Tuesday, April 22, 2014

download sanskrit ocr


online translation of sanskrit to hindi

Online translation of Sanskrit<---> Hindi
Online Sanskrit<---> English
 Click >>  sanakrit Dictionary


Sanskrit, OCR


Almost every Greek and Latin text is freely available on the Internet, but the same can hardly be said for Sanskrit. However, Sanskrit's online presence has slowly increased over the past few years, and it is set to increase more and more in the years to come. This "online presence" is directly related to how many Sanskrit texts are available on the Internet. Texts, though, are of two kinds: scanned text, which exists as a collection of large images, and digitized text, which exists as a "text" file (just like this web page). Scanned text is OK, but it is often difficult to use. Digitized text, meanwhile, can be searched and processed more easily.
In order to quickly and easily turn scanned text into digitized text, we need a tool that can perform optical character recognition (or OCR for short). This page is a short guide tousing OCR yourself. If you have a copy of a text that is not freely available on the web, please consider using an OCR program to spread it and make it more usable for everybody.


Only a few Devanagari OCR programs are available for public use. The most useful one is SanskritOCR. The software is difficult to find these days, but a few copies still survive on the web. You can download a copy of the software by clicking the link below:

Using SanskritOCR

Creating a new project

Before you can start processing a text, you need to create and save a new project file. You can do so by clicking either File -> New Document or the white page button:
New document
Save the file in the .sat (Stapel-Datei) format. You must save before you start OCR.
Now that you have your project space set up, it's time to bring in some material to process.

Importing files

You can import files either by scanning directly into the program or using saved images on your computer. I only have experience with using saved images, so I will describe that here. To load any number of image files, select File -> Open Image Files. You can import any number of image files at once. The program, however, recognizes only three image formats.bmp.jpg, and .png.
Your imported files will be listed in the Tools window. Use this window to view the different pages in your project.
Tools window
If you do not see the Tools window anywhere, click Ansicht -> Werkzeugfenster to display it.

Preparing the image

You can rotate the image by 90 degree increments:
Do not worry if your image is slightly tilted. SanskritOCR will still be able to read it.
Once your image has the right orientation, you must mark the Devanagari portions of the image so that SanskritOCR will be able to scan more effectively. You are required to do this; SanskritOCR will not let you proceed if you do not. To do so, click the markup tool:
Markup tool
Using this tool, click and drag on the document to create boxes. If your image is at an uncomfortable size, you can use the zoom tools to adjust the image:
Zoom in and out
If the page consists only of Devanagari, you can put everything in one large box:
Everything in one box
But otherwise, it's best to draw multiple boxes around the separate blocks of Devanagari:
Multiple boxes
Your text output will be presented in the order in which the boxes are numbered. You can use the tools next to the markup tool to delete and renumber the boxes in the image. You can also drag the edges of a box to better fit the text.

Cleaning and scanning

Before the scanning begins, you are required to clean the image. To do so, click the Clean image tool:
Clean tool
SanskritOCR will automatically clean, realign, and pre-process your text:
Cleaned text
All that's left is the final scan, which you can run by clicking the Start recognition tool:
Recognition tool
Results will depend on the quality of your scan. In the best case, the text is represented perfectly. In the worst, odd or unlikely combinations will appear. If the scanned text is faded, patchy, blurry, or so on, complete gibberish could be the result as well.
Watch out for gray boxes, which mark areas that could not be processed. Using more and smaller boxes in your markup may help. Oddly enough, you can also try using fewer and larger boxes.

Saving, processing, and using your output

The output from the scan cannot be saved directly. To copy your output to your computer's clipboard, click Recognised text -> --> Clipboard. For general-purpose processing, leave the Transcription mode on program transcription. The Range box will likely be grayed out. Click OK, then click OK again to close the dialog box that pops up.
Your text can now be pasted into a separate file, where it can be saved. Try pasting it in your favorite text program. If you do, you will probably get data like this:
kï¸catkåntåvirahagu?½å svådhikåråtpramattaµ ¸åpenåstaºgamitamadvimå var¹abhogye½a bhartuµ / yak¹a¸cadh÷?ï janakatanayåsnånapu½yodake¹u snigdhacchåyåtaru¹u vasatiº råmagiryå¸rame¹u // 1 //
You must process the text one more time. To do so, you can use the Sanscript tool provided on this site. Set your input scheme to SanskritOCR, and set your output scheme to whatever you like.
Your final product may still have artifacts or strange characters from SanskritOCR's raw output. Certain vowels or consonant groups may have been converted in odd ways. For these and many other reasons, proofreading is very important!
Now you have some raw text! Feel free to format and use this text however you like. If you have made a clean copy of the text, I encourage you to share it with sites like Sanskrit Documents or GRETIL so that people all over the world can have access to the fruits of your labor.

Common Questions

  • How do I save my project?
    SanskritOCR saves automatically. You can just close the program when you're done. Your work will also be saved if SanskritOCR crashes. If SanskritOCR freezes or starts acting strangely, don't be afraid to close the program and start it up again.
  • My results are terrible! What am I doing wrong?
    Use large grayscale images. If your image is not grayscale already, SanskritOCR will convert it for you, but this conversion seems to severely affect program output.
  • Can I process more than one page at a time?
    No, unfortunately.
  • I have an image file that SanskritOCR does not recognize. What should I do?
    Use an image processing program to change the file format. Irfanview is a good choice: it's lightweight, fast, free, and extremely powerful.
  • I have a PDF/TIFF/DJVU file that I would like to split into separate pages. How can I do this?
    As before, use an image processing program to split the file up. Irfanview does not have much support for these files built-in, but if you download some plugins the program will be able to handle all of these file types. If you are using Irfanview, try opening your file and selecting View -> Multipage images -> Extract all pages.
  • Is SanskritOCR still under development?
    Yes. Dr. Hellwig is working specifically on Hindi OCR, but the software will likely be able to deal with Sanskrit as well. The official website for SanskritOCR can be found here. The site mentions a major relaunch for the program, but there is no date provided.
If you have more questions, you can try emailing Dr. Hellwig.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Basic mathematical operations in Sanskrit

|| संस्कृतम ||

|| संस्कृत अध्ययन कार्ये स्वागतम् अस्तु ||

Welcome to learning learning Sanskrit

|| Sanskrit_Adhyayan || Sanskrit_Sanskruti || Bharatiya_Knowledge_Traditions || Sanskrit_Jagruti ||

