Friday, June 13, 2014


Lothal : is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in the modern state of Gujarat and dating from 2400 BCE, it is one of India's most important archaeological site that dates from that era. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).Lothal's dock—the world's earliest known—connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. Lothal's people were responsible for the earliest-known portrayals of realism in art and sculpture, telling some of the most well-known fables of today. Its scientists used a shell compass and divided the horizon and sky into 8–12 whole parts, possibly pioneering the study of stars and advanced navigation—2000 years before the Greeks. The techniques and tools they pioneered for bead-making and in metallurgy have stood the test of time for over 4000 years.Lothal is situated near the village of Saragwala in the Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district. It is at a distance of six kilometres (south-east) from the Lothal-Bhurkhi railway station on the Ahmedabad-Bhavnagar railway line. It is also connected by all-weather roads to the cities of Ahmedabad (85 km/53 mi), Bhavnagar, Rajkot and Dholka. Nearest cities are Dholka and Bagodara. Resuming excavation in 1961, archaeologists unearthed trenches sunk on the northern, eastern and western flanks of the mound, bringing to light the inlet channels and nullah ("ravine", or "gully") connecting the dock with the river. The findings consist of a mound, a township, a marketplace and the dock. Adjacent to the excavated areas stands the Archaeological Museum, where some of the most prominent collections of Indus-era antiquities in modern India are displayed.ArchaeologyExtent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization.The meaning of Lothal (a combination of Loth and (s) thal) in Gujarati to be the "the mound of the dead" is not unusual, as the name of the city of Mohenjodaro in Sindhi means the same. People in villages neighbouring to Lothal had known of the presence of an ancient town and human remains. As recently as 1850, boats sailed up to the mound, and timber was shipped in 1942 from Broach to Saragwala via the mound. A silted creek connecting modern Bholad with Lothal and Saragwala represents the ancient flow channel of a river or creek.When India was partitioned in 1947, most of the sites, including Mohenjodaro and Harappa, came to be located in the state of Pakistan. The Archaeological Survey of India undertook a new program of exploration, and excavated many sites across Gujarat. Between 1954 and 1958, more than 50 sites were excavated in the Kutch {see also Dholavira}, and Saurashtra peninsulas, extending the limits of Harappan civilization by 500 kilometres (310 mi) to the river Kim, where the Bhagatrav site accesses the valley of the rivers Narmada and Tapti. Lothal stands 270 kilometres (170 mi) from Mohenjodaro, which is in Sindh.It has also been speculated that owing to the comparatively small dimensions of the main city, Lothal was not a large settlement at all, and its "dock" was perhaps an irrigation tank.[3] However, the ASI and other contemporary archaeologists assert that the city was a part of a major river system on the trade route of the ancient peoples from Sindh to Saurashtra in Gujarat. Cemeteries have been found which indicate that its people were probably of Dravidian, Proto-Australoid or Mediterranean physiques. Lothal provides with the largest collection of antiquities in the archaeology of modern India.It is essentially a single culture site—the Harappan culture in all its variances is evidenced. An indigenous micaceous Red Ware culture also existed, which is believed to be autochthonous and pre-Harappan. Two sub-periods of Harappan culture are distinguished: the same period (between 2400 and 1900 BCE) is identical to the exuberant culture of Harappa and Mohenjodaro.To the northwest of Lothal lies the Kutch (see also Dholavira) peninsula, which was a part of the Arabian Sea until very recently in history. Owing to this, and the proximity of the Gulf of Khambhat, Lothal's river provided direct access to sea routes. Although now sealed off from the sea, Lothal's topography and geology reflects its maritime past.After the core of the Indus civilization had decayed in Mohenjodaro and Harappa, Lothal seems not only to have survived but to have thrived for many years. But its constant threats, tropical storms and floods, caused immense destruction, which destabilized the culture and ultimately caused its end. Topographical analysis also shows signs that at about the time of its demise, the region suffered from aridity or weakened monsoon rainfall. Thus the cause for the abandonment of the city may have been changes in the climate as well as natural disasters, as suggested by environmental magnetic records.Lothal is based upon a mound that was a salt marsh inundated by tide. Remote sensing and topographical studies published by Indian scientists in the Journal of the Indian Geophysicists Union in 2004 revealed an ancient, meandering river adjacent to Lothal, 30 kilometres (19 mi) in length according to satellite imagery—an ancient extension of the northern river channel bed of a tributary of the Bhogavo river. Small channel widths (10–300 m/30–1000 ft) when compared to the lower reaches (1.2–1.6 km/0.75–1.0 mi) suggest the presence of a strong tidal influence upon the city—tidal waters ingressed up to and beyond the city. Upstream elements of this river provided a suitable source of freshwater for the inhabitants.HistoryBefore the arrival of Harappan people (c. 2400 BCE), Lothal was a small village next to the river providing access to the mainland from the Gulf of Khambhat. The indigenous peoples maintained a prosperous economy, attested by the discovery of copper objects, beads and semi-precious stones. Ceramic wares were of fine clay and smooth, micaceous red surface. A new technique of firing pottery under partly-oxidising and reducing conditions was improved by them—designated black-and-red ware, to the micaceous Red Ware. Harappans were attracted to Lothal for its sheltered harbour, rich cotton and rice-growing environment and bead-making industry. The beads and gems of Lothal were in great demand in the west. The settlers lived peacefully with the Red Ware people, who adopted their lifestyle—evidenced from the flourishing trade and changing working techniques—Harappans began producing the indigenous ceramic goods, adopting the manner from the natives.Town planning City Plan of Lothal.A flood destroyed village foundations and settlements (c. 2350 BCE). Harappans based around Lothal and from Sindh took this opportunity to expand their settlement and create a planned township on the lines of greater cities in the Indus valley.Lothal planners engaged themselves to protect the area from consistent floods. The town was divided into blocks of 1–2-metre-high (3–6 ft) platforms of sun-dried bricks, each serving 20–30 houses of thick mud and brick walls. The city was divided into a citadel, or acropolis and a lower town. The rulers of the town lived in the acropolis, which featured paved baths, underground and surface drains (built of kiln-fired bricks) and a potable water well. The lower town was subdivided into two sectors — the north-south arterial street was the main commercial area — flanked by shops of rich and ordinary merchants and craftsmen. The residential area was located to either side of the marketplace. The lower town was also periodically enlarged during Lothal's years of prosperity.Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade. While the consensus view amongst archaeologists identifies this structure as a "dockyard," it has also been suggested that owing to small dimensions, this basin may have been an irrigation tank and canal.The dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, and is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting, but provided access to ships in high tide as well. The warehouse was built close to the acropolis on a 3.5-metre-high (10.5 ft) podium of mud bricks. The rulers could thus supervise the activity on the dock and warehouse simultaneously. Facilitating the movement of cargo was a mud-brick wharf, 220 metres (720 ft) long, built on the western arm of the dock, with a ramp leading to the warehouse.There was an important public building opposite to the warehouse whose superstructure has completely disappeared. Throughout their time, the city had to brace itself through multiple floods and storms. Dock and city peripheral walls were maintained efficiently. The town's zealous rebuilding ensured the growth and prosperity of the trade. However, with rising prosperity, Lothal's people failed to upkeep their walls and dock facilities, possibly as a result of over-confidence in their systems. A flood of moderate intensity in 2050 BCE exposed some serious weaknesses in the structure, but the problems were not addressed properly. Economy and urban culture An ancient well, and the city drainage canals.The uniform organization of the town and its institutions give evidence that the Harappans were a very disciplined people.Commerce and administrative duties were performed according to standards laid out. Municipal administration was strict — the width of most streets remained the same over a long time, and no encroached structures were built. Householders possessed a sump, or collection chamber to deposit solid waste in order to prevent the clogging of city drains. Drains, manholes and cesspools kept the city clean and deposited the waste in the river, which was washed out during high tide. A new provincial style of Harappan art and painting was pioneered — new approaches included realistic portrayals of animals in their natural surroundings, including the portrayal of stories and folklore. Fire-altars were built in public places. Metalware, gold and jewellery and tastefully decorated ornaments attest to the culture and prosperity of the people of Lothal.Most of their equipment—metal tools, weights, measures, seals, earthenware and ornaments—were of the uniform standard and quality found across the Indus civilization. Lothal was a major trade centre, importing en masse raw materials like copper, chert and semi-precious stones from Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, and mass distributing to inner villages and towns. It also produced large quantities of bronze celts, fish-hooks, chisels, spears and ornaments. Lothal exported its beads, gemstones, ivory and shells. The stone blade industry catered to domestic needs—fine chert was imported from the Sukkur valley or from Bijapur in modern Karnataka. Bhagatrav supplied semi-precious stones while chank shell came from Dholavira and Bet Dwarka. An intensive trade network gave the inhabitants great prosperity—it stretched across the frontiers to Egypt, Bahrain and Sumer. While the wider debate over the end of Indus civilization continues, archaeological evidence gathered by the ASI appears to point to natural catastrophes, specifically floods and storms as the source of Lothal's downfall. A powerful flood submerged the town and destroyed most of the houses, with the walls and platforms heavily damaged. The acropolis and the residence of the ruler were levelled (2000-1900 BCE), and inhabited by common tradesmen and newly built makeshift houses. The worst consequence was the shift in the course of the river, cutting off access to the ships and dock.