Monday, April 13, 2015


A user's photo.  1.The Root Chakra (MULADHAR CHAKRA) is the first chakra and is located at the base of the spine. It is the root of your being and establishes the deepest connections with your physical body, your environment and with the Earth. Muladhara is the most instinctual of all chakras - it is your survival centre. Your fight and flight response is initiated from this chakra. This is your primal, animal nature.
The energy of Muladhara allows us to harness courage, resource...fulness and the will to live during trying times. It connects us with spiritual energies of our ancestors, their challenges and their triumphs.
Since Base Chakra carries our ancestral memories, basically everyone experiences challenges or blockages within muladhara. War, famine, natural disasters, and any events that threaten our basic survival, are all recorded within energies of the first chakra.
These memories are imprinted in the subtle body and are passed down from generation to generation creating unconscious generational patterns. It is our work to take responsibility for our own lives and bring to light that which is unconscious.
All of the seven chakras are important and interconnected with each other. Usually, balancing one chakra will create change in another chakra. It is important though to balance the Root Chakra first, before we proceed to others, or we will lack the stability and rootedness necessary for true transformation and personal growth. We cannot grow and change unless we feel safe and secure.
First Chakra at a glance:
Sanskrit name: Muladhara - root support
Element: Earth
Color: Red
Shape: Square
Petals of the lotus: Four
Seed sound: LAM
Vowel sound: O
Rights: To have
Endocrine gland: Adrenal cortex
Physical association:The skeletal structure, teeth, large intestine, kidneys, blood
Psychological function: Survival and self preservation
Identity: Physical identity
Developmental stage: Womb to 12 months
Challenge: Fear
Plane: Physical plane
Planets: Saturn, Earth
Deity: Brahma, Dakini, Ganesha
Mythological Animal White elephant with seven trunks
Sense organ: Nose
Predominant sense: Smell
Incense: Cedar
Herb: Sage

2. The Sacral Chakra is your passion and pleasure centre and it is located in the pelvic area. While the Root Chakra is satisfied with survival, the 2nd chakra seeks pleasure and enjoyment.
The high functioning aspect of Swadhisthana is the ability to enjoy, and the low side of this chakra is suicidal depression and heavy emotional conditions. While Muladhara is totally unconscious, Swadhisthana has more awareness.
A user's photo. Swadhisthana strongly relates to “I, me, mine” hence it is about... our personal needs. The low functioning of this chakra leads to needy, selfish, self-gratifying consumption at other people’s expense.
Swadhisthana also governs how we relate to other people – particularly our attempts to fulfil our needs. When we operate at this level we have a tendency to objectify others – others are only there for our enjoyment. It is a kind of needs-driven consumption. Swadhisthana can also make us feel like an outsider.
Out of all the chakras Swadhisthana is the enjoyment chakra. As we awaken Swadhisthana we begin to enjoy and as we begin to enjoy we begin to move out of it.
sacral chakraThe gift of this chakra is experiencing our lives through feelings and sensations. The second chakra is the centre of feeling, emotion, pleasure, sensuality, intimacy, and connection.
The energy of this chakra allows you to let go, to move, and to feel change and transformation occurring within your body. It allows you to experience this moment as it is, in its own fullness.
As if this was not enough, we also experience the wounds of our collective cultural struggles over many sexual issues of our society. On one hand sexuality is magnified and glorified, and on the other hand it is rejected. This results in either blocked or excessive second chakra issues.
No wonder we have so many issues with our passion centre, the wellspring of feelings, enjoyment, and sensuality.
The sacral chakra is also your centre of creativity. Passion is the fuel of creative energy. Everything you create, a poem, a drawing, or a website, originates from the energy of second chakra. It is also where your fertility originates. After all, conceiving a child is a creative process.
Sacral Chakra at a glance:
Sanskrit name: Svadhisthana (sweetness)
Element: Water
Color: Orange
Shape: Circle with crescent
Petals of the lotus: Six
Seed sound: VANG
Vowel sound: Oo
Rights: To feel, to want
Endocrine gland: Ovaries, testicles
Physical association: Womb, genitals, kidney, bladder
Psychological function: Movement and connection
Identity: Emotional
Developmental stage: 6 months - 2 years
Challenge: Guilt
Plane: Astral plane
Planets: Mercury, Jupiter, Moon
Deity: Indra, Rakini, Vishnu
Mythological Animal:
Incense: Gardenia, damiana
Herb: Fennel, corriander

The Solar Plexus Chakra, located between the navel and solar plexus, is your power centre - your Core Self. While the Sacral chakra seeks pleasure and enjoyment, the third chakra is all about who you are.
solar plexus chakra The gift of this chakra is sensing your personal power, being confident, responsible, and reliable. The third chakra is the centre of your self-esteem, your willpower, self-discipline, as well as warmth in your personality....
The energy of this chakra allows you to transform inertia into action and movement. It allows you to meet challenges and mover forward in your life.
A user's photo. The main challenge for the third chakra is to use your personal power in a balanced manner. What does that mean? It means consciously harnessing the energy of the solar plexus chakra. It means being proactive rather then reactive or inactive.
People with excessive third chakra energy react to life circumstances, they have emotional outbursts and are often stressed out. People with blocked or deficient third chakra are passive and inactive - allowing life to pass by while they do nothing.
Strong third chakra reflects the ability to move forward in life with confidence and power. It reflects the ability to make conscious choices to choose and to act.
The message of the third chakra is: You have the power to choose to achieve your life purpose or you can live out your karma or past experiences.
What do you choose? Do you choose love, light and healing? Do you accept that you have the power to choose? Do you feel a sense of freedom when you make a choice?
The third chakra is the centre of your self-esteem. Every time you judge or criticize yourself, you deplete this chakra and weaken your willpower. Self love, self acceptance, and acknowledgement of your own worth are the building blocks of the third chakra.
A person with an open and balanced Manipura Chakra values self and work, is confident in ability to do something well, loves and accepts self, is willing to express self in a powerful way, knows that they have the freedom to choose to be himself and direct own life.
Solar Plexus Chakra at a glance:
Sanskrit name: Manipura (lustrous gem)
Element: Fire
Color: Yellow
Shape: Triangle (downward-pointing)
Petals of the lotus: Ten
Seed sound: Ram
Vowel sound: Ah
Rights: To act
Endocrine gland: Adrenals, pancreas
Physical association: Digestive system, liver, gall bladder
Psychological function: Will
Identity: Ego identity
Developmental stage: 18 - 42 months
Challenge: Shame
Plane: Celestial plane
Planets: Sun and Mars
Deity: Rudra, Lakini
Mythological Animal: Ram
Incense: Saffron, musk, sandalwood
Herb: Cinnamon, ginger