सरल गणित-प्रक्रिया: -

१. योगे युति: स्यात् क्षययो: स्वयोर्वा धनर्णयोरन्तरमेवयोग:||

अन्वय - क्षययो: (राश्यो: -,-) योगे युति: स्यात्, (एवं) स्वयो: (+,+) (राश्यो: योगे युति:) वा| धन (+) ऋणयो: (-)

अन्तरं एव योग: स्यात्|

Meaning : Two positive or negative numbers will be added together but positive and negative number's difference is their addition.

Explanation : This algorithm explains very basic rule of addition of signed integers.

२. स्वयोरस्वयो स्‍वम् वध: स्वर्णघाते|

क्षयो भागहारे अपि चैवम् निरुक्तम्||

अन्वय - स्वयो: (+*+), अस्वयो: (-*-) वध: स्वम् (+) (भवति|) स्व-ऋण-घाते (+*-)

वध: क्षय: (-) (भवति)| भागहारे (/) अपि च एवम् निरुक्तम्|

Meaning : Multiplication of two positive or negative numbers is positive. Multiplication of positive and negative number is negative. Same in case of division.

Explanation : This algorithm explains rule for multiplication and division of signed integers.

३. योगान्तरं तेषु समानजात्योर्विभिन्नजात्योश्च पृथक् स्थितिश्च||

अन्वय - तेषु (अव्यक्तयोगान्तरेषु) समानजात्यो: योग: अन्तरं च (भवति) विभिन्नजात्यो: पृथक् स्थिति: च


Meaning : (In case of variables' adition/subtraction) Their similar terms are added and subtracted, different terms remain separate.

Explanation : For example, in following addition of variables -


adding/subtracting similar terms, it will give this result -

(5a+7a-2a)+(3b+2b)+(4c-c+2c) = 10a+5b+5c

४. अस्मिन् विकार: खहरे न राशावपि प्रविष्टेष्वपि निसृतेषु|

बहुष्वपिस्याल्लयसृष्टिकाले अनन्ते अच्युते भूतगणेषु यद्वद||

अन्वय - अस्मिन् खहरे राशौ बहुषु प्रविष्टेषु अपि (अथवा राशौ) निसृतेषु अपि विकार: न स्यात्|

यद्वत् सृष्टिलयकाले बहुषु अपि भूतगणेषु अनन्ते अच्युते (प्रविष्टेषु) विकार: न स्यात्|

Meaning : This infinite number does not change even after adding or subtracting any number from it. Like, the 'Brahmanda' (universe) is not altered when at the end of the world, many lives enter into it.

Explanation : This algorithm explains the concept of Infinity.

Samskrit Amarkosh (Thesaurus)

 Samskrit Amarkosh (Thesaurus) Chapter-1

sanskrit Amarkosh(thesaurus) chapter -2

sanskrit Amarkosh(thesaurus) chapter-3

Basics of Geometry in Sanskrit || संस्कृतम ||

|| संस्कृतम ||

|| वदतु संस्कृतम || पठतु संस्कृतम ||

|| संस्कृत अध्ययन कार्ये स्वागतम् अस्तु ||

Welcome to learning learning Sanskrit

|| Sanskrit_Adhyayan || Sanskrit_Sanskruti || Bharatiya_Knowledge_Traditions || Sanskrit_Jagruti ||

१) अस्तित्वं भासते यस्य न शक्यं मापनं खलु |

निरकारोsपि साकारो स बिन्दुरिति कथ्यते ||

Meaning : A place whose existence is experienced/seen but which can not be measured is called as a Point.

Explanation : A point is a location in space.A point has no length,width or height, it just specifies an exact location.

२) बिन्दुनाम य: समूह: स्यात घनविस्तार: वर्जित: |

दीर्घाकार: स भूमित्याम रेखाखंड इति स्मृत: ||

Meaning : A line is a straight one-dimensional geometric figure formed by collection of points having no thickness and volume (and extending infinitely

in both directions ).

३) भवतो दैर्घ्यविस्तारौ घनता नैव विद्यते |

प्रुष्टभागसमम् रूपं भूमित्याम् प्रतलं हि तत् ||

Meaning : An (imaginary) flat surface that is infinitely large and with zero thickness or volume is defined as 'plane' in geometry.

४) रेखाया: प्रतलस्यापि द्वयम् यदि परस्परम् |

न संस्प्रुश्यति भूमित्याम् प्रतलम् हि तत् ||

Meaning : Two lines (in a plane) or two planes that do not intersect or meet are called parallel (lines and planes respectively).

५) प्रमाणम् नवतिर्यस्य काटकोण: स: उच्यते |

ततोSधिको विशाल: स्यात् तन्यूनो लघुरुच्यते ||

Meaning : The traingle that has (one of its interior )angle measuring 90 degrees is called as 'right traingle'.The one greater then that (that has one angle that measures more than 90 degrees)is called as 'obtuse triangle' and the one lesser than that( that has all interior angles measuring less than 90 degrees) is called as 'acute traingle'.