[11] Despite the ruler leaving the city, the leaderless people built a new but shallow inlet to connect the flow channel to the dock for sluicing small ships into the basin. Large ships were moored away. Houses were rebuilt, yet without removal of flood debris, which made them poor-quality and susceptible to further damage. Public drains were replaced by soakage jars. The citizens did not undertake encroachments, and rebuilt public baths and maintained fire worship. However, with a poorly organised government, and no outside agency or central government, the public works could not be properly repaired or maintained. The heavily damaged warehouse was never repaired properly, and stocks were stored in wooden canopies, exposed to floods and fire. The economy of the city was transformed. Trade volumes reduced greatly, though not catastrophically, and resources were available in lesser quantities. Independent businesses caved, allowing a merchant-centric system of factories to develop where hundreds of craftsmen worked for the same supplier and financier. The bead factory had ten living rooms and a large workplace courtyard. The coppersmith's workshop had five furnaces and paved sinks to enable multiple artisans to work.The declining prosperity of the town, paucity of resources and poor administration increased the woes of a people pressured by consistent floods and storms. Increased salinity of soil made the land inhospitable to life, including crops. This is evidenced in adjacent cities of Rangpur, Rojdi, Rupar and Harappa in Punjab, Mohenjo-daro and Chanhudaro in Sindh. A massive flood (c. 1900 BCE) completely destroyed the flagging township in a single stroke. Archaeological analysis shows that the basin and dock were sealed with silt and debris, and the buildings razed to the ground. The flood affected the entire region of Saurashtra, Sindh and south Gujarat, and affected the upper reaches of the Indus and Sutlej, where scores of villages and townships were washed away. The population fled to inner regions.Archaeological site of Lothal.Archaeological evidence shows that the site continued to be inhabited, albeit by a much smaller population devoid of urban influences. The few people who returned to Lothal could not reconstruct and repair their city, but surprisingly continued to stay and preserved religious traditions, living in poorly-built houses and reed huts. That they were the Harappan peoples is evidenced by the analyses of their remains in the cemetery. While the trade and resources of the city were almost entirely gone, the people retained several Harappan ways in writing, pottery and utensils. About this time ASI archaeologists record a mass movement of refugees from Punjab and Sindh into Saurashtra and to the valley of Sarasvati (1900-1700 BCE).[14] Hundreds of ill-equipped settlements have been attributed to this people as Late Harappans—a completely de-urbanised culture characterised by rising illiteracy, undiversified economy, unsophisticated administration and poverty. Though Indus seals went out of use, the system of weights with an 8.573 gram (0.3024 oz avoirdupois) unit was retained. Between 1700 and 1600 BCE, trade would revive again. In Lothal, Harappan ceramic works of bowls, dishes and jars were mass-produced. Merchants used local materials such as chalcedony instead of chert for stone blades. Truncated sandstone weights replaced hexahedron chert weights. The sophisticated writing was simplified by exempeting pictorial symbols, and the painting style reduced itself to wavy lines, loops and fronds.CivilizationThe people of Lothal made significant and often unique contributions to human civilization in the Indus era, in the fields of city planning, art, architecture, science, engineering and religion. Their work in metallurgy, seals, beads and jewellery was the basis of their prosperity.Science and engineeringA block of bricks placed in the main drainage canal with four holes, from which the net to filter out solid waste was installed.A thick ring-like shell object found with four slits each in two margins served as a compass to measure angles on plane surfaces or in the horizon in multiples of 40 degrees, up to 360 degrees. Such shell instruments were probably invented to measure 8–12 whole sections of the horizon and sky, explaining the slits on the lower and upper margins. Archaeologists consider this as evidence that the Lothal experts had achieved something 2,000 years before the Greeks: an 8–12 fold division of horizon and sky, as well as an instrument for measuring angles and perhaps the position of stars, and for navigation.Lothal contributes one of three measurement scales that are integrated and linear (others found in Harappa and Mohenjodaro). An ivory scale from Lothal has the smallest-known decimal divisions in Indus civilization. The scale is 6 millimetres (0.2 inches) thick, 15 mm (0.6 inches) broad and the available length is 128 mm (5.0 inches), but only 27 graduations are visible over 46 mm (1.8 inches), the distance between graduation lines being 1.70 mm (0.067 inches) (the small size indicates use for fine purposes). The sum total of ten graduations from Lothal is approximate to the angula in the Arthashastra. The Lothal craftsmen took care to ensure durability and accuracy of stone weights by blunting edges before polishing.For their renowned draining system, Lothal engineers provided corbelled roofs, and an apron of kiln-fired bricks over the brick face of the platform where the sewerage entered the cesspool. Wooden screens inserted in grooves in the side drain walls held back solid waste. The well is built of radial bricks, 2.4 metres (7.9 ft) in diameter and 6.7 metres (22 ft) deep. It had an immaculate network of underground drains, silting chambers and cesspools, and inspection chambers for solid waste. The extent of drains provided archaeologists with many clues regarding the layout of streets, organization of housing and baths. On average, the main sewer is 20–46 cm (7.8–18.1 inches) in depth, with outer dimensions of 86 × 68 × 33 cm (34 × 27 × 13 in). Lothal brick-makers used a logical approach in manufacture of bricks, designed with care in regards to thickness of structures. They were used as headers and stretchers in same and alternate layers. Archaeologists estimate that in most cases, the bricks were in ratio 1:0.5:0.25 on three sides, in dimensions which were integral multiples of large graduations of Lothal scale of 25 mm (1.0 in). Religion and disposal of the dead : Joint burials in the cemetery.The people of Lothal worshipped a fire god, speculated to be the horned deity depicted on seals named Atha (Athar) and Arka, which is also evidenced by the presence of private and public fire-altars where sacrifices of animals and cattle were apparently conducted. Archaeologists have discovered gold pendants, charred ashes of terra-cotta cakes and pottery, bovine remains, beads and other signs that may indicate the practice of the Gavamayana sacrifice, associated with the ancient Vedic religion.[19] Animal worship is also evidenced, but not the worship of the Mother Goddess that is evidenced in other Harappan cities—experts consider this a sign of the existence of diversity in religious traditions. However, it is believed that a sea goddess, perhaps cognate with the general Indus-era Mother Goddess, was worshipped. Today, the local villagers likewise worship a sea goddess, Vanuvati Sikotarimata, suggesting a connection with the ancient port's traditions and historical past as an access to the sea.But the archaeologists also discovered that the practice had been given up by 2000 BCE (determined by the difference in burial times of the carbon-dated remains). It is suggested that the practice occurred only on occasion. It is also considered that given the small number of graves discovered—only 17 in an estimated population of 15,000—the citizens of Lothal also practiced cremation of the dead. Post-cremation burials have been noted in other Indus sites like Harappa, Mehi and Damb-Bhuti.[22] The mummified remains of an Assyrian and an Egyptian corpse were also discovered at the mound.Metallurgy and jewellery ~ A carved stone tool, possibly a chisel-head.Lothali copper is unusually pure, lacking the arsenic typically used by coppersmiths across the rest of the Indus valley. The city imported ingots from probable sources in the Arabian peninsula. Workers mixed tin with copper for the manufacture of celts, arrowheads, fishhooks, chisels, bangles, rings, drills and spearheads, although weapon manufacturing was minor. They also employed advanced metallurgy in following the cire perdue technique of casting, and used more than one-piece moulds for casting birds and animals.They also invented new tools such as curved saws and twisted drills unknown to other civilizations at the time.Lothal was one of the most important centres of production for shell-working, owing to the abundance of chank shell of high quality found in the Gulf of Kutch and near the Kathiawar coast[25] Gamesmen, beads, unguent vessels, chank shells, ladles and inlays were made for export and local consumption. Components of stringed musical instruments like the plectrum and the bridge were made of shell. An ivory workshop was operated under strict official supervision, and the domestication of elephants has been suggested. An ivory seal, and sawn pieces for boxes, combs, rods, inlays and ear-studs were found during excavations.Lothal produced a large quantity of gold ornaments—the most attractive item being microbeads of gold in five strands in necklaces, unique for being less than 0.25 millimetres (0.010 inches) in diameter. Cylindrical, globular and jasper beads of gold with edges at right angles resemble modern pendants used by women in Gujarat in plaits of hair. A large disc with holes recovered from a sacrificial altar