The Heart Chakra - the wellspring of love, warmth, compassion, and joy is located at the heart centre. Anahata moves love through your life. It is the centre of your deep bonds with other beings, your sense of caring and compassion, your feelings of self-love, altruism, generosity, kindness, and respect. Anahata is an integrating and unifying chakra - bringing to wholeness - as such, it is your healing centre. Indeed, most spiritual traditions ...recognize love , bhakti,surrender to god comes from this chakra.
A user's photo. The energy of Anahata allows us to recognize that we are a part of something larger, that we are interconnected within an intricate web of relationships extending through life and the universe. Anahata allows us to recognize and get in touch with the sacred and fundamental truth that runs through all of life and connects everything together.
The "way of the heart" or the "path of the heart" is living your life from this energy centre of love. It means living your life with loving kindness and compassion towards others. It means that your heart is open to others and you inspire kindness and compassion in others. You create safe and supportive environment.
Others can feel your love and warmth. They feel loved and accepted unconditionally. People feel at peace around you, as there is no judgment coming from you. When Anahata is open and energy is flowing freely, you are not only loving to others, you are also loving to your self. You know when you need to say no and when you need care and self-nurturing.
All of the seven chakras are important and while I cannot say that the Heart Chakra is the most important, I do want to say that it is very important. Most of the world's spiritual traditions recognize love as the unifying force, the energy that is the most fundamental part of the universe, and of ourselves. To open to love is to reach to the deepest places and connect with our true essence, our spirit, and our soul.
Heart Chakra at a glance:
Sanskrit name: Anahata - unstruck
Element: Air
Color: Green
Shape: Crescent moon
Petals of the lotus: Twelve
Seed sound: Lam
Vowel sound: Ay
Rights: To love
Endocrine gland: Thymus
Physical association: Heart, lungs, circulatory system, arms, hands
Psychological function: Love
Identity: Social identity
Developmental stage: 3.5 to 7 years
Challenge: Grief
Plane: The plane of balance
Planets: Venus (lunar, feminine), Sun
Deity: Vishnu, Lakshmi, Krishna
Mythological Animal: Antelope, dove, birds
Sense organ: Skin
Predominant sense: Touch
Incense: Jasmin, lavender, rose

The Throat Chakra is the fifth chakra and it is the first of the higher or spiritual chakras on the "chakra ladder". This chakra is located in the region of neck and shoulders and its color is blue.
The gift of this chakra is accepting your originality, expressing your authentic voice and speaking your truth.peace and harmony comes from this chakra.
The energy of this chakra allows you to seek knowledge that is true, beyond limitations of time and space, beyond cultural and family conditioning.
The main challenge for the fifth chakra is doubt and negative thinking. When you gain and verify your knowledge through meditation and direct experience, then doubt and negativity are removed.
A user's photo. The "way of the Throat Chakra" is the way of inspired creativity, seeking and sharing of the truth. It is the way of standing up for what you believe, saying no when you need to, and being open and honest in what you say.
Do you dare to be creative? Do you dare to open up to a life full of infinite possibilities?
The fifth chakra is linked directly to your personal integrity and a sense of honor. As a communication centre, it not only allows you to express who you are and what you stand for, but also allows you to listen deeply to another.
A person with an open Visuddha chakra is a good listener, she enables another person to have the experience of being heard - one of the most profound human needs.and vaak siddhi comes from this chakra,whatever spoken comes out to be true.
Throat Chakra at a glance:
Sanskrit name: Visuddha
Element: Akasha
Color: Blue
Shape: Crescent
Petals of the lotus: Sixteen
Seed sound: Ham
Vowel sound: Eee
Rights: To speak
Endocrine gland: Thyroid and Parathyroid gland
Physical association: Throat, ears, mouth, shoulders, and neck
Psychological function: Communication
Identity: Creative identity
Developmental stage: 7 -12 years
Challenge: Lies
Plane: Human plane, where the dark night of soul ends
Planets: Mercury
Deity: Sadasiva, Sakini
Mythological Animal: Elephant, bull, lion
Incense: Frankincense
Herb: Chamomile
Sephira: Geburah, Chesed

Third eye is called the guru chakra because only guru has the power to open this chakra and pass on his divine knowledge to his disciple.In times of sages and rishi muni,gurus used to pass on their knowledge through this chakra ,whether it was knowledge of astrology,mathematics,medicine,spirituality and so on.That's Why it is also called gyan chakra.higher level of knowledge and meditation cannot be attained without this chakra.peopl...e who have activated third eye are able to see past,present and future.
A user's photo. The energy of Ajna allows us to access our inner guidance that comes from the depths of our being. It allows us to cut through illusion and to access deeper truths - to see beyond the mind, beyond the words.
The "way of the third eye" is seeing everything as it is from a point of "witness" or "observer", or from simply being mindful - moment by moment.
It means examining self-limiting ideas and developing wisdom that comes from a perspective that transcends the duality of good or bad, black or white. It means seeing and helping others to see the deeper meanings of the situations in their lives.
Sixth chakra is holistic in nature. When this chakra is fully activated, both hemispheres of the brain function in synchrony. The right hemisphere's creativity and synthetic thinking is integrated and balanced with left hemisphere's logical and analytical thinking.
The Third Eye is not only the seat of wisdom, but also a seat of conscience. This is where you not only see what is going on, but you also know what it means. This is where your sense of justice and your ethics originate. When your third eye is open, you not only see but you also understand.
Third Eye Chakra at a glance:
Sanskrit name: Ajna - To perceive, to command
Element: All elements combined, light
Color: Indigo
Shape: Five pointed star
Petals of the lotus: Two
Seed sound: Aum (Om)
Vowel sound: Mmmm
Rights: To see
Endocrine gland: Pituitary gland
Physical association: Eyes, base of skull, brow
Psychological function: Intuition, imagination
Identity: Archetypal identity
Developmental stage: Adolescence
Challenge: Illusion
Plane: Plane of austerity, home of the blessed
Planets: Saturn, moon, jupiter
Deity: Shakti, Shiva
Mythological Animal: Hawk
Sense organ: Mind
Predominant sense: Neutral
Incense: Mugwort
Herb: Almond blossom

The Crown Chakra is the seventh chakra and it is at the top of the "chakra ladder" which starts from the Root Chakra that grounds us on the Earth and progresses upward to the Sahasrara which connects us with the universe and the Divine source of creation.
crown chakra...
Sahastrat is located at the crown of the head. The gift of this chakra is experiencing unity and the selfless realization that everything is connected at a fundamental level.