६) तिस्रो भुजा समा यस्य समानभुज उच्यते |

तथा द्वयम् समानम् स्यात् स समद्विभूज भवेत् ||

Meaning : The triangle whose three sides are equal is called as 'equilatera triangle'. Similarly, the triangle whose two sides are equal is called as 'isosceles triangle'

७) अंशयोगत्रिकोणस्य शतं चाशीति लक्षणम् |

चतुर्भुजस्य कोणानां योगो द्विगुणितो भवेत् ||

Meaning : The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees ,while the sum of the angles of a square is twice the 180 degrees i.e. 360 degrees.

८) त्रिभुजस्य फलशरीरम् समदलकोटीभुजार्धसंवर्ग: |

समपरिणाहस्यार्धम् विष्कम्भार्धहतमेव वृत्तफलम् ||

Meaning : Area of a triangle is ((1/2)*(perpendicular height)*base),while area of a cirlcle is (pi*r*r).

Explaination : फलशरीरम् - area, समदलकोटी - perpendicular,

समपरिणाह - circumference, विष्कम्भ - diameter

Area of a circle = (circumference/2)* (diameter/2)

=((2*pi*r)/2) * (2r/2)


९)चतुरधिकं शतं अष्टगुणं द्वासष्टीस्तथा सहस्त्रानाम |

अयुतद्वयं विष्कम्भ: स्या सन्नो वृत्तपरिणाह: ||

Meaning : The figure whose diameter is 20,000 has a circumference of 62,832. Explaination : Aryabhatt has given value of mathematical symbol π ('pi') in this shloka.

चतुरधिकं शतं अष्टगुणं - 104 * 8,(=832)

द्वासष्टीसहस्त्रानाम = 62,000, अयुतद्वयं = 20,000

विष्कम्भ: - diameter , वृत्तपरिणाह: - circuference

So, π = 62,832/20,000 = 3.1416

१०) वर्ग: समचतुरस्त्र फलम् च सदृशद्वयस्य संवर्ग:| सदृशत्रयसम्वर्गो घनस्तथा द्वादशाश्रि: स्यात् ||

Meaning : The figure with 4 equal sides is called as varg(square).Similarly,the multiplication of two equal numbers is callled as (its) varg(square).
The multiplication of three equal numbers is callled as (its) ghan(cube).Similarly,the figure with 12 equal sides is called as a ghan (cube).

उदाहरनानि (Examples) :

११)क्षेत्रस्य समकोणस्य दैर्घ्यम् यदि चतुर्दश | दैघ्यार्ध-मात्राविस्तार: फलम् परिमितिम् वद ||

Meaning : Tell (me) the area and circumference of a farm with length equal to 14 units and width equal to half of the length.

१२)कूपस्य सप्त विष्कभो निम्नता पंचविन्शति: | परिपूर्णे हि कूपेSस्मिन कियद्वारी भविष्यति? ||

Meaning : The diameter of a well is 7 units and its height is 25 units.What amount of water can completely fill the well?

संख्यारचना (Positional Number System)

१) एकं द्वे त्रिणि चत्वारि पञ्च षट सप्त चाष्ट च |

नव शून्यं दशांका स्यु: संख्या-लेखन-हेतवे ||

Meaning : 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0 are the symbols to write numbers.

२) तस्मात् संयुज्य तान् अंकान् स्थानमानानुसारत: |

वामतो गति: अंकानाम् ज्ञात्वा संख्या च लिख्यते ||

Meaning : Hence,by combining these number-symbols (and) by knowing that their (local/positional) value increases (from right) towards left,

a number is written.