is compared to the rukma worn by Vedic priests. Studs, cogwheel and heart-shaped ornaments of fainence and steatite were popular in Lothal. A ring of thin copper wire turned into double spirals resembles the gold-wire rings used by modern Hindus for weddings.Art :Pieces of red clay pottery.The discovery of etched carnelian beads and non-etched barrel beads in Kish and Ur (modern Iraq), Jalalabad (Afghanistan) and Susa (Iran) attest to the popularity of the Lothal-centric bead industry across West Asia.The lapidaries show a refined taste in selecting stones of variegated colours, producing beads of different shapes and sizes. The methods of Lothal bead-makers were so advanced that no improvements have been noted over 4,000 years—modern makers in the Khambhat area follow the same technique. Double-eye beads of agate and collared or gold-capped beads of jasper and carnelian beads are among those attributed as uniquely from Lothal. It was very famous for micro-cylindrical beads of steatite (chlorite).Lothal has yielded 213 seals, third in importance amongst all Indus sites, considered masterpieces of glyptic art and calligraphy. Seal-cutters preferred short-horned bulls, mountain goats, tigers and composite animals like the elephant-bull for engravings. There is a short inscription of intaglio in almost every seal. Stamp seals with copper rings inserted in a perforated button were used to sealing cargo, with impressions of packing materials like mats, twisted cloth and cords—a fact verified only at Lothal. Quantitative descriptions, seals of rulers and owners were stamped on goods. A unique seal found here is from Bahrain—circular, with motif of a dragon flanked by jumping gazelles.Lothal offers two new types of potter work—a convex bowl with or without stud handle, and a small jar with flaring rim, both in the micaceous Red Ware period—not found in contemporary Indus cultures. Lothal artists introduced a new form of painting closely linked to modern realism.[31] Paintings depict animals in their natural surroundings. Indeed, upon one large vessel, the artist depicts birds—with fish in their beaks—resting in a tree, while a fox-like animal stands below. This scene bears resemblance to the story of the crow and cunning fox in Panchatantra.Artistic imagination is also suggested via careful portrayals—for example, several birds with legs aloft in the sky suggest flight, while half-opened wings suggest imminent flight. On a miniature jar, the story of the thirsty crow and deer is depicted—of how the deer could not drink from the narrow-mouth of the jar, while the crow succeeded by dropping stones in the jar. The features of the animals are clear and graceful. Movements and emotions are suggested by the positioning of limbs and facial features—in a 15 × 5 cm (6 × 2 in) jar without overcrowding.A complete set of terra-cotta gamesmen, comparable to modern chessmen, has been found in Lothal—animal figures, pyramids with ivory handles and castle-like objects (similar to the chess set of Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt).The realistic portrayal of human beings and animals suggests a careful study of anatomical and natural features. The bust of a male with slit eyes, sharp nose and square-cut beard is reminiscent of Sumerian figures, especially stone sculptures from Mari. In images of men and women, muscular and physical features are sharp, prominently marked. Terra-cotta models also identify the differences between species of dogs and bulls, including those of horses. Animal figures with wheels and a movable head were used as toys.Excavated Lothal :The dock, with a canal opening to allow water to flow into the river, thereby maintaining a stable water level. On plan, Lothal stands 285 metres (935 ft) north-to-south and 228 metres (748 ft) east-to-west. At the height of its habitation, it covered a wider area since remains have been found 300 metres (1000 ft) south of the mound. Due to the fragile nature of unbaked bricks and frequent floods, the superstructures of all buildings have receded. Dwarfed walls, platforms, wells, drains, baths and paved floors are visible.[35] But thanks to the loam deposited by persistent floods, the dock walls were preserved beyond the great deluge (c. 1900 BCE). The absence of standing high walls is attributed to erosion and brick robbery. The ancient nullah, the inlet channel and riverbed have been similarly covered up. The flood-damaged peripheral wall of mud-bricks is visible near the warehouse area. The remnants of the north-south sewer are burnt bricks in the cesspool. Cubical blocks of the warehouse on a high platform are also visible.The ASI has covered the peripheral walls, the wharf and many houses of the early phase with earth to protect from natural phenomena, but the entire archaeological site is nevertheless facing grave concerns about necessary preservation. Salinity ingress and prolonged exposure to the rain and sun are gradually eating away the remains of the site. But there are no barricades to prevent the stream of visitors from trudging on the delicate brick and mud work. Stray dogs throng the mound unhindered. Heavy rain in the region has damaged the remains of the sun-dried mud brick constructions. Stagnant rain water has lathered the brick and mud work with layers of moss. Due to siltation, the dockyard’s draft has been reduced by 3–4 metres (10–13 ft) and saline deposits are decaying the bricks. Officials blame the salinity on capillary action and point out that cracks are emerging and foundations weakening even as restoration work slowly progresses.Dock and warehouseThe dock was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt. Modern oceanographers have observed that the Harappans must have possessed great knowledge relating to tides in order to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course of the Sabarmati, as well as exemplary hydrography and maritime engineering. This was the earliest known dock found in the world, equipped to berth and service ships. It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements, and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks. This knowledge also enabled them to select Lothal's location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be sluiced through flow tides in the river estuary. The engineers built a trapezoidal structure, with north-south arms of average 21.8 metres (71.5 ft), and east-west arms of 37 metres (121 ft).Another assessment is that the basin could have served as an irrigation tank, for the estimated original dimensions of the "dock" are not large enough, by modern standards, to house ships and conduct much traffic.The original height of the embankments was 4.26 metres (13.98 ft). (Now it is 3.35 metres (10.99 ft).) The main inlet is 12.8 metres (42.0 ft) wide, and another is provided on the opposite side. To counter the thrust of water, offsets were provided on the outer wall faces. When the river changed its course in 2000 BCE, a smaller inlet, 7 metres (23 ft) wide was made in the longer arm, connected to the river by a 2 kilometre (3.2 mi) channel. At high tide a flow of 2.1–2.4 metres (6.9–7.9 ft) of water would have allowed ships to enter. Provision was made for the escape of excess water through the outlet channel, 96.5 metres (317 ft) wide and 1.7 metres (5.6 ft) high in the southern arm. The dock also possessed a lock-gate system—a wooden door could be lowered at the mouth of the outlet to retain a minimum column of water in the basin so as to ensure floatation at low tides.Central to the city's economy, the warehouse was originally built on sixty-four cubical blocks, 3.6 metres (11.8 ft) square, with 1.2-metre (3.9-ft) passages, and based on a 3.5-metre-high (11.5 ft) mud-brick podium. The pedestal was very high to provide maximum protection from floods. Brick-paved passages between blocks served as vents, and a direct ramp led to the dock to facilitate loading. The warehouse was located close to the acropolis, to allow tight supervision by ruling authorities. Despite elaborate precautions, the major floods that brought the city's decline destroyed all but twelve blocks, which became the make-shift storehouse.Acropolis and Lower townLothal's acropolis was the town centre, its political and commercial heart, measuring 127.4 metres (418 ft) east-to-west by 60.9 metres (200 ft) north-to-south. Apart from the warehouse, it was the residence of the ruling class. There were three streets and two lanes running east-west, and two streets running north-south. The four sides of the rectangular platform on which houses were built are formed by mud-brick structures of 12.2–24.4 metre (40–80 ft) thickness and 2.1–3.6 metres (6.9–11.8 ft) high.The baths were primarily located in the acropolis—mostly two-roomed houses with open courtyards. The bricks used for paving baths were polished to prevent seepage. The pavements were lime-plastered and edges were wainscoted (wooden panels) by thin walls. The ruler's residence is 43.92 square metres (472.8 sq ft) in area with a 1.8-square-meter-bath (19 sq ft) equipped with an outlet and inlet. The remains of this house give evidence to a sophisticated drainage system. The Lower town marketplace was on the main north-south street 6–8 metres (20–26 ft) wide. Built in straight rows on either side of the street are residences and workshops, although brick-built drains and early period housing has disappeared. The street maintained a uniform width and did not undergo encroachment during the reconstructive periods after deluges. There are multiple two - roomed shops and workplaces of coppersmiths and blacksmiths.The bead factory, which performs a very important economic function, possesses a central courtyard and eleven rooms, a store and a guardhouse. There is a cinder dump, as well as a double - chambered circular kiln, with stoke-holes for fuel supply. Four flues are connected with each other, the upper chamber and the stoke hold. The mud plaster of the floors and walls are vitrified owing to intense heat during work. The remnants of raw materials such as reed, cow dung, sawdust and agate are found, giving archaeologists hints of how the kiln was operated.[43] A large mud-brick building faces the factory, and its significance is noted by its plan. Four large rooms and a hall, with an overall measurement of 17.1 × 12.8 metres (56 × 42 ft). The hall has a large doorway, and a fire-altar is posed on a raised floor in the southern corner of the building. A square terra-cotta stump in the centre is associated with the place of worship found in the sister site of Kalibangan (in Rajasthan), making this a primary centre of worship for Lothal's people.