The energy of this chakra allows us to experience mystical oneness with everyone and everything in nature. There is no intellectual knowing at the level of seventh chakra, but there is serenity, joy, and deep peace about life. You have a sense of knowing that there is a deeper meaning of life and that there is an order that underlies all of existence.
The "way of the Crown Chakra" is the way of going beyond the limits of your own ego. It is the way of transcending the ego and knowing that all of creation is interconnected at a fundamental level. A level that some call the "Akasha" or "Zero Point Field", or just "the Field". This is the fundamental level of connection.
According to Tantric philosophy, the seventh chakra is both a receiver and giver of energy and consciousness. It receives energy to sustain life and it gives back the personal energy to unite with the collective pool of consciousness. It is the meeting point between finate (your body and your ego) and infinite (the universe and your soul). It is the place where time and timelessness intersect and where death and eternal life meet.
A user's photo. The thousand petaled chakra embraces an attitude of gratitude for one's life. When we realize that everything is interconnected and that we are a part of the larger scheme of life, we begin to live with gratitude, faith and trust, rather than filled with fear and anxiety. We are guided by the Higher Power and we feel Divinity from within.
The challenge of this chakra is to liberate the Spirit - open to the Divine - and at the same time stay firmly rooted deep in the ground.
Crown Chakra at a glance:
Sanskrit name: Sahastrat - thousand petaled
Element: No element, or thought
Color: Violet or white
Shape: Round scullcap
Petals of the lotus: One thousand
Seed sound: Ah
Vowel sound: Ngngng
Rights: To know and to learn
Endocrine gland: Pinneal gland
Physical association: Central nervous system, cerebral cortex
Psychological function: Awareness, understanding
Identity: Universal identity
Developmental stage: Throughout life
Challenge: Attachment
Plane: Truth, reality
Planets: Uramis
Deity: The guru within
Mythological Animal: Eagle
Incense: Myrrh
Herb: Gotu Kola
Sephira: Kether



The devotional hymn "Rudrashtakam" appears in the Uttara Kand of the celebrated Ram Charit Manas, where a brahmana composed the hymn to propitiate Lord Shiva. His main purpose was to set his pupil free from the curse of Shiva. He succeeded and asked also a second boon (devotion for himself). His pupil would be the bird ' Kaga-Bhusundi' in a next life, a devotee of Shri Rama and an excellent teller of the life story of Shri Rama.
Namamiśāmiśāna Nirvānārupama Vibhuṃ vyāpakaṃ Brahmavedāsvarupama, Nijama Nirguṇaṃ Nirvikalpaṃ Nirīhaṃ Chidākaśāmākaśāvāsama Bhājehama .. 1 ..
Nirākāram oṃkāramulam turīyaṃ, Girā gyan gotitāmiṣhama Girīśhaṃ
Karālaṃ Mahākāla kālama. Kṛipālaṃ Gunāgāra Sansārapāraṃ Naṭohama .. 2 ..
Tuṣharadarī Saṃkāśh Gauram Gabhīraṃ Manobhutā Koṭiprabhā Śrīśārirama Sphuranmaulī Kallolinī charū ganga Lāsad bhālā balendu Kanṭhe bhujaṃgā.. 3 ..
Chalātkuṃdālam Bhrū sunetraṃ viśālaṃ Prasana anaṃ Nīlakanṭhaṃ Dayālaṃ
Munḍā mālām Priyaṃ saṃkaraṃ Sarvanāthaṃ bhajāmi.. 4 ..
prachandamPrakashtam Pragalbhaṃ Pareśhaṃ Akhaṃḍama Ajama Bhānukotiprakasham
Trayaha śulā Nirmulānam Śulāpanima bhajeahama Bhavanipatima Bhāvagamyaṃ.. 5 ..
Kālātīta Kalyāṇa Kalpāntakārī Sadā sajjanānanda dātā Purārī
Chidānaṃdā sandohā mohāpahārī
Prasida prasida Prabho manmathārī.. 6 ..
Na yāvatha Umānātha padārāvindama
Bhajaṃtīha Loke pare vā Nārānāma
Na tāvatha Sukhaṃ śhānti Saṃtāpanāṣama
Prasida Prabho sarvabhutādhivāsama.. 7 .
Na jānāmi Yogama Japama naiva Pūjāma
Natoham Sadā sarvadā Śambhū । Tubhyaṃ
Jarā Janma Duhkhaogha Tātāpyāmanama Prabho Pāhi Apannāmāmiṣā shambho -8
O Ishan! I pray You, the one Who is the lord of all, Who is in eternal Nirvana-bliss, Who is resplendent, Who is omni-present, and Who is Brahman and Ved in totality. I adore You, Who is for self, Who is formless, Who is without change, Who is passionless, Who is like the sky (immeasurable), and Who lives in the sky.||1||
I bow prostrate to You, Who is without a form, Who is the root of sounds, Who is the fourth impersonal state of the Atman, Who is beyond the scope of tongue, knowledge and sense-organs, Who is the Lord, Who is the Lord of Himalaya, Who is fierce, Who is the destroyer of fierce Kala, Who is benevolent, Who is the abode of qualities, and is beyond the universe.||2||
I bow to You, Who is white on all like the snow, Who is profound, Who is mind, Who is in the form of living beings, Who has immense splendor and wealth. He has shining forehead with playful and enticing Ganga, He has shiny forehead with a crescent moon, and He has snake garlands in the neck.||3||
I adore Shankara, Who has swaying earrings, Who has beautiful eye on the forehead, Who is spreadout and large, Who is happy at face, Who has a blue-throat, Who is benevolent, Who has a lion-skin around His waist, Who has skull-cap garland, and Who is the dear-Lord of everyone.||4||
I adore the Lord of Bhavani, Who is fierce, Who is immense, Who is mature and brave, Who is beyond everyone, Who is indivisible, Who is unborn, Who is resplendent like millions of sun, Who uproots the three qualities (and makes us dispassionate), Who holds a trident, and Who can be achieved with emotions.||5||
O Destroyer of Kamadev, Who is beyond artwork, Who is auspicious, Who causes the end of the universe, Who always provides bliss to good people, Who destroyed Pura, Who is eternal bliss, Who absolves abundant passion! O Prabhu! Please be happy, be happy.||6||
Those who don't adore the lotus-feet of the Lord of Uma (Shiv), that men don't get happiness, comfort, and peace — in this world or the other worlds after death. O the abode of all the living beings! O Prabhu! Please be happy.||7||
I don't know yoga, japa (chanting of names), or prayers. Still, I am bowing continuously and always to You. O Shambhu! O Prabhu! Save me from the unhappiness due to old age, birth, grief, sins, and troubles. I bow to You, Who is the Lord.||8||

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Nikola Tesla was Influenced by Swami Vivekananda.

'Image:  Mystery of'Nikola Tesla was Influenced by Swami Vivekananda.
'Image:' Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was the genius who lit the world, whose discoveries in the field of alternating polyphase current electricity advanced the United States and the rest of the world into the modern industrial era. As early as 1891 Tesla described the universe as a kinetic system filled with energy which could be harnessed at any location and invented many useful devices like a system of arc lighting (1886), the alternating current motor, power generation and transmission systems (1888), systems of electrical conversion and distribution by oscillatory discharges (1889), and a generator of high frequency currents (1890), to name a few. His concepts during the following years were greatly influenced by Veda.