Friday, January 24, 2014

Animated Stories with Sanskrit subtitles and voice overlay

Animated Stories with Sanskrit subtitles and voice overlay

Study of श्लोकः describing लाकिनी शक्तिः at मणिपूरचक्रम्

There has been some distraction in my lessons for Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach. The distraction is caused by a call to study this shloka (verse 21 in ShaT-chakra-niroopaNam) describing the लाकिनी शक्तिः which abides at मणिपूरचक्रम् This exercise has led me to derive a meaning differing from the meaning given at 
sat chakra Nirupana
नमो नमः !
कतिपयैः जनैः इमं पूर्वं प्रेषितम् संदेशं पठितुं कठिनता अनुभूता, यतः मया पूर्वं अन्यतरं अक्षर-संयोजकं उपयुक्तमासीत् । अतः इदं सर्वं पुनः लिखितमस्ति । कृपया पश्यन्तु टीका-टिप्पणीन् च ददन्तु । इमं मम जालपुटे अपि निवेशयामि ।
Study of श्लोकः describing लाकिनी शक्तिः at मणिपूर-चक्रम् ।
अत्रास्ते लाकिनी सा सकलशुभकरी वेदबाहूज्ज्वलाङ्गी
श्यामा पीताम्बराद्यैर्विविधविरचनालङ्कृता  मत्तचित्ता
ध्यात्वैतन्नाभिपद्मं  प्रभवति नितरां संहृतौ पालने वा
वाणी तस्याननाब्जे निवसति सततं ज्ञानसंदोहलक्ष्मीः
१  संधिविच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा
अत्र आस्ते लाकिनी सा सकल-शुभ-करी वेद-बाहु-उज्ज्वल-अङ्गी
श्यामा पीत-अम्बर-आद्यैः विविध-विरचन-अलन्कृता मत्त-चित्ता
ध्यात्वा एतत् नाभि-पद्मं प्रभवति नितरां संहृतौ पालने वा
वाणी तस्य आनन-अब्जे निवसति सततं ज्ञान-संदोह-लक्ष्मीः
२ समासानां विग्रहाः
पूर्वपदम्उत्तरपदम्समासस्य  विग्रहःसमासस्य प्रकारः
१.१सकल-शुभसकल-शुभम्सकलशुभसकलं शुभम्कर्मधारयः
१.२सकल-शुभ-करीसकल-शुभ-करीसकल-शुभम्करीसकलशुभं करोति इतिउपपद-तत्पुरुषः
२.१वेद-बाहुवेद-बाहुःवेदबाहुवेदाः (चतुस्रः) बाहवः यस्याः साबहुव्रीहिः
२.२उज्ज्वल-अङ्गीउज्ज्वल-अङ्गीउज्ज्वलअङ्गउज्ज्वलं अङ्गं यस्याः साबहुव्रीहिः
२.३वेदबाहु-उज्ज्वलाङ्गीवेदबाहु-उज्ज्वलाङ्गीवेदबाहुउज्ज्वलाङ्गीवेदबाहुः उज्ज्वलाङ्गी चसमाहार-द्वन्द्वः
३.१पीताम्बरपीताम्बरम्पीतअम्बरपीतं अम्बरम्कर्मधारयः
३.२पीत-अम्बर-आद्यैःपीतांबराद्यपीताम्बरआद्यपीताम्बरं आद्यं येषां तानिबहुव्रीहिः
४.१विविध-विरचनैःविविध-विरचनानिविविधविरचनविविधानि विरचनानिकर्मधारयः
४.२विविध-विरचन-अलन्कृताविविध-विरचनालन्कृताविविध-विरचनअलन्कृताविविध-विरचनैः अलन्कृतातृतीया-तत्पुरुषः
मत्त-चित्तामत्त-चित्तामत्तचित्तमत्तं चित्तं यस्याः साबहुव्रीहिः
नाभि-पद्मम्नाभि-पद्मम्नाभिपद्मनाभौ पद्मम्सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः
७.१अब्जेअब्जअप्अप्सु जायते इतिउपपद-तत्पुरुषः
७.२आननाब्जेआननाब्जम्आननअब्जअब्जम् इव आननम्कर्मधारयः
८.१ज्ञान-संदोहज्ञान-सन्दोहःज्ञानसंदोहज्ञानस्य सन्दोहःषष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः
८.२ज्ञान-संदोह-लक्ष्मीःज्ञान-संदोह-लक्ष्मीःज्ञानसन्दोहलक्ष्मीज्ञानसन्दोहः एव लक्ष्मीःकर्मधारयः
३ शब्दशः विश्लेषणम्
लाकिनीविशेषनामलाकिनीस्त्रीप्रथमाएकName of energy
सकल-शुभ-करीविशेषणम्सकल-शुभ-करीस्त्रीप्रथमाएकBenefactress on all counts
पीताम्बराद्यैःविशेषणम्पीताम्बराद्यनपुंप्रथमाबहुWith yellow attire and other
१०विविध-विरचनैःसामान्यनामविविध-विरचननपुंप्रथमाएकvariety of adornments
१२मत्तचित्ताविशेषणम्मत्तचित्तास्त्रीप्रथमाएकwith exalted mind
१३ध्यात्वाधातुसाधितं अव्ययम्On meditating
१५नाभिपद्मम्सामान्यनामनाभिपद्मनपुंद्वितीयाएकlotus at the navel
१६प्रभवतिक्रियापदम्carries an influence
१८संहृतौसामान्यनामसंहृतिस्त्रीसप्तमीएकAt death or destruction
१९पालनेसामान्यनामपालननपुंसप्तमीएकAt grooming
२३आननाब्जेसामान्यनामआननाब्जनपुंसप्तमीएकOn lotus-like face
२६ज्ञानस्यसामान्यनामज्ञाननपुंषष्ठीएकOf knowledge
२७संदोहःसामान्यनामसंदोहपुप्रथमाएकThe whole quantity of anything (here, of knowledge)
२८लक्ष्मीःसामान्यनामलक्ष्मीस्त्रीप्रथमाएकwealth, splendour
४ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च
अनुक्रअन्वयेन वाक्यम्Translation
अत्र लाकिनी आस्ते ।Energy known as LAkinee abides here.
सा सकल-शुभ-करी, वेदबाहुः, उज्ज्वलाङ्गी, श्यामा, पीतांबराद्यैः  विविध-विरचनैः अलन्कृता, मत्त-चित्ता (अस्ति) ।She (is) comprehensively benevolent, four-armed, radiant, of dark complexion, adorned with yellow clothes and other variety of special decorations, (and) with exalted mind
एतत् नाभिपद्मम्  ध्यात्वाBy meditating on this lotus at the navel
तस्य वाणी संहृतौ पालने वा नितराम् प्रभवति ।His (of one who meditates) speech certainly carries (would carry) an impression (effect or influence) at death (or destruction) or at grooming (protection)
तस्य आननाब्जे ज्ञानसंदोहलक्ष्मीः सततम् निवसति ।On his (of one who meditates) lotus face resides the splendour of comprehensive, complete knowledge