Saturday, May 3, 2014



(Rig. 1.32.13). To begin with, there is the description electricity which forms in the clouds in the form of lightning.
<img src="Four vedas.jpg" alt="Four Vedas" Though it has tremendous power, it does not interfere with the solar power.
However, Lord Indra can vanquish Vritra with the help of lightning.
�(Rig. 1.23.12). We get electricity which emits blinding light, which we use for all kinds of tasks.
�(Rig. 1.6.5). This Mantra describes generation of electricity with the help of machines run on wind power.
Electricity can be easily produced where winds are strong. (Rig. 1.64.9)
This Mantra instructs about use of electricity in aeroplanes.
It also describes land vehicles driven with electrical power.
�(Rig. 8.64.29).
Many kinds of jobs are performed with the help of electricity, using attraction, retraction, vaporization, freezing, air circulation, as well as generation of new substances
�(Rig. 1.168.8).
When rains pour down on the earth from clouds, water in rivers gets agitated. Generation of electricity with the help of this agitated water brings smiles all around, meaning that the earth gets lighted up with lights run on electricity. God, you are great! What extraordinary knowledge you have provided in the Veds!.
�(Rig. 3.1.14). Intelligent people combine life and soul.
Similarly, electricity and fire are combined on the earth, and this knowledge is worth attaining for getting our wishes fulfilled. (Rig. 5.52.6).
Wise and learned persons should attain enlightenment of knowledge about electricity etc, just as the armed forces bring lights into the life of people by protecting the nation.
�(Rig. 5.54.11). This Mantra describes the equipment soldiers should carry.
They must have sufficient arms, food, high quality airplanes, glinting armors to guard their bodies, helmets to protect their heads, powerful electrical rays that can destroy the enemy planes
. This clearly means that there is a description of power electrical beams of waves or rays to be used by armed forces in the Veds.
�(Rig. 5.86.3). This Mantra advices kings and emperors that just as the sun uses its powerful rays to destroy clouds and causes rains on the earth which brings happiness to the people, the kings and emperors too should use the power of electricity to destroy enemies and bring happiness to their subjects.
�(Rig. 5.87.10). This Mantra describes that we can clearly listen to our speech elsewhere, with the help of vibration of electrical waves.
Verse 2: Nav Yo Navati Puro bibhed bahvotjasaa
Ahi Cha vritrahaavadheet
Electricity , which breaks, by the energy of its arms the 99 cities, destroys the cloud, which covers the rays of the sun, the source of all energy and power.
This initial description describes the inherent properties of of electrical energy. Here the “arms of electricity” refers to positive and negative currents. The 99 cities refers to the 99 elements, as known to modern day scientists. In Vedic terminology, these essential elements were known as “Bhogas”.
Verse 3: Sa na Indrah Shivah sakhashwavad gomadvavama
Urudhaarev dohate
That very electric power may be our peaceful friend, providing us with the horse-power to drive our machines, light to light up our houses, and power to produce grains in the fields. Let it bring on prosperity and well-being for us by flowing into numerous currents.

Verse 4: Indra Kratuvidang sutang somang harya purushtut
Piba vrishaswa taatripim
Let electricity, so highly spoken of by many learned people, help extract the essence of medicines, thus produced by those, who are well-versed in manufacturing things. Let it keep safe and shower, on us the rain, satisfying all.