'Image:' The Vedas are considered the earliest literary record of Vedic Civilization, and the most sacred books of India consisting of hymns, prayers, myths, historical accounting, dissertations on science, and the nature of reality, which date back at least 5,000 years. The nature of matter, antimatter, and the make up of atomic structure are described in the Vedas. The language of the Vedas is known as Sanskrit.“All perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, or tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the akasha or luminiferous ether, which is acted upon by the life giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never-ending cycles all things and phenomena.”- Nikola Tesla, Man’s Greatest Achievement, 1907
As you can see, Tesla was aware of ancient concepts and the correlation it had with the science he was working on – using sanskrit worlds like “akasha,” and “prana” to describe the force and matter that exists all around us. These words come from the Upanishads (a collection of Vedic texts).
'Image:' But where did Tesla learn Vedic concepts and Sanskrit terminology?
According to the information obtained from the archive in the Nikola Tesla Musem, Tesla gained knowledge of the Vedic terminology during his meetings with Swami Vivekananda. Leland Anderson, founder of Tesla Society, suggested that it was through association with Swami Vivekananda that Tesla may have come into contact with Sanskrit terminology.
Swami Vivekananda (1863—1902) was an Indian Hindu monk and a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world. He was one of the most influential philosophers and social reformers in his contemporary India and the most successful and influential missionaries of Vedanta to the Western world. In 1893 Swami Vivekananda began a tour of the west by attending the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago. During the three years that he toured the United States and Europe, Vivekananda met with many of the well known scientists of the time including Lord Kelvin and Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla was much impressed to hear from the Swami Vivekananda his explanation of the Samkhya cosmogony and the theory of cycles given by the Hindus. He was particularly struck by the resemblance between the Samkhya theory of matter and energy and that of modern physics.
Nikola Tesla was introduced to the Vedas by Swami Vivekananda Ji after he asked Swami to enlighten him on spiritual connections and why western scientists were praising, while talking all about the Vedic texts. Swami Vivekananda’s effect on Tesla was so Great that he became vegetarian and began using the Sanskrit words.
In 1895, Swami Vivekananda shared with Tesla the idea of matter and energy to be one, and requested him to prove it through mathematics. However, Tesla failed to accomplish it. Vivekananda also interacted with the other two giants of Western science, namely William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and von Helmholtz in New York. Eventually after 10 years, in 1905, Albert Einstein proved the oneness of matter and energy (E = mc2).
Nikola Tesla taking original knowledge from Vedas, invented many things that we all use on a daily basis but most people have never even heard of him because his name was removed from common history (just like much of the teaching of the Vedas) and he was eventually murdered. He knew too much and wanted to share it freely for the betterment of mankind, not to exploit it. Unfortunately not everyone saw eye to eye with him.
Here is just a partial list of some of Tesla’s contributions to the world based on his research and experiments from Vedas, that he had not been given credit for:
•Alternating Current -AC electricity (Thomas Edison literally stole his ideas from him and took the credit for it).
•Radio (Marconi just robbed the ideas and work of Tesla and got the credit for it)
•Hydro-electricity (Tesla Built the first Hydro-electric power plant at Niagara falls As a result we see whats there now)
•Resonant frequency (every one else figured it out 50 yeas later)
•Fluorescent and Neon lighting
•The induction motor
•The rotating magnetic field (precursor to gyroscope)
•Arc lighting
•Tesla coil
•Encryption technology and scrambler
•Wireless communication and power transmission
•remote control
•Telegeodynamics (a way to search for metals and minerals)
•Tachometer and speedometer
•Refrigeration machines
•Bladeless turbines and pumps
•Cryogenic engineering
•reactive jet dirigible (precursor to Harrier jet)
•Hovercraft Flivver plane (precursor to Osprey helicopter/aircraft)
•Particle-beam weapons (precursor to Star Wars)
Likewise in ancient India, some selective greatest teachings were passed to the deserving Sages verbally, which remain stored in their memories, so that the power of knowledge is not misused by demonic beings referring to texts, if it were written. Only the knowledge which was helpful for mankind were passed to common human beings.
True to this belief of Vedas, all Tesla’s engineering was done in his head, he never worked things out on paper or used scale models to come to a functioning final result. Things would appear in his head and he would simply record it exactly as it came to him, similar to Beethoven.
Tesla died with the BrahmaAstra (Scalar Interferometer) knowledge in his head, as he did NOT want to give this destructive Vedic technology to the US military and Vatican, as promised to Vivekananda. It was to help mankind, NOT to destroy or enslave.
Mystery of

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

science and effect of yoga

Meditation, Yoga have long been heralded as having a wide range of immediate and long term benefits and as science delves deeper into the mechanics of the metaphysical, evidence continues to build in their favor. These practices have been shown to reduce stress, increase happiness, enhance learning, memory, and cognition and even enhance immune system function and reduce risk of heart diseases. However, the understanding of exactly how these changes take place in the mind and body has been somewhat elusive.
Researchers at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind/Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center trained 26 adult subjects without prior experience in various relaxation techniques such as meditation, mantra (the repetition of ‘sacred’ sounds) and mindfulness practice. Participants were given blood tests immediately preceeding and immediately following 20 minutes of self directed practice. By looking at 22,000 different gene sequences, researchers were able to identify and measure any changes that occurred during/after practicing various relaxation techniques (meditation, mantra, mindfulness).
The results were nothing short of remarkable. All of the 26 participants showed measurable changes in the genes that researchers have identified as being responsible for or related to relaxation (reduced cell energy production), aging, metabolism and even insulin response. These changes were shown to be indicative of a reduced stress response and initiated activity in telomere maintenance genes, meaning that the meditation, mantra and mindfulness practice may have actually initiated changes in the body that led to repair of DNA.
Importantly, this study demonstrates that during one session of RR [relaxation response] practice rapid changes in gene expression (on the order of minutes) are induced that are linked to a select set of biological pathways among both long-term and short-term practitioners that might explain the health benefits of RR practices. These genes have been linked to pathways responsible for energy metabolism, electron transport chain, biological oxidation and insulin secretion. These pathways play central roles in mitochondrial energy mechanics, oxidative phosphorylation and cell aging [48], [51]. We hypothesized that upregulation of biological oxidation gene sets may enhance efficiency of oxidation-reduction reactions and thereby reduce oxidative stress.
Furthermore, the changes were not only observed in novice practitioners. The study also used a group of advanced meditators as a control group, measuring their blood both before and after practice as well. The results demonstrated the the experienced practitioners experienced even more pronounced and immediate results than the novice group. The researchers also noted that advanced practitioners also had unique genetic patterns of expression compared to the amateur group, suggesting that long term practice has different effects than it does initially, although both groups had plenty of overlap.
Analysis of the transcriptome data revealed that temporal modulation of gene expression occurred in both short- (N2) and long-term (M) practitioners as compared to novices (N1). Long-term RR practitioners exhibited more pronounced and consistent immediate gene expression changes as compared to short-term practitioners. Some genes were modified only in long-term practitioners (Long-term patterns), whereas others were modified in both short- and long-term practitioners with a greater intensity in the latter (Progressive patterns).
This research is groundbreaking because it shows that yoga can have a dramatic effect on the human body. It can change you right down to the genetic level. It demonstrates that yoga, and in particular yogic breathing, pranayama, has an instantaneous positive effect on how our genes work and express. This may be one of the reasons we feel so well after a yoga class, and why the regular practice of yoga supports ongoing growth and improvement in health and well being.