SLA’s notes / comments –
  1. Above translation, especially of sentences 4 and 5 turns out to be different from the one given at(see below)----  sat chakra Nirupana
  2. The construction पीतांबराद्यैः-विविध-विरचन-अलंकृता seems to be grammatically incorrect.
    1. पीतांबराद्यैः-विविध-विरचन-अलंकृता is appearing to be a single conjuncted / compound word. As per above analysis, पीतांबराद्यैः    being adjective of विविध-विरचनैः  the word विविध-विरचन should not have been separately compounded with अलंकृता
    2. To be gramatically correct, the phrase should either be पीतांबराद्यैः विविध-विरचनैः अलंकृता or पीताम्बरा  to be a separate adjective of सा लाकिनी and विविध-विरचन-अलंकृता as another separate adjective.
    3. All the grammar seems to have become confused because of आद्यैः
    4. The capital H in the phrase “in the lotus of His face” (in the translation on the web-page) suggests that the translation is referring to the face of God. However, by the above analysis, it rather seems to be the lotus-like face of one, who meditates on नाभिपद्मम्
e. The word वेदबाहुः is interesting. Since वेदाः are four, this word is also used to suggest number four. Hence the translation ofवेदबाहुः as ‘four-armed’.
f. Alternatively this सामासिक-शब्दः वेदबाहुः can be deciphered by a विग्रहः as वेदाः यस्याः बाहुषु सा. Then the meaning will be “she, who holds Vedaas in her hands.
Translation given at the web-page  Sat chakra Nirupana is -
“Here abides Lākinī, the benefactress of all. She is four-armed, of radiant body, is dark (in complexion), clothed in yellow raiment and decked with various ornaments, and exalted with the drinking of ambrosia. By meditating on this Navel Lutus the power to destroy and create (the world)is acquired. Vāṇī with all the wealth of knowledge ever abides in the lotus of His face.” .”….From Ṣaṭ-cakra-nirūpaṇa (21)
विद्वज्जनाः टीका-टिप्पणिभिः उपकृतं कुर्वन्तु, इति विनन्तिः ।