Chapter 3 :Hymn XXXI
Verse 1: Taa Vajrinam Mandinam Stomyam mad indram rathe vahato haryataa haree
Purunyasmay savanaani haryata indraaya somaa harayo dadhanwire
Those two speedily moving forces of attraction and repulsion propel the electric current, powerful like the thunderbolt, pleasant and praiseworthy, in this pleasant plane or car. Manifold are the generating powers for the refulgent electricity borne by speedy moving Somas – various kinds of liquid fuels.
Verse 2: Arang Kaamaay Haryo dadhanwire sthiraay hinvanharayo Haree tura
Arvadbhiyor Haribhijorshameeyate so asya kaamam harivantamaanashe
The above mentioned speedy forces of two kinds set in motion strong currents, capable of maintaining steady progress in the attainment of one’s objective in plenty. Whatever complex is attained by these fast moving horsepowers, is enough to achieve the beautiful objective of his, the manufacturer.
Chapter 2: Hymn XV
Verse 6: Twam tamindra parvatam mahaamurum vajrena vajrinparvshashchakartitha
Avaasrijo nivritaah satarvaa apah satraa vishwam dadhishe kevalam sahah
Just as the thundering electricity reduces the vast cloud to nothing by its thunderbolt, so do you, O King, equipped with piercing weapons like the thunderbolt, smash into pieces the vast armies of the enemy, consisting of various units, by your striking power like the thunderbolt. Just as the waters of the cloud released by the electricity, fall down and flow over the earth, similarly the well-equipped armies of the enemy; being subdued by the might of the king are duly regulated by him. Truly do you alone, O King, hold all the power to subdue the foes.
The inference is quite obviously to weapons utilizing electricity. “Piercing weapons like the thunderbolt” is a clear pointer to surges of exceedingly high voltage. The lethal electric weapons are used to counter various units of the army. This is another clue, for as discussed above, the EMP effect can be used to advantage for a number of targets ranging from computers, to communication systems. Apparently electricity was employed as one of the primary weapons in military combat during the Vedic era.
Chapter 4: Hymn XXXVIII
Verse 5: Indra Idhyorah sacha sangmishal aa vachoyuja
Indro vajri Hiranyah
Electricity is well mixed up with Prana and Apana, the 2 horsepowers, yoked to power of speech. Electric power has the striking power of a deadly weapon and is full of brilliance.
From Ramani ji.