Srinivasa Ramanujan

Deathbed theory dreamt by an Indian maths genius is finally proved correct - almost 100 years after he died
Theory came to Srinivasa Ramanujan in a dream on his deathbed in 1920 - but has never been proved
Discovery could now be used to explain the behaviour of parts of a black hole
Srinivasa Ramanujan, described as a 'natural genius', has finally had the mathematical functions he came up with on his deathbed proved correct
Researchers have finally solved the cryptic deathbed puzzle renowned Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan claimed came to him in dreams.
While on his death-bed in 1920, Ramanujan wrote a letter to his mentor, English mathematician G. H. Hardy, outlining several new mathematical functions never before heard of, along with a hunch about how they worked,
Decades years later, researchers say they've proved he was right - and that the formula could explain the behaviour of black holes.
'We've solved the problems from his last mysterious letters,' Emory University mathematician Ken Ono said.
'For people who work in this area of math, the problem has been open for 90 years,'
Ramanujan, a self-taught mathematician born in a rural village in South India, spent so much time thinking about math that he flunked out of college in India twice, Ono said.
Ramanujan's letter described several new functions that behaved differently from known theta functions, or modular forms, and yet closely mimicked them.
Functions are equations that can be drawn as graphs on an axis, like a sine wave, and produce an output when computed for any chosen input or value.
Ramanujan conjectured that his mock modular forms corresponded to the ordinary modular forms earlier identified by Carl Jacobi, and that both would wind up with similar outputs for roots of 1.
Ramanujan, a devout Hindu, thought these patterns were revealed to him by the goddess Namagiri.
However, no one at the time understood what Ramanujan was talking about.
'It wasn’t until 2002, through the work of Sander Zwegers, that we had a description of the functions that Ramanujan was writing about in 1920,' Ono said.
Ono and his colleagues drew on modern mathematical tools that had not been developed before Ramanujan’s death to prove this theory was correct.
'We proved that Ramanujan was right,' Ono says.
'We found the formula explaining one of the visions that he believed came from his goddess.'
The team were also stunned to find the function could be used today.
'No one was talking about black holes back in the 1920s when Ramanujan first came up with mock modular forms, and yet, his work may unlock secrets about them,' Ono says.
'Ramanujan's legacy, it turns out, is much more important than anything anyone would have guessed when Ramanujan died,' Ono said.
The findings were presented last month at the Ramanujan 125 conference at the University of Florida, ahead of the 125th anniversary of the mathematician's birth on Dec. 22nd.
December 22, 2012 marks the 125th birth anniversary of Srinivasa Ramanujan, the self taught mathematician born into a modest and conservative family in Kumbakonam, a relatively small town in Tamilnad.
Ramanujan was self-taught and worked in almost complete isolation from the mathematical community of his time.
Described as a raw genius, he independently rediscovered many existing results, as well as making his own unique contributions, believing his inspiration came from the Hindu goddess Namagiri.
He spent so much time thinking about math that he flunked out of college in India twice.
He overcame several hurdles to find a place among the celebrated intellectuals of Cambridge.
Ramanujan passed away at the young age of 32 of tuberculosis, but he left behind formulations in mathematics that have paved the path for many scholars who came after him.

Antares twin star system

Indians knew about Antares twin star system: Nearly 5,000 to 7,000 years ago ancient Indians could recognize the 15th brightest object in the sky, the Antares twin star system.
Antares or Arundhati-Vasishta twin stars - pic from
This system was called Jeshta (in Sanskrit meaning the biggest, oldest or eldest). Now science shows us that it is the biggest start. 40,000 times or more bigger than earth. In fact, this Antares was wedded into Indian tradition deeply. This 2 stars system was named Arundhati and Vasishta stars. After marriage in south India, husband and wife should go out and look at these 2 stars after wedding's night!
And this particular Twin star system is unique. Both stars circle around each other, instead of hte usual one star revolving the other. So symbolically how a perfect marriage should be, was demonstrated by ancient Hindus 5000+ years ago, using a star system, that too a perfect one in twin rotation form, without any modern telescope!

सुदर्शन चक्र

सुदर्शन चक्र भगवान नारायण के हथियार या प्रतीक है और ब्रह्मांड में सबसे शक्तिशाली हथियार के रूप में जाना जाता है . सुदर्शन चक्र का प्रतीक हजार पंखुड़ियों के साथ कमल के फूल के केंद्र में विपरीत दिशा से दो त्रिकोण का एक संयोजन है . देवी का प्रतीक भी कमल के फूल (गूगल में खोज आप चक्रों को देखने के लिए चाहते हैं) में त्रिकोण में " श्री चक्र " . दरअसल , इन विकसित की है और लिखा है ऋषि द्वारा और साल और साल के अपने गहरे ध्यान और thapasya से प्राप्त कर ली है और जो वेदों में उल्लेख किया है जो उन योगियों रहे हैं .
वेदों इन सभी तथ्यों और रहस्यों को ब्रह्मांड के बारे में और जो आसानी से समझने के लिए सामान्य जनता को कहानियों के माध्यम से बयान के पीछे का विज्ञान शामिल हैं . हम इन तथ्यों के पीछे का विज्ञान के माध्यम से अधिक से आगे जाना है तो वेदों में वर्णित विज्ञान और अधिक आधुनिक विज्ञान से अद्यतन कर रहे हैं , जैसा कि हम आश्चर्यचकित हो जाएगी. वेदों के अनुसार, सब कुछ सिर्फ एक ही बात से बाहर आया है और जो बाहर निकलता है हमेशा एक ही बात करने के लिए वापस जाओ. उसके शरीर के 1/3rd और 3/4 कोई भी इसे के बाकी जानता है - इसके अलावा भगवान नारायण पूरे मल्टीवर्स (बस कुछ साल पहले वैज्ञानिकों ने यह ब्रह्मांड नहीं है की पुष्टि की लेकिन मल्टीवर्स ब्रह्मांड के हजार ) अपने VURAT रूप में मानती है . सृष्टि ( निर्माण - एक - ब्रह्मा , Sthithi ( अस्तित्व और प्रबंधन ) - करण रूपा में उन्होंने तीनों फार्म में बाहर निकलता है " Trimoorthy " वह साथ enagaged है कर्म से संबंधित . विष्णु , शिव के रूप में Somhaara ( distruction या भंग ) कारण है कि इस ट्रायो छोटा नाम भगवान मिला - उत्पन्न , चल रही है , भंग.
हम सभी जानते हैं किसी भी परिसर के सबसे छोटे कण परमाणुओं के विभिन्न प्रकार के संयोजन है जो अणु है . सभी परमाणुओं ट्रायो के बने होते हैं - प्रोटॉन , न्यूट्रॉन और इलेक्ट्रॉन . इस तिकड़ी ब्रह्मांड में सब कुछ का आधार हैं . प्रत्येक प्रोटॉन , Nutrons और इलेक्ट्रॉन कनेक्शन ऐसे एक ऊपरी क्वार्कों दो कम क्वार्कों की अलग विधा के रूप में प्रति फार्म त्रिकोण और गुणों में परिवर्तन से जुड़ा हुआ है जो 3 " क्वार्कों " से बना रहे हैं ... .. हम आगे जाना है, हम इन सभी क्वार्कों एक उच्चतम गति और एक चमक रबर बैंड की तरह नज़र में ही घूमने है जो सिर्फ तार से बना रहे हैं देख सकते हैं . तार और जो का बना सब कुछ है जो फिर से तार को भंग किया जा सकता है