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 111-120

संस्कृताध्ययनम् ।

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य षोडशाधिकशततमः (११६) पाठः ।
Everyone gets to know the गायत्रीमन्त्र. I too have known it. But its meaning is not always very clear, especially by the grammar of every word and the meaning based on the grammar. So, this is an attempt rather an indulgence to learn the Sanskrit of the गायत्रीमन्त्र.
ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् |
पदच्छेदैः – ॐ भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः वरेण्यं भर्गः देवस्य धीमहि धियः यः नः प्रचोदयात् |
अन्वयेन – ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् |
शब्दशः विश्लेषणम् -
  1. ॐ = invocation
  2. धीमहि =
    1. धी 4 Ā (धीयते) 1 To disregard, disrespect. -2 To propitiate. -3 To hold, contain. -4 To accomplish, fulfil.
    2. प्रायः धी-धातोः विधिलिङ्-लकारे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचने आर्षरूपम् |
    3. Let us meditate
  3. यः = यत्-सर्वनाम | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  4. भूः =
    1. भूः f. [भू-क्विप्] 1 The earth (opp. अन्तरीक्ष or स्वर्ग); दिवं मरुत्वानिव भोक्ष्यते भुवम् R.3.4;18.4; Me.18; मत्तेभ- कुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः । -2 Earth as one of the nine substances. -3 The universe, globe. -4 Ground, floor; मणिभयभुवः (प्रासादाः) Me.66. -5 Land, landed property. -6 A place, site, region, plot of ground; काननभुवि, उपवनभुवि &c. -7 Matter, subject-matter. -8 A symbo- lical expression for the number ‘one’. -9 The base of a geometrical figure. -1 A sacrificial fire. -11 The act of becoming, arising. -12 The first of the three Vyāhṛitis or mystic syllables (भूः, भुवः, स्वः) –representing the earth–repeated by every Brāhmaṇa at the commencement of his daily Sandhyā.
  5. भुवः =
    1. भुवः Ved. 1 Fire. -2 The earth (भुवोलोक). -3 The air, atmosphere (भुवस्).
  6. स्वः =
    1. सुवरिति वा एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः T. Up.1.5.1; वेदत्रयान्निरदुहद्भूर्भुवःस्वरितीति च Ms.2.76; according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम्.
  7. तत्-सवितुः =
    1. तत्सवितुः = तस्य सवितुः
    2. तत्सवितृ-इति सामासिकं नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    3. सः सविता इति “तत्सवितृ” (कर्मधारयः) |
  8. देवस्य = “देव”-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  9. वरेण्यम् =
    1. वृ-इति धातुः | तस्मात् अनीयर्-प्रत्ययेन “वरणीय”-इति विशेषणम् | वरेण्यम् इति प्रायः आर्षरूपम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    2. वृ I. 1, 5, 9 U. (वरति-ते, वृणोति-वृणुते, वृणाति-वृणीते, वृत; pass. व्रीयते) 1 To choose, select as a boon; वृतं तेनेदमेव प्राक् Ku.2.56; ववार रामस्य वनप्रयाणम् Bk.3.6. -2 To choose for oneself (Ātm.); वृणते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव संपदः Ki.2.3; यदेव वब्रे तदपश्यदाहृतम् R.3.6. -3 To choose in marriage, woo, court; अयोनिजां राजसुतां वरीतुम् Mv.3.28; A. R.3.42. -4 To beg, solicit, ask for. -5 To cover, conceal, hide, screen, envelop; मेघैर्वृतश्चन्द्रमाः Mk.5.14. -5 To surround, encompass; वृतस्त्वं पात्रेसमितैः खट्वा$$रूढः प्रमादवान् Bk.5.1; U.4.18; R.12.61. -7 To ward off, keep away, restrain, check. -8 To hinder, oppose, obstruct. -9 To love, adore. -Caus. (वारयति-ते) 1 To cover, conceal. -2 To avert from (with abl.). -3 To prevent, ward off, restrain, sup- press, check, hinder; शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् Bh.2. 11. -Desid. (वुवूर्षति-ते, विवरिषति-ते; विवरीषति-ते) To wish to choose. -II. 1 U. (वरयति-ते) 1 To choose, select; वरं वरयते कन्या माता वित्तं पिता श्रुतम् Pt.4.68. -2 To choose in marriage. -3 To ask for, beg, solicit, (with two acc.); तां त्वां संवरणस्यार्थे वरयामि विभावसो Mb.; शैलेन्द्रं वरयामासुर्गङ्गां त्रिपथगां नदीम् Rām.
    3. वरेण्य a. [वृ-एन्य Uṇ.3.98] 1 To be wished for, desirable, eligible; अनेन चेदिच्छसि गृह्यमाणं पाणिं वरेण्येन R.6.24. -2 (Hence) Best, most excellent, pre-eminent, most worthy or distingushed, chief; वेधा विधाय पुनरुक्तमिवन्दुबिम्बं दूरीकरोति न कथं विदुषां वरेण्यः Bv.2.158; तत् सवितुर्वरेण्य भर्गो देवस्य धीमही Rv.3.62.1; R.6.24,84. Bk.1.4; Ku.7.9; A. Rām.2.6.62. -ण्यः A particular class of deceased ancestors. -ण्यम् Saffron.
  10. भर्गः -
    1. भर्गस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    2. भर्गस् n. Radiance, Iustre; देवस्य भर्गो मनसेदं जजान Bhāg.5.7.14; ऊँ तत् सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि Gāyatrīmantra, Rv.3.62.1.
  11. नः – अस्मद्-इति उत्तमपुरुषवाचकं सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
  12. धियः
    1. धीः [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
    2. धी-इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
    1. प्रचोदयात् -
      1. प्रचुद्-इति धातुः (प्र-इति उपसर्गेण सहितः) | तस्य आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |
        1. Dr. H. N. Bhat has noted in his comment that प्रचोदयात् is not आशीर्लिङ्-लकार.
        2. check at    HERE and find that the रूपम् of चुद् in आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् is given as चोदयिषीष्ट/चोद्यात्. I had hence thought that प्रचोदयात् is an आर्षरूपम्.
        3. Dr. Bhat considers it to be लेट्-लकार. This लकार is anyway to be found only in Vedas (लेट् वेदे). By that consideration also it becomes an आर्षरूपम्. But I do not know whether in Vedas, as a लकार, लेट्-लकार has the sense of आशीर्लिङ्.
        4. The रूपम् प्रचोदयात् sounds similar to many आशीर्लिङ्-रूपाणि such as ब्रूयात्, भूयात्, कुर्यात् etc.
अन्वयार्थः Overall meaning as per the syntax -
ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् =
ॐ = In all serenity
धीमहि = Let us meditate or pray (that)
तत्-सवितुः देवस्य of that God Sun
  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is (and pervades) this earth, the environment above it and the heavens OR
  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is consummation of all the three mystic syllables
वरेण्यं भर्गः = (His) most benevolent radiance (lustre)
प्रचोदयात् = may (प्र = ever and vigorous and energetic) motivate, may enlighten
नः धियः = our intellects
टिप्पण्यः Notes -
  1. When exploring the words भूः भुवः स्वः, I have noted from Apte’s on-line dictionary, the mention, “.. एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः (from तैत्तिरीय उपनिषत्) ..”, but further on, “.. according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम् ..”. This brings to mind a possibility that the seven व्याहृति-s may actually be referring to seven levels of atmosphere above earth. In modern sciences, different names such as troposhere, stratosphere, etc. are given to layers of atmosphere above earth as can be seen in the picture below. Interestingly, these are also seven in number !
  2. This मन्त्र is known as गायत्रीमन्त्रः There are many such मन्त्र-s or prayers which have some common features and words. Some गायत्रीमन्त्र-s illustrated at    spiritual slideshow  are -
    1. गणेशगायत्री – एकदंताय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। महाकर्णाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।। गजाननाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।।
    2. ब्रह्म-गायत्री – ॐ वेदात्मने विद्महे, हिरण्यगर्भाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ओं चतुर्मुखाय विद्महे, कमण्डलु धाराय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ परमेश्वराय विद्महे, परतत्वाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।।
    3. शिव-गायत्री – ॐ तत्पुरुषाय विद्महे, महादेवाय धीमहि, तन्नो रुद्र: प्रचोदयात् ।।
    4. विष्णु-गायत्री ॐ त्रैलोक्य-मोहनाय विद्महे काम-देवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात् ।।
    5. नारायण-गायत्री – ॐ नारायणाय विद्महे वासुदेवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात्। ।।
    6. कृष्ण-गायत्री – ॐ देवकीनन्दनाय विद्महे, वासुदेवाय धीमहि, तन्न: कृष्ण: प्रचोदयात् ।।
    7. सूर्य-गायत्री – ॐ आदित्याय विद्महे मार्तण्डाय धीमहि तन्नः सूर्यः प्रचोदयात् ।।
    8. देवी-गायत्री – महादेव्यै विद्महे दुर्गायै धीमहि तन्नो देवी प्रचोदयात् ।।
    9. अन्नपूर्णा-गायत्री – ॐ भगवत्यै च विद्महे, महेश्वर्यै च धीमहि, तन्नो पूर्णा प्रचोदयात् ।।
    10. हनुमान्-गायत्री – ॐ आञ्जनेयाय विद्महे, वायुपुत्राय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ वायुपुत्राय विद्महे, रामदूताय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।।
    11. Even there is साई-गायत्री – ॐ शिरडीवासाय विद्महे सच्चिदानन्दाय धीमहि तन्नो साई प्रचोदयात् ।।
  3. Some meter can be seen to be applicable to all गायत्रीमन्त्र-s. Possibly the name of the meter itself is गायत्रीच्छन्दस्. The meter typically has three lines, each of eight letters as in एकदंताय विद्महे | वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि | तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। First line ends in विद्महे, second in धीमहि, and the third one in प्रचोदयात् ।।
    1. This गणेश-गायत्री is a part of श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् where there is a mention of the name of the meter as निचृद्-गायत्रीच्छन्दः
    2. It may also be noted that for the deity to whom the prayer is offered by the verbs विद्महे and धीमहि the case used is the fourth case संप्रदानकारकविभक्ति (चतुर्थी विभक्ति). Basic understanding of the use of this विभक्ति seems to be that the prayer is “offered”. It is for the deity to accept the prayer or not.
  4. The गायत्रीमन्त्र – ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् | is of course the most famous. It is hence known as गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः It can also be noted that its deity is God Sun. Any person of any faith should be able to derive strength and inspiration from this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः, because the deity Sun ought to be respectable, regardless of faith and hence for all.
  5. Motivation or enlightenment obtained from the deity Sun can never be untoward or unwarranted motivation. It will be the most appropriate and the most energetic motivation. This prayer seeks only such energetic motivation.
  6. The verb धीमहि is First person plural. “Let us meditate”. That pronoun “us” is very inviting, all-encompassing, universal, at all times, eternal.
  7. The reference of this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः is quoted as Rv 3-62-1. So it is from ऋग्वेद. Certainly such great, universal and eternally valid thought of Vedic philosophy will sustain and will enlighten the world anytime, anywhere. It has sustained over thousands of years and would sustain for many more thousands of years !
  8. Humanity will always need such solemn and sublime, blissful and energetic, thoughts and prayers at all times.
शुभं भवतु !