'Defalsification of Indian history is the first step for our renaissance.' - Dr. Subramanian Swamy
In this falsified history, it is made out that Hindus capitulated to Islamic invaders. But on the contrary,unlike Iran, Iraq and Egypt where within decades the country capitulated to become 100 per cent Muslims. India despite 800 years of brutal Islamic rule, remained 80 per cent Hindu.
The fabrication of our History begins with the falsification of our chronology.
The accepted history of no country can be structured on foreign accounts of it. But Nehru and his Leftist cronies did just that, and thus generations of Indians have been brainwashed by this falsified history of India.
The UPA has succeeded in persuading more state governments to accept the NCERT texts. A report on Monday (January 5, 2009) said 12 more state governments have accepted to teach NCERT texts in their schools.
For the last two weeks the Organiser is carrying a series of articles on the NCERT textbooks prescribed for students at the primary, secondary and higher secondary schools. We have found these books written with a peculiar mindset, to denationalise and deculturise the young Indian. These books fail to make the children aware of their true heritage. These books seem to distort even India's freedom struggle, Mahatma Gandhi's role and try to divide the society into different caste and class segments. Their idea is to convince the children that India as a nation came to exist only after August 15, 1947.
We request the parents, teachers, students and scholars to join this academic exercise to expose the shenanigans behind promotion of these books in Indian schools. ?Editor
The identity of India is Hindustan, i.e., a nation of Hindus and those others who acknowledge with pride that their ancestors were Hindus. Hindustan represents the continuing history of culture of Hindus. One?s religion may change, but culture does not. Thus, on the agenda for a national renaissance should be the dissemination of the correct perception of what we are. This perception has to be derived from a defalsified history. However, the present history taught in our schools and colleges is the British imperialist-sponsored one, with the intent to destroy our identity. India as a State is treated as a British-created entity and of only recent origin. The Indian people are portrayed as a heterogeneous lot who are hopelessly divided against themselves. Such a ?history? has been deliberately created by the British as a policy. Sir George Hamilton, Secretary of State for India, wrote to the Home Office on March 26, 1888 that ?I think the real danger to our rule is not now but say 50 years hence?.. We shall (therefore) break Indians into two sections holding widely different views?.. We should so plan the educational text books that the differences between community and community are further strengthened?.
After achieving Independence, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru and the implementing authority of the anglicized ICS, revision of our history was never done, in fact the very idea was condemned as ?obscurantist? and Hindu chauvinist by Nehru and his ilk.
The Imperialist History of India
What is the gist of this British imperialist-tailored Indian history? In this history, India is portrayed as the land ?conquered? first by the ?Dravidians?, then by the ?Aryans?, later by Muslims, and finally by the British. Otherwise, everything else is mythical. Our history books today exhibit this obsession with foreign rule. For example, even though the Mughal rule from Akbar to Aurangzeb is about 150 years, which is much shorter than the 350 year rule of the Vijayanagaram empire, the history books of today hardly take notice of the latter. In fact the territory under Krishna Devaraya?s rule was much larger than Akbar?s, and yet it is the latter who is called ?the Great?. Such a version suited the British rules who had sought to create a legitimacy for their presence in India. Furthermore, we were also made to see advantages accruing from British rule, the primary one being that India was united by this colonialism, and that but for the British, India would never have been one country. Thus, the concept of India itself is owed to the plunder of colonialists.
In this falsified history, it is made out that Hindus capitulated to Islamic invaders. But on the contrary, unlike Iran, Iraq and Egypt where within decades the country capitulated to become 100 per cent Muslims. India despite 800 years of brutal Islamic rule, remained 80 per cent Hindu.
These totally false and pernicious ideas have however permeated deep into our educational system. They have poisoned the minds of our younger generations who have not had the benefit of the Freedom Struggle to awaken their pride and nationalism. It has thus to be an essential part of the renaissance agenda that these ideas of British-sponsored history of India, namely, (1) that India as a State was a gift of the British and (2) that there is no such thing as a native Indian, and what we are today is a by-product of the rape of the land by visiting conquerors and their hordes and (3) that India is a land that submitted meekly to invading hordes from Aryan to the English, are discarded.
Falsification of Chronology in India?s History
The fabrication of our History begins with the falsification of our chronology.
The customary dates quoted for composition of the Rig Veda (circa 1300 B.C.), Mahabharat (600 B.C.), Buddha?s Nirvana (483 B.C.), Maurya Chandragupta?s coronation (324 B.C.), and Asoka (c.268 B.C.) are entirely wrong. Those dates are directly or indirectly based on a selected reading of Megasthenes? account of India. In fact, so much so that eminent historians have called if the ?sheet anchor of Indian chronology?. The account of Megasthenes and the derived chronology of Indian history have also an important bearing on related derivations such as the two-race (Aryan-Dravidian) theory, and on the pre-Vedic character of the so called Indus Valley Civilization.
Megasthenes was the Greek ambassador sent by Seleucus Nicator in c. 302 B.C. to the court of the Indian king whom he and the Greek called ?Sandrocottus?. He was stationed in ?Palimbothra?, the capital city of the kingdom. It is not clear how many years Megasthenes stayed in India, but he did write an account of his stay, titled Indika. The manuscript Indika is lost, and there is no copy of it available. However, during the time it was available, many other Greek writers quoted passages from it in their own works. These quotations were meticulously collected by Dr. Schwanbeck in the nineteenth century, and this compilation is also available to us in English (J.M. McCrindle: Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian).
The founder of the Mauryas, however, is not the only Chandragupta in Indian history, who was a king of Magadh and founder of a dynasty. In particular, there is Gupta Chandragupta, a Magadh king and founder of the Gupta dynasty at Patliputra. Chandragupta Gupta was also not of ?noble? birth and, in fact, came to power by deposing the Andhra king Chandrasri. That is, Megasthenes? Sandrocottus may well be Gupta Chandragupta instead of Maurya Chandgragupta (and Xandremes the same as Chandrasri, and Sandrocryptus as Samudragupta).
In order to determine which Chandragupta it is, we need to look further. It is, of course, a trifle silly to build one?s history on this kind of tongue-gymnastics, but I am afraid we have no choice but to pursue the Megasthenes evidence to its end, since the currently acceptable history is based on it.
In order to determine at which Chandragupta?s court Megasthenes was ambassador, we have to look further into his account of India. We find he was at Pataliputra (i.e. Palimbothra in Megasthenes? account). We know from the Puranas (which are unanimous on this point) that all the Chandravamsa king of Magadh (including the Mauryas) prior to the Guptas, had their capital at Girivraja (or equivalently Rajgrha) and not at Pataliputra. Gupta Chandragupta was the first king to have his capital in Patliputra. This alone should identify Sandrocottos with Gupta Chandragupta. However some 6-11th century A.D. sources call Pataliputra the Maurya capital, e.g., Vishakdatta in Mudrarakshasa, but these are based on secondary sources and not on the Puranas.
Pursuing Megasthenes? account further, we find most of it impossible to believe. He appears to be quite vague about details and is obviously given to the Greek writers? weakness in letting his imagination get out of control. For example, ?Near a mountain which is called Nulo there live men whose fee are turned back-wards and have eight toes on each foot.? (Solinus 52.36-30 XXX.B.) ?Megasthenes says a race of men (exist in India) who neither eat or drink, and in fact have not even mouths, set on fire and burn like incense in order to sustain their existence with odorous fumes?..? (Plutarch, Frag. XXXI). However, Megasthenes appears to have made one precise statement of possible application which was picked up later by Pliny, Solinus, and Arrian. As summarized by Professor K.D. Sethna of Pondicherry, it reads:
?Dionysus was the first who invaded India and was the first of all who triumphed over the vanished Indians. From the days of Dionysus to Alexander the Great, 6451 years reckoned with 3 months additional. From the time of Dionysus to Sandrocottus the Indians reckoned 6452 years, the calculation being made by counting the kings who reigned in the intermediate period to number 153 or 154 years. But among these a republic was thrice established, one extending?..years, another to 300 and another to 120. The Indians also tell us that Dionysus was earlier than Heracles by fifteen generations, and that except for him no one made a hostile invasion of India but that Alexander indeed came and overthrew in war all whom he attacked.?
While there a number of issues raised by this statement including the concoction that Alexander was victorious in battle across the Indus, the exactness with which he states his numbers should lead us to believe that Megasthenes could have received his chronological matters from none else than the Puranic pundits of his time. To be conclusive, we need to determine who are the ?Dionysus? and ?Heracles? of Megasthenes? account.
Traditionally, Dionysus (or Father Bachhus) was a Greek God of wine who was created from Zeus?s thigh. Dionysus was also a great king, and was recognised as the first among all kings, a conqueror and constructive leader. Could there be an Indian equivalent of Dionysus whom Megasthenes quickly equated with his God of wine? Looking through the Puranas, one does indeed find such a person. His name is Prithu.
Prithu was the son of King Vena. The latter was considered a wicked man whom the great sages could not tolerate, especially after he told them that the elixir soma should be offered to him in prayer and not to the gods (Bhagavata Purana IV.14.28). The great sages thereafter performed certain rites and killed Vena. But since this could lead immediately to lawlessness and chaos, the rshis decided to rectify it by coronating a strong and honest person. The rshis therefore churned the right arm (or thigh; descriptions vary) of the dead body (of Vena) to give birth to a fully grown Prithu. It was Prithu, under counsel from rshi Atri (father of Soma), who reconstructed society and brought about economic prosperity. Since he became such a great ruler, the Puranas have called him adi-raja (first king) of the world. So did the Satpatha Brahmana (v.3.5 4.).
In the absence of a cult of soma in India, it is perhaps inevitable that Megasthenes and the other Greeks, in translating Indian experiences for Greek audiences, should pick on adi-raja Prithu who is ?tinged with Soma? in a number of ways and bears such a close resemblance to Dionysus in the circumstances of his birth, and identify him as Dionysus. If we accept identifying Dionysus with Prithu, then indeed by a calculation based on the Puranas (done by DR Mankad, Koti Venkatachelam, KD Sethna, and others), it can be conclusively shown that indeed 6,451 years had elapsed between Prithu and a famous Chandragupta. This calculation exactly identifies Sandrocottus with Gupta Chandragupta and not with Maurya Chandragupta. The calculation also identifies Heracles with Hari Krishna (Srikrishna) of Dwarka.
This calculation must be necessarily long and tedious to counter the uninformed general feeling first sponsored by Western scholars, that the Puranas spin only fair tales and are therefore quite unreliable. However, most of these people do not realise that most Puranas have six parts, and the Vamsanucharita sections (especially of Vishnu, Matsya, and Vagu) are a systematic presentation of Indian history especially of the Chandravansa kings of Magadha.
In order to establish these dates, I would have to discuss in detail the cycle of lunar asterisms, the concept of time according to Aryabhatta, and various other systems, and also the reconciliation of various minor discrepancies that occur in the Puranas. Constraints of space and time however, prevent me from presenting these calculations here.
However, on the basis of these calculations we can say that Gupta Chandragupta was ?Sandrocottus? c.327 B.C. His son, Samudragupta, was the great king who established a unified kingdom all over India, and obtained from the Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras their recognition of him. He also had defeated Seleucus Nicator, while his father Chandragupta was king. On this calculation we can also place Prithu at 6777 B.C. and Lord Rama before that. Derivation of other dates without discussion may also be briefly mentioned here: Buddha?s Nirvana 1807 BC, Maurya Chandragupta c. 1534 BC, Harsha Vikramaditya (Parmar) c. 82 BC.
The European scholars have thus constructed an enormous edifice of contemporary foreign dates to suit their dating. A number of them are based on misidentification. For instance, the Rock Edict XIII, the famous Kalinga edict, is identified as Asoka?s. It was, however, Samudragupta?s (Samudragupta was a great conqueror and a devout admirer of Asoka. He imitated Asoka in many ways and also took the name Asokaditya. In his later life, he became a sanyasi). Some other facts, which directly contradict their theories, they have rather flippantly cast aside. We state here only a few examples ? such facts as (1) Fa-hsien was in India and at Patliputra c. 410 AD. He mentions a number of kings, but makes not even a fleeting reference to the Gupta, even though according to European scholars he came during the height of their reign. He also dates Buddha at 1100 BC. (2) A number of Tibetan documents place Buddha at 2100 BC. (3) The Ceylonese Pali traditions leave out the Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras from the list of Asoka?s kingdoms, whereas Rock Edict XIII includes them. In fact, as many scholars have noted, the character of Asoka from Ceylonese and other traditions is precisely (as RK Mukherjee has said) what does not appear in the principal edicts.
The accepted history of no country can be structured on foreign accounts of it. But Nehru and his Leftist cronies did just that, and thus generations of Indians have been brainwashed by this falsified history of India.
The time has come for us to take seriously our Puranic sources and to re-construct a realistic well-founded history of ancient India, a history written by Indians about Indians. Such a history should bring out the amazing continuity of a Hindu nation which asserts its identity again and again. It should focus on the fact that at the centre of our political thought is the concept of the Chakravartian ideal ? to defend the nation from external aggression while giving maximum internal autonomy to the janapadas.
A correct, defalsified history would record that Hindustan was one nation in the art of governance, in the style of royal courts, in the methods of warfare, in the maintenance of its agrarian base, and in the dissemination of information. Sanskrit was the language of national communication and discourse.
An accurate history should not only record the periods of glory but the moments of degeneration, of the missed opportunities, and of the failure to forge national unity at crucial junctures in time. It should draw lessons for the future generations from costly errors in the past.
In particular, it was not Hindu submission as alleged by JNU historians that was responsible for our subjugation but lack of unity and effective military strategy.
Without an accurate history, Hindustan cannot develop on its correct identity. And without a clearly defined identity, Indians will continue to flounder. Defalsification of Indian history is the first step for our renaissance.