God Particle

The God Particle!
Scientists in CERN hate this terminology, but media refers to the newly discovered particle, in CERN, by that name as that name is more marketable! In fact, when I first heard about the research in CERN, I too was excited. Is it possible to really find an answer to that eternal question?
The Vedas, describe Brahman as Infinite, then why this hue and cry about a particle. It is being stated as the ‘last’ discovery of man. There is much jubilation amongst the scientist. If a research is successful, one should be jubilant but does it really describe the undescribable.
It will definitely help science to unravel another mystery of nature and help them to think differently but do a particle really answer these lines from Isha Upanishad,
oḿ pūrṇam adaḥ pūrṇam idaḿ pūrṇāt pūrṇam udacyate
pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate.
If we take a drop of water from the ocean, that drop definitely has the essence of the ocean in it but does it fully describe the ocean in its vastness, fullness and in all its aspect. It gives us an idea of the ocean but is it the ocean? The answer might be, it is the ocean and yet it is not.
Is that not true for the Infinite also. It is in every particle and each one of us but is it only that particle or in fact in any one person or one idol. Then how will it be omnipresent! Do we not represent that indescribable in our own way.
Every discovery in science is a possibility. It opens our mind to something new, helping us in understanding that which is older than the oldest a little more but is it not just a new understanding. I have my highest regard for all scientists, it helps us in understanding the Nature more.
The Mathematicians have themselves taught us that
1/0 = Infinity and 1/Infinity = 0.
How beautiful, it reiterates the lines of the Isha Upanishad above. When we divide anything by nothing, we get Infinity and when we divide anything by Infinity, we get nothing.
oḿ pūrṇam adaḥ pūrṇam idaḿ pūrṇāt pūrṇam udacyate
pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate.
(This is Infinite, That is also Infinite, From Infinite comes the Infinite,
Taking Infinite from Infinite, what remains is the Infinite.)
0 or Nothing, is also Infinity.
Science and philosophy, are not two different branches but two sides of the same coin. Both searches for answers, only their methods are different. Their goal is same - as any human being in that Eternal quest.
I bow down to both. I just have a simple request, let us not claim in a hurry that this is our last bastion to be conquered. Tomorrow the Universe will unravel something else equally baffling and magnificent. Let us keep searching, there is so much joy in the quest. When we get the answer, or even reach near it shall we be able to tell and describe that!

Our Model of solar system is wrong

Our Model Of The Solar System Has Been Wrong !

Written by Amateo Ra

In traditional orbiting model of the Solar System, or the Heliocentric Model, sun does not move but all planes move around SUN-Is another wrong taugh in school
The sun isn’t stationary. The sun is actually travelling at extremely fast speeds, upward of 828,000 km/hr, or 514,000 miles an hour.
Our whole Solar System is orbiting the Milky Way Galaxy. In fact it takes 220-Million Years for the Sun to orbit our Galaxy.
Author is building online course of  Creator Course,

Sunday, April 5, 2015

Sexual orgasm in Ancient Indian Mhabharat

Sexual orgasm 

In a conversation between Yudhishtra and Bhisma, Yudhishtra asks the following question in [ANUSASANA PARVA PART I section XII] "Yudhishthira said, 'It behoveth, O king to tell me truly which of the two viz., man or woman derives the greater pleasure from an act of union with each other. Kindly resolve my doubt in this respect." Bhishma while replying his questions explains a story where a king transformed into a women later given an option to again opt for whichever sex he/she likes opts to remain as women with the following explanation for it. "The lady said, 'I desire to remain a woman, O Sakra. In fact,--do not wish to be restored to the status of manhood, O Vasava.--Hearing this answer, Indra once more asked her, saying,--Why is it, O puissant one, that abandoning the status of manhood thou wishest that of womanhood? Questioned thus, that foremost of monarchs transformed into a woman answered, 'In acts of congress, the pleasure that women enjoy is always much greater than what is enjoyed by men. It is for this reason, O Sakra,that I desire to continue a woman; O foremost of the deities, truly do I say unto thee that I derive greater pleasure in my present status of womanhood. I am quite content with this status of womanhood that I now have. Do thou leave me now, O lord of heaven.--Hearing these words of hers, the lord of the celestials answered,--So be it,--and bidding her farewell, proceeded to heaven. Thus, O monarch, it is known that woman derives much greater pleasure than man under the circumstances thou hast asked." This is very much acknowledged by modern sexologists.

Lilavati, the beautiful definitions of different units

Lilavati: Definitions 

In Lilavati, the beautiful definitions of different units demonostrates the advanced arithmetics of the Vedic-era.
Having bowed to [Ganesha] who causes the joy of those who worship him, who, when thought of, removes obstacles, the elephant-headed one whose feet are honored by multitudes of gods, I state the arithmetical rules of true computation, the beautiful Lilavati, clear and providing enjoyment to the wise by its concise, charming and pure quarter-verses.
Two times ten varatakas [cowrie] are a kakini [shell], and four of those are a pana [copper coin]. Sixteen of those are considered here [to be] a dramma [coin, "drachma"], and so sixteen drammas are a niska [gold coin].
Two yavas [barley grain (a weight measure)] are here considered equal to a gunja [berry]; three gunjas are a valla [wheat grain] and eight of those are a dharana [rice grain]. Two of those are a gadyanaka, so a ghataka is defined [to be] equal to fourteen vallas.
Those who understand weights call half of ten gunjas a masa [bean], and sixteen of [the weights] called masa a karsa, and four karsas a pala. A karsa of gold is known as a suvarna [lit. "gold"].
An angula [digit] is eight yavodaras [thick part of a barley grain]; a hasta [hand] is four times six angulas. Here, a danda [rod] is four hastas, and a krosa [cry] is two thousand of those.
A yojana is four krosas. Likewise, ten karas [hand, hasta] are a vamsa [bamboo]; a nivartana is a field bounded by four sides of twenty vamsas [each].
A twelve-edged [solid] with width, length, and height measured by one hasta is called a cubic hasta. In the case of grain and so forth, a measure [equal to] a cubic hasta is called in treatises a "Magadha kharika".
And a drona [bucket] is a sixteenth part of a khari; an adhaka is a fourth part of a drona. Here, a prastha is a fourth part of an adhaka; by earlier [authorities], a kudava is defined [as] one-fourth of a prastha.