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य पञ्चदशाधिकशततमः (११५) पाठः ।
कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्
Commenting on my previous Lesson No. 113, on आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Shri. Shrinivas Tilak suggested that this quote कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् also merits a study.
It does. One common aspect in both these quotes is the word विश्व. This word in these and many other quotes in वेद-s more than establish that वेद-s always focused on Universal good. To think of वेद-s as scriptures of Hindus will hence be a narrow-minded view and will prevent universal benefit that can certainly happen from the wisdom advocated in the वेद-s .
In his extended comment Shri. Shrinivas Tilak also clarified …
कृण्वन्तो विश्वं आर्यम् occurs in Rigveda
  1. at 3:30.6 in a sukta composed by Vishvamitra. It is one of the six of his Sampat suktas. Here an appeal is made to Indra to render the entire cosmos ‘arya.’
  2. It also occurs at 9:63.5 in the Somasukta where an appeal is made to Soma to render the entire cosmos ‘Arya.’
As has been mentioned by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak the point to be dealt with is the interpretation of the word आर्य.
Since I have set the style of word-by-word analysis for posts at this blog, I should of course do that.
This quote is even shorter than the previous one. Just two words.
By पदच्छेद
कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् = कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्
So, now it becomes three words कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्.
Going into word-by-word analysis
(1) कृण्वन्तः =
  • कृ-धातुः
    • In a study of this धातु as presented at  CLICK HERE
it is noted – (अ) धातुपाठसूच्याम् -
  1. कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ ||
  2. कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७ ||
  3. कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० ||
    • Study there was limited to कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० because it was only this, which was relevant there.
    • However here, study of
      • कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ and/or of
      • कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७
      • becomes necessary, because the word here is कृण्वन्तः
    • Grammar of कृण्वन्तः is -कृञ् (कृ) धातुः | तस्मात् शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् कृण्वन् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
      • The धातुः  for कृण्वन् is कृञ्, not the धातुः डुकृञ्. because शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् from धातुः डुकृञ् is कुर्वन्, not कृण्वन्.
  • It is smartness of पाणिनि to give different name to the same धातु, when it is in another गण. By that we can clearly say कृण्वन् is from कृञ् and कुर्वन् is from डुकृञ्
  • Although धातुपाठसूची enlists the धातु as भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८, this is not so detailed in बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः
  • In Apte’s dictionary also only 5 U. and 8 U. are mentioned and meaning of 5U. conforms to कृञ् हिंसायाम् as can be seen from this image – 
  • The dilemma is
    • The meaning कृञ् हिंसायाम् does not at all fit the context of the quote under study.
    • कृञ् करणे is mentioned only in धातुपाठसूची obtained from sanskritdocuments.
    • Simple way to resolve the matter is to consider that कृण्वन्तः is Vedic usage in place of कुर्वन्तः with meaning identical to classical usage कुर्वन्तः
(2) विश्वं – विश्व is a pronoun in Sanskrit ! See in गणपाठ -
  • सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि १.१.२७
    • सर्वादि। सर्व। विश्व। उभ। उभय। डतर। डतम। अन्य। अन्यतर। इतर। त्वत्। त्व। नेम। सम। सिम।
  • विश्व being a सर्वनाम really prompts a question what is a सर्वनाम ?
    • As a compound word it can have a derivation विग्रहवाक्य – सर्वस्य नाम इति सर्वनाम (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • Here विश्वं = “विश्व” (= ) इति सर्वनाम | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे -
    • विश्व (विश्-व उणादि 1-151)
      • उणादि 1-151 अशूप्रुषिलटिकणिखटिविशिभ्यः क्वन् 
    • धातुः विश् धातुपाठसूच्याम् – विश् | तु० अनिट् प० | विश प्रवेशने ६. १६०
(3) आर्यम् -
  • Etymology given in Apte’s dictionary is ऋ-ण्यत्
    • So, it is from धातुः ऋ.
    • ण्यत् (य) = a termination प्रत्यय of potential passive participle as in कार्य, हास्य
  • धातुः ऋ, धातुपाठसूच्याम् -
    • ऋ | भ्वा० अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६ ||
    • ऋ | जु० अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ]३. १७ ||
    • ऋ | स्वा० सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके]५. ३८ |
  • बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् – (१) तत्र धातुकोशे -
      • Interesting to note – अर्यः स्वामिवैश्ययोः | आर्यो ब्राह्मणः |
    • (२) धातुरूपावल्याम् -
    • Here also see  -
      • footnote for अर्यः १० स्वामी वैश्यो वा
      • footnote for आर्यः ११ स्वामिवैश्याभ्यामन्यत्र
  • Basically अर्य / आर्य is from धातुः ऋ and is similar to कार्य from कृ.
  • धातुः ऋ and आर्य are detailed in Apte’s dictionary as follows -
With all above details simple word by word meaning of कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् becomes -
कृण्वन्तः = those, making
विश्वं = the whole world
आर्यम् = noble
कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् = those, making the whole world noble
The phrase does not have an explicit subject and predicate.
Considering the context explained by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak, as a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively, subject and predicate become explicit by adding भवन्तु
Note -
भवन्तु = भू इति धातुः | तस्य आज्ञार्थे (लोटि) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
भवन्तु is प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्.
For this verb, there are options for कर्तृपदं as – ते, ताः, तानि and भवन्तः.
  • ते, ताः, तानि = They
  • भवन्तः = You (plural of respectful second person masculine pronoun भवान्)
Being a prayer, the कर्तृपदं should be भवन्तः = You
भवन्तु = May you be
भवन्तः i.e. इन्द्र or सोम connote the Supreme Powers. By कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् we pray to them “… May you be those, making the whole world noble ..”.
When reading the quote independently, there can be another option to make the subject and predicate explicit by adding भवेम (= Let us all be)
Note -
भवेम = भू इति धातुः | तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
अन्वयः – विश्वं आर्यम् कृण्वन्तः भवेम
भवेम is already उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्. Hence कर्तृपदं is वयम् only.
With this, the meaning of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् becomes “… Lets us all be those, making the whole world noble ..”.
The basic concept is of whole world noble विश्वमार्यम् ! means nothing ignoble, no negativity of any type, any time, anywhere !
Whole world noble, has to of course include oneself and include everyone else, even every other being.
  • Hindu Gods and Goddesses have been caricatured to be congenial to all sorts of creatures, even venomous cobra, worn around the neck by शिव, The gigantic serpent शेष being the couch for विष्णु. Mouse a rodent being the carrier of गणेश, Maybe, this is all symbolism. If it is symbolism, all the more the reason to delve deeper and understand the meaningfulness of all this symbolism.
विश्वमार्यम् means no negativity. Negativity of human character has been delineated, with mention six enemies षड्रिपु-s, which make the character negative – काम, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, मद, मत्सर
काम = desire
क्रोध = anger
लोभ = greed
मोह = distraction, fallibility
मद = ego
मत्सर = jealousy
For विश्वमार्यम् to come true, cleansing of character has to begin with oneself !
The word आर्य has been associated also with the Aryan tribe or race, which is said to have descended from the Arctic region and spread around the world, one stream moving into Europe, another into Arabian Gulf and yet another into Indian subcontinent across the हिन्दुकुश ranges.
  • Lokmanya Tilak is said to have concluded it to be so, in his book Orion or Arctic Home in the Vedas
  • Based on similar hypothesis, Adolf Hitler is said to have adopted स्वस्तिक (unfortunately in anticlockwise direction) on the shoulders of his military uniform.
  • I think, Shah of Iran, who was made to flee Iran, had, in the long array of his regal titles, one title as आर्यमिहिर
But such meaning of आर्य, being the name of a tribe or race, does not fit to the context of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्, being a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively.
One must go by the nobler meaning, obtaining from grammar and etymology, that आर्य is ऋ-ण्यत् an adjective derived from ऋ and meaning noble.
शुभं भवतु |

