रह्माकुमारी नाम का संगठन है। वह इस शास्त्र प्रतिपादित सिद्धान्त को न मान यह कहता है कि मनुष्य की आत्मा सदा मनुष्य का ही जन्म लेता है, इसी प्रकार अन्य का आत्मा अन्य शरीर में जन्म लेता है। ये ब्रह्माकुमारी समूह यह कहते हुए पूरे कर्म फल सिद्धान्त को ताक पर रख देता है। यह भूल जाता है कि जिसने घोर पाप कर्म किये हैं वह इन पाप कर्मों का फल इस मनुष्य शरीर में भोग ही नहीं सकता, इन पाप कर्मों को भोगने के लिए जीव को अन्य शरीरों में जाना पड़ता है। वेद कहता है- असूर्या नाम ते लोका अन्धेन तमसावृताः। ताँऽस्ते प्रेत्यापि गच्छन्ति ये के चात्महनो जनाः।। – यजु. ४०.३ इस मन्त्र का भाव यही है कि जो आत्मघाती=घोर पाप कर्म करने वाले जन है वे मरकर घोर अन्धकार युक्त=दुःखयुक्त तिर्यक योनियों को प्राप्त होते हैं। ऐसे-ऐसे वेद के अनेकों मन्त्र हैं जो इस प्रकार के कर्मफल को दर्शाते हैं। किन्तु इन ब्रह्माकुमारी वालों को वेद शास्त्र से कोई लेना-देना नहीं है। ये तो अपनी निराधार काल्पनिक वाग्जाल व भौतिक ऐश्वर्य के द्वारा भोले लोगों को अपने जाल में फँसा अपनी संख्या बढ़ाने में लगे हैं।