Cow's urine to enhance effectiveness of antibiotic

Aitareya Upanishad- Origin Of The Universe & Man

Aitareya Upanishad- Origin Of The Universe & Man (Part-1)
By T.N.Sethumadhavan, October 2011 

Aitareya Upanishad is a common ground for philosophy and physics. It contains the mahavakya, the great aphorism “prajnanam brahma”, Consciousness is Brahman. Aitareya Upanishad identifies Consciousness as the First Cause of creation. This is forerunner of ‘Unified Field Theory’ or a ‘Theory of Everything’ which the modern physicists are trying to discover although the modern science does not recognize Consciousness as a factor in creation of the universe. 

One of the oldest pastimes of man is to run the search engine of his contemplative and analytical faculties to find out the final answer to the riddle of creation of the universe. This question is not merely academic but it also assumes the colors of religion, philosophy, science and poetry.

We have answers to this enigma in every religion. We have scientific theories throwing up endless ever changing conclusions, the most path-breaking of which is Charles Darwin’s “Origin of Species” followed by Stephen Hawking and others. We have philosophers’ speculations and poetic imaginations. But the mystery of creation remains as much unfathomed and unsolved today as in the Vedic days. For a detailed analysis of the subject the reader may refer to my article entitled “Mystery of Creation - Some Vedantic Concepts” under the category ‘Vedanta’ available in this Website.


Creation is interpreted in the Vedas as a developmental course rather than as bringing into being something not hitherto existent. It was considered as an ongoing-process and not an event. The Purusha Sukta of Rig Veda paints a picture of the ideal Primeval Being existing before any phenomenal existence. He is conceived as a cosmic person with a thousand heads, eyes and feet, who filled the whole universe and extended beyond it. The world form is only a fragment of this divine reality. The first principle which is called Purusha manifested as the whole world by his Tapas.

This view gets crystallized into the later Upanishadic doctrine that the spirit or Atman in man (at microcosm) is the same as the spirit which is the cause of the world which goes by the name Brahman or Paramatman (at macrocosm). These theories are discussed in elaborate details in the following Upanishads Viz., Prasna, Aitareya, Mundaka, Taittiriya, Katha, Chandogya, Svetasvatara, Brhadaranyaka, Maitri, Paingala Upanishads besides the Bhagavad Gita and Yoga Vasishtha. Among the latter Acharyas the contributions made by Gaudapada, and Adi Sankara to these thoughts are colossal.

A brief quotation from the article “Cosmology in Vedanta” by Swami Tathagatananda published by Vedanta Society of New York given below brings out lucidly the perspectives of both Vedanta and modern science on this subject.

Quote--“A perceptive reader will find many striking similarities between the latest findings of Astrophysics and ancient Indian cosmological ideas, of which Swamiji (Vivekananda) says: " . . . you will find how wonderfully they are in accordance with the latest discoveries of modern science; and where there is disharmony, you will find that it is modern science which lacks and not they."

Einstein writes that "cosmic expansion may be simply a temporary condition which will be followed at some future epoch of cosmic time by a period of contraction. The universe in this picture is a pulsating balloon in which cycles of expansion and contraction succeed each other through eternity."

The modern astrophysicist, Stephen Hawking, writes: "At the big bang itself, the universe is thought to have had zero size, and so to have been infinitely hot . . . The whole history of science has been the gradual realization that events do not happen in an arbitrary manner, but they reflect a certain underlying order, which may or may not be divinely inspired."

The Vedas also state that creation is ongoing: what has been in the past is being repeated in the new cycle. Stephen Hawking writes, "Thus, when we see the universe, we are seeing it as it was in the past." He further writes, "But how did he [God] choose the initial state or configuration of the universe? One possible answer is to say that God chose the initial configuration of the universe for reasons that we cannot hope to know."

It is perhaps enough for the modern mind to know how great is the similarity. Vedanta does not support the "big bang" theory and its mechanistic materialism. We have merely cited certain common ideas to be found in both.

Brahman is the ultimate Reality. Brahman is impersonal-personal God. Impersonal God may be called the static aspect and personal God may be called the dynamic aspect of
Brahman. The static aspect Anid Avatam - as Rg-Veda puts it, "It existed without any movement." Brahman is truth, Consciousness and Infinitude. Knowledge, will and action are inherent in Brahman. God projects the universe by animating His prakriti (maya).

Astrophysics and Advaita Vedanta agree on certain points. Advaita Vedanta upholds the notion of the pulsating or oscillating universe. Creation is followed by dissolution and this process will continue ad infinitum. Science used the term "big bang" for the starting point of creation and "big crunch" for the dissolution of the universe.

The "cosmic egg” of Vedanta, which is like a point, is called singularity in astrophysics. The background material of the scientist cannot be accepted as the source of creation. That is the biggest difference between the two systems. Science is still exploring and remains inconclusive but Vedanta has given the final verdict, which is unassailable. Unless there is one changeless Reality, change cannot be perceived at all”.--Unquote

We will now attempt to study the Aitareya Upanishad in detail. (We have already covered in full the study of the Prasna and Svetasvatara Upanishads and briefly the Mundaka Upanishad in this website).

Introduction to the Aitareya Upanishad
The Aitareya Upanishad belongs to the Aitareya Aranyaka and is a part of the Rig Veda. This Upanishad consists of 3 chapters; the first chapter has 3 sections and the remaining two chapters do not have any sections. In the earlier portions of the Aranyaka rituals for the attainment of oneness with Saguna Brahman and their interpretations are dealt with. It is the purpose of the Upanishad to lead the mind of the ritualist away from the outer cermonials to their inner meaning. Sankara points out that there are three classes of men who wish to acquire wisdom. The highest consist of those who have turned away from the world, whose minds are freed and collected, who are eager for freedom. For such seekers this Upanishad is intended. (The other two classes of people are those who want to become free gradually and those who care only for worldly possessions).

The first chapter describes the creation. It provides an allegorical description of the creation of the universe - as also of man – from Consciousness. It uses the word ‘Brahman’ for universal Consciousness and ‘Atman’ for individual Consciousness. These two words embrace all possible concepts about God and all known names of God without any contradiction whatsoever.

Atman alone exists as the sole Reality prior to the creation of all names and forms of the phenomenal world and during their continuance and after their dissolution as well. It projects the created objects through its wondrous powers of maya. The creation is the spontaneous act of the Creator who is not impelled by any desire or necessity. It is the projection of creator’s thoughts.