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुर्दशाधिकशततमः (११४) पाठः ।
There is a verse to be studied in this lesson also. But before coming to the verse, let me give a background. I was led to it by a statement in the “Introduction” paragraph in a book.
I came across a book by श्रीशङ्करशास्त्री मारुलकर basically a commentary on श्रीकौण्डभट्टविरचितः वैयाकरणभूषणसारः (published by आनन्दाश्रम, Pune, 1957)
In the “Introduction”, the author makes a statement प्रतिपाद्यविषयदृष्ट्या व्याकरणग्रन्थाः द्विधा विभज्यन्ते शब्दग्रन्थाः अर्थग्रन्थाश्च suggesting that works on grammar can be classified into two types according to the theme or focus of delineation -
  1. शब्दग्रन्थाः = those dealing in linguistics, phonetics, philology, etymology, formation of words, &c.
    1. पाणिनि’s अष्टाध्यायी is eminently of this type
  2. अर्थग्रन्थाः = those dealing in meanings and interpretations
    1. पाणिनि’s धातुपाठः, पाणिनिशिक्षा is better considered of this type, since it gives meanings of धातु-s also. However
      1. धातूनां गणशः प्रस्तुतीकरणम् Listing of धातु-s by their गण, includes the विकरण-aspect, which has, at its basis, the concept of formation of words
    2. All commentaries on अष्टाध्यायी are interpretative in their spirit. So, they are अर्थग्रन्थाः. These would include
      1. व्याकरणमहाभाष्य of पातञ्जलि
      2. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी of भट्टोजी दीक्षित
    3. Dictionaries शब्दकोशाः are basically interpretative, but do touch upon
      1. details of etymology,
        1. the word-formation aspect, giving typical forms in लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्, क्त-कृदन्तम