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

download sanskrit ocr

online translation of sanskrit to hindi

Online translation of Sanskrit<---> Hindi
Online Sanskrit<---> English
 Click >>  sanakrit Dictionary


Sanskrit, OCR


Almost every Greek and Latin text is freely available on the Internet, but the same can hardly be said for Sanskrit. However, Sanskrit's online presence has slowly increased over the past few years, and it is set to increase more and more in the years to come. This "online presence" is directly related to how many Sanskrit texts are available on the Internet. Texts, though, are of two kinds: scanned text, which exists as a collection of large images, and digitized text, which exists as a "text" file (just like this web page). Scanned text is OK, but it is often difficult to use. Digitized text, meanwhile, can be searched and processed more easily.
In order to quickly and easily turn scanned text into digitized text, we need a tool that can perform optical character recognition (or OCR for short). This page is a short guide tousing OCR yourself. If you have a copy of a text that is not freely available on the web, please consider using an OCR program to spread it and make it more usable for everybody.


Only a few Devanagari OCR programs are available for public use. The most useful one is SanskritOCR. The software is difficult to find these days, but a few copies still survive on the web. You can download a copy of the software by clicking the link below:

Using SanskritOCR

Creating a new project

Before you can start processing a text, you need to create and save a new project file. You can do so by clicking either File -> New Document or the white page button:
New document
Save the file in the .sat (Stapel-Datei) format. You must save before you start OCR.
Now that you have your project space set up, it's time to bring in some material to process.

Importing files

You can import files either by scanning directly into the program or using saved images on your computer. I only have experience with using saved images, so I will describe that here. To load any number of image files, select File -> Open Image Files. You can import any number of image files at once. The program, however, recognizes only three image formats.bmp.jpg, and .png.
Your imported files will be listed in the Tools window. Use this window to view the different pages in your project.
Tools window
If you do not see the Tools window anywhere, click Ansicht -> Werkzeugfenster to display it.

Preparing the image

You can rotate the image by 90 degree increments:
Do not worry if your image is slightly tilted. SanskritOCR will still be able to read it.
Once your image has the right orientation, you must mark the Devanagari portions of the image so that SanskritOCR will be able to scan more effectively. You are required to do this; SanskritOCR will not let you proceed if you do not. To do so, click the markup tool:
Markup tool
Using this tool, click and drag on the document to create boxes. If your image is at an uncomfortable size, you can use the zoom tools to adjust the image:
Zoom in and out
If the page consists only of Devanagari, you can put everything in one large box:
Everything in one box
But otherwise, it's best to draw multiple boxes around the separate blocks of Devanagari:
Multiple boxes
Your text output will be presented in the order in which the boxes are numbered. You can use the tools next to the markup tool to delete and renumber the boxes in the image. You can also drag the edges of a box to better fit the text.

Cleaning and scanning

Before the scanning begins, you are required to clean the image. To do so, click the Clean image tool:
Clean tool
SanskritOCR will automatically clean, realign, and pre-process your text:
Cleaned text
All that's left is the final scan, which you can run by clicking the Start recognition tool:
Recognition tool
Results will depend on the quality of your scan. In the best case, the text is represented perfectly. In the worst, odd or unlikely combinations will appear. If the scanned text is faded, patchy, blurry, or so on, complete gibberish could be the result as well.
Watch out for gray boxes, which mark areas that could not be processed. Using more and smaller boxes in your markup may help. Oddly enough, you can also try using fewer and larger boxes.

Saving, processing, and using your output

The output from the scan cannot be saved directly. To copy your output to your computer's clipboard, click Recognised text -> --> Clipboard. For general-purpose processing, leave the Transcription mode on program transcription. The Range box will likely be grayed out. Click OK, then click OK again to close the dialog box that pops up.
Your text can now be pasted into a separate file, where it can be saved. Try pasting it in your favorite text program. If you do, you will probably get data like this:
kï¸catkåntåvirahagu?½å svådhikåråtpramattaµ ¸åpenåstaºgamitamadvimå var¹abhogye½a bhartuµ / yak¹a¸cadh÷?ï janakatanayåsnånapu½yodake¹u snigdhacchåyåtaru¹u vasatiº råmagiryå¸rame¹u // 1 //
You must process the text one more time. To do so, you can use the Sanscript tool provided on this site. Set your input scheme to SanskritOCR, and set your output scheme to whatever you like.
Your final product may still have artifacts or strange characters from SanskritOCR's raw output. Certain vowels or consonant groups may have been converted in odd ways. For these and many other reasons, proofreading is very important!
Now you have some raw text! Feel free to format and use this text however you like. If you have made a clean copy of the text, I encourage you to share it with sites like Sanskrit Documents or GRETIL so that people all over the world can have access to the fruits of your labor.

Common Questions

  • How do I save my project?
    SanskritOCR saves automatically. You can just close the program when you're done. Your work will also be saved if SanskritOCR crashes. If SanskritOCR freezes or starts acting strangely, don't be afraid to close the program and start it up again.
  • My results are terrible! What am I doing wrong?
    Use large grayscale images. If your image is not grayscale already, SanskritOCR will convert it for you, but this conversion seems to severely affect program output.
  • Can I process more than one page at a time?
    No, unfortunately.
  • I have an image file that SanskritOCR does not recognize. What should I do?
    Use an image processing program to change the file format. Irfanview is a good choice: it's lightweight, fast, free, and extremely powerful.
  • I have a PDF/TIFF/DJVU file that I would like to split into separate pages. How can I do this?
    As before, use an image processing program to split the file up. Irfanview does not have much support for these files built-in, but if you download some plugins the program will be able to handle all of these file types. If you are using Irfanview, try opening your file and selecting View -> Multipage images -> Extract all pages.
  • Is SanskritOCR still under development?
    Yes. Dr. Hellwig is working specifically on Hindi OCR, but the software will likely be able to deal with Sanskrit as well. The official website for SanskritOCR can be found here. The site mentions a major relaunch for the program, but there is no date provided.
If you have more questions, you can try emailing Dr. Hellwig.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Basic mathematical operations in Sanskrit

|| संस्कृतम ||

|| संस्कृत अध्ययन कार्ये स्वागतम् अस्तु ||

Welcome to learning learning Sanskrit

|| Sanskrit_Adhyayan || Sanskrit_Sanskruti || Bharatiya_Knowledge_Traditions || Sanskrit_Jagruti ||

सरल गणित-प्रक्रिया: -

१. योगे युति: स्यात् क्षययो: स्वयोर्वा धनर्णयोरन्तरमेवयोग:||

अन्वय - क्षययो: (राश्यो: -,-) योगे युति: स्यात्, (एवं) स्वयो: (+,+) (राश्यो: योगे युति:) वा| धन (+) ऋणयो: (-)

अन्तरं एव योग: स्यात्|

Meaning : Two positive or negative numbers will be added together but positive and negative number's difference is their addition.

Explanation : This algorithm explains very basic rule of addition of signed integers.

२. स्वयोरस्वयो स्‍वम् वध: स्वर्णघाते|

क्षयो भागहारे अपि चैवम् निरुक्तम्||

अन्वय - स्वयो: (+*+), अस्वयो: (-*-) वध: स्वम् (+) (भवति|) स्व-ऋण-घाते (+*-)

वध: क्षय: (-) (भवति)| भागहारे (/) अपि च एवम् निरुक्तम्|

Meaning : Multiplication of two positive or negative numbers is positive. Multiplication of positive and negative number is negative. Same in case of division.