The stages of creation are as follows: the different worlds, the Virat (representing the totality of the physical bodies) ► ►the deities or Devas (who control the various organs) ►►the elements►►the individual bodies►►and the food by which these bodies are sustained. After creation the Creator enters into the bodies as their living self. Thus is projected the universe of diversity. Next the Upanishad deals with the refutation (apavada) of this universe in order to arrive at the Knowledge of Atman.

Aitareya Upanishad- Origin Of The Universe & Man (Part-2)
By T.N.Sethumadhavan, October 2011 

atha aitareyopaniShadi prathamAdhyAye prathamaH khaNDaH
Chapter I - Section 1
The Creation of the Cosmic Person


va~n me manasi pratishthita mano me vachi pratishthitamaviravirma edhi ..

vedasya ma anisthah shrutam me ma prahasiranenadhitenahoratran

sa.ndadhamyrita.n vadishyami satya.n vadishyami .. tanmamavatu

tadvaktaramavatvavatu mamavatu vaktaramavatu vaktaram.h ..

om shantih shantih shantih

May my speech be fixed in my mind, may my mind be fixed in my speech!
O self-luminous Brahman, reveal yourself to me.
O mind and speech enable me to grasp the truth which the scriptures teach.
Let me not forget what I learnt. Let me study day and night.
May I think truth? May I speak truth?
May truth protect me? May truth protect the teacher?
Protect me. Protect the teacher. Protect the teacher.
Aum. Peace! Peace! Peace!

Mantra 1

om atma va idameka evagra asinnanyatki.nchana mishat.h . sa ikshata

lokannu srija iti .. 1..

In the beginning all this verily was Atman (Absolute Self) only, one and without a second. There was nothing else that winked. He (Atman) willed Himself: "Let Me now create the worlds".

It is the common experience that change can take place only upon a changeless base. The moving waters of a river should have a motionless river-bed. The moving train must have a rigid ground to move upon. Similarly, the world around us is ever changing and the continuity of change gives us the illusion of permanency to it. For this phenomenon of continuous change, we must have a changeless, permanent factor and all our scriptures are an enquiry into the existence and nature of that permanent Absolute Factor. This Upanishad is one such enquiry. In this Mantra the master says that ‘in the beginning’ i.e., before the manifested creation came into existence ‘Self alone existed’. It is just like telling in a cloth shop that before all the varieties of fabrics came into being all those were nothing but cotton. In the same way we are told that before the manifested world got projected, it was all Consciousness alone, all pervading and eternal.

We must note here that the sage has deliberately used the word Atman and not Brahman. This can be explained by means of the example of foam. Prior to its manifestation foam was being called as water and after its manifestation it is called both as water and foam. The idea is that before the creation of the pluralistic world of objects, names and forms all that remained was the Self (Atman –individual Consciousness) which is nothing other than Brahman(Universal Consciousness) for there is no difference between pot space and universal outer space.

The Mantra adds that there was no other active principle or entity at that time in the Supreme. This means that the Supreme did not create the world of plurality out of some material cause that already existed like a potter making a pot out of clay that already existed. In the creation of the world the Supreme himself is the material and efficient cause. It also indicates that creation is a misinterpreted super-imposition upon the truth as the appearance of a snake on the rope is available to the disillusioned and confused person only. This is called adhyaropa in Vedanta.

How did the creation take place? He thought I shall indeed create the worlds. At the end of the cycle, the totality of beings living at that time remains in the form of vasanas or mental impressions. In the beginning of the next cycle, these vasanas are projected by the Supreme (who for this purpose is called Isvara) according to the quality of their past actions to seek out their fulfillment in the objective world to appear. The point to keep in mind is that although the creation is the will of Brahman, the resultant product is not based on His arbitrary whims and fancies but on the nature of past actions by the created persons.

Thus the story of creation in Aitareya Upanishad starts when there was nothing other than Consciousness, also called Atman, This One and Absolute Consiousness willed to create a world of multiplicity and relativity. Creation is a consequence of that Will Power, ‘Tapas’.

The philosophy of Atman is stated here in brevity in the form of a sutra. Later on, by the demonstration that names and forms are mere illusory superimpositions (adhyaropa) and then by their refutation (apavada) will be shown the unreal nature of phenomena and the sole reality of Atman.

Ancient Indian Math- Madhava of Sangamagrama

Madhava of Sangamagrama

Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – c. 1425), was an Indian mathematician-astronomer from the town of Sangamagrama (present day Irinjalakuda) near Thrissur, Kerala, India. He is considered the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. He was the first to use infinite series approximations for a range of trigonometric functions, which has been called the "decisive step onward from the finite PROCEDURES of ancient mathematics to treat their limit-passage to infinity". His discoveries opened the doors to what has today come to be known as Mathematical Analysis. One of the greatest mathematician-astronomers of the Middle Ages, Madhava made pioneering contributions to the study of infinite series, calculus, trigonometry, geometry, and algebra.

Some scholars have also suggested that Madhava's work, through the writings of the Kerala school, may have been transmitted to Europe via Jesuit missionaries and traders who were active around the ancient port of Muziris at the time. As a result, it may have had an influence on later European developments in ANALYSIS and calculus.

They are the infinite series of the functions, sine, cosine and the arctangent. These infinite series are called by his name, Madhava sine series and Madhava Cosine series.

While the power series expansion of ArcTan is called Madhava-Gregory series, the power series are collectively called the Madhava Taylor series. The Pi series is known as Madhava Gregory series.

Sankara Varier, one of the foremost disciples of Madhava, had translated his poetic verses in in his Yuktideepika commentary on Tantrasamgraha-vyakhya, in verses 2.440 and 2.441

Multiply the arc by the square of the arc, and take the result of repeating that (any number of times). Divide (each of the above numerators) by the squares of the successive even numbers increased by that number and multiplied by the square of the radius. Place the arc and the successive results so obtained one below the other, and subtract each from the one above. These together give the jiva, as collected together in the verse beginning with "vidvan" etc.

Madhava's formula for Pi was discovered in the West by Gregory and Liebniz.

Madhava's sine series

sin x = x - x^3/3! + x^5/5! - x^7/7!+......

The Europeans encountered difficulties in using these precise sine values for determining longitude, as in the Indo-Arabic navigational techniques or in the Laghu Bhâskarîya. This is because this technique of longitude determination also required an accurate estimate of the size of the earth. Columbus had underestimated the size of the earth to facilitate funding for his project of sailing to the West. His incorrect estimate was corrected in Europe only towards the end of the 17th century CE.

Even so, the Indo-Arabic navigational technique required calculations while the Europeans lacked the ability to calculate. This is because algorismus texts had only recently triumphed over abacus texts and the European tradition of mathematics was “spiritual” and “formal” rather than practical, as Clavius had acknowledged in the 16th century and as Swift (of ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ fame) had satirized in the 17th century. This led to the development of the chronometer, an appliance that could be mechanically used without any application of the mind.