Explanation : This algorithm explains rule for multiplication and division of signed integers.

३. योगान्तरं तेषु समानजात्योर्विभिन्नजात्योश्च पृथक् स्थितिश्च||

अन्वय - तेषु (अव्यक्तयोगान्तरेषु) समानजात्यो: योग: अन्तरं च (भवति) विभिन्नजात्यो: पृथक् स्थिति: च


Meaning : (In case of variables' adition/subtraction) Their similar terms are added and subtracted, different terms remain separate.

Explanation : For example, in following addition of variables -


adding/subtracting similar terms, it will give this result -

(5a+7a-2a)+(3b+2b)+(4c-c+2c) = 10a+5b+5c

४. अस्मिन् विकार: खहरे न राशावपि प्रविष्टेष्वपि निसृतेषु|

बहुष्वपिस्याल्लयसृष्टिकाले अनन्ते अच्युते भूतगणेषु यद्वद||

अन्वय - अस्मिन् खहरे राशौ बहुषु प्रविष्टेषु अपि (अथवा राशौ) निसृतेषु अपि विकार: न स्यात्|

यद्वत् सृष्टिलयकाले बहुषु अपि भूतगणेषु अनन्ते अच्युते (प्रविष्टेषु) विकार: न स्यात्|

Meaning : This infinite number does not change even after adding or subtracting any number from it. Like, the 'Brahmanda' (universe) is not altered when at the end of the world, many lives enter into it.

Explanation : This algorithm explains the concept of Infinity.

Samskrit Amarkosh (Thesaurus)

 Samskrit Amarkosh (Thesaurus) Chapter-1

sanskrit Amarkosh(thesaurus) chapter -2

sanskrit Amarkosh(thesaurus) chapter-3

Basics of Geometry in Sanskrit || संस्कृतम ||

|| संस्कृतम ||

|| वदतु संस्कृतम || पठतु संस्कृतम ||

|| संस्कृत अध्ययन कार्ये स्वागतम् अस्तु ||

Welcome to learning learning Sanskrit

|| Sanskrit_Adhyayan || Sanskrit_Sanskruti || Bharatiya_Knowledge_Traditions || Sanskrit_Jagruti ||

१) अस्तित्वं भासते यस्य न शक्यं मापनं खलु |

निरकारोsपि साकारो स बिन्दुरिति कथ्यते ||

Meaning : A place whose existence is experienced/seen but which can not be measured is called as a Point.

Explanation : A point is a location in space.A point has no length,width or height, it just specifies an exact location.

२) बिन्दुनाम य: समूह: स्यात घनविस्तार: वर्जित: |

दीर्घाकार: स भूमित्याम रेखाखंड इति स्मृत: ||

Meaning : A line is a straight one-dimensional geometric figure formed by collection of points having no thickness and volume (and extending infinitely

in both directions ).

३) भवतो दैर्घ्यविस्तारौ घनता नैव विद्यते |

प्रुष्टभागसमम् रूपं भूमित्याम् प्रतलं हि तत् ||

Meaning : An (imaginary) flat surface that is infinitely large and with zero thickness or volume is defined as 'plane' in geometry.

४) रेखाया: प्रतलस्यापि द्वयम् यदि परस्परम् |

न संस्प्रुश्यति भूमित्याम् प्रतलम् हि तत् ||

Meaning : Two lines (in a plane) or two planes that do not intersect or meet are called parallel (lines and planes respectively).

५) प्रमाणम् नवतिर्यस्य काटकोण: स: उच्यते |

ततोSधिको विशाल: स्यात् तन्यूनो लघुरुच्यते ||

Meaning : The traingle that has (one of its interior )angle measuring 90 degrees is called as 'right traingle'.The one greater then that (that has one angle that measures more than 90 degrees)is called as 'obtuse triangle' and the one lesser than that( that has all interior angles measuring less than 90 degrees) is called as 'acute traingle'.

६) तिस्रो भुजा समा यस्य समानभुज उच्यते |

तथा द्वयम् समानम् स्यात् स समद्विभूज भवेत् ||

Meaning : The triangle whose three sides are equal is called as 'equilatera triangle'. Similarly, the triangle whose two sides are equal is called as 'isosceles triangle'

७) अंशयोगत्रिकोणस्य शतं चाशीति लक्षणम् |

चतुर्भुजस्य कोणानां योगो द्विगुणितो भवेत् ||

Meaning : The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees ,while the sum of the angles of a square is twice the 180 degrees i.e. 360 degrees.

८) त्रिभुजस्य फलशरीरम् समदलकोटीभुजार्धसंवर्ग: |

समपरिणाहस्यार्धम् विष्कम्भार्धहतमेव वृत्तफलम् ||

Meaning : Area of a triangle is ((1/2)*(perpendicular height)*base),while area of a cirlcle is (pi*r*r).

Explaination : फलशरीरम् - area, समदलकोटी - perpendicular,

समपरिणाह - circumference, विष्कम्भ - diameter

Area of a circle = (circumference/2)* (diameter/2)

=((2*pi*r)/2) * (2r/2)


९)चतुरधिकं शतं अष्टगुणं द्वासष्टीस्तथा सहस्त्रानाम |

अयुतद्वयं विष्कम्भ: स्या सन्नो वृत्तपरिणाह: ||

Meaning : The figure whose diameter is 20,000 has a circumference of 62,832. Explaination : Aryabhatt has given value of mathematical symbol π ('pi') in this shloka.

चतुरधिकं शतं अष्टगुणं - 104 * 8,(=832)

द्वासष्टीसहस्त्रानाम = 62,000, अयुतद्वयं = 20,000

विष्कम्भ: - diameter , वृत्तपरिणाह: - circuference

So, π = 62,832/20,000 = 3.1416

१०) वर्ग: समचतुरस्त्र फलम् च सदृशद्वयस्य संवर्ग:| सदृशत्रयसम्वर्गो घनस्तथा द्वादशाश्रि: स्यात् ||

Meaning : The figure with 4 equal sides is called as varg(square).Similarly,the multiplication of two equal numbers is callled as (its) varg(square).
The multiplication of three equal numbers is callled as (its) ghan(cube).Similarly,the figure with 12 equal sides is called as a ghan (cube).

उदाहरनानि (Examples) :

११)क्षेत्रस्य समकोणस्य दैर्घ्यम् यदि चतुर्दश | दैघ्यार्ध-मात्राविस्तार: फलम् परिमितिम् वद ||

Meaning : Tell (me) the area and circumference of a farm with length equal to 14 units and width equal to half of the length.

१२)कूपस्य सप्त विष्कभो निम्नता पंचविन्शति: | परिपूर्णे हि कूपेSस्मिन कियद्वारी भविष्यति? ||

Meaning : The diameter of a well is 7 units and its height is 25 units.What amount of water can completely fill the well?

संख्यारचना (Positional Number System)

१) एकं द्वे त्रिणि चत्वारि पञ्च षट सप्त चाष्ट च |

नव शून्यं दशांका स्यु: संख्या-लेखन-हेतवे ||

Meaning : 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0 are the symbols to write numbers.

२) तस्मात् संयुज्य तान् अंकान् स्थानमानानुसारत: |

वामतो गति: अंकानाम् ज्ञात्वा संख्या च लिख्यते ||

Meaning : Hence,by combining these number-symbols (and) by knowing that their (local/positional) value increases (from right) towards left,

a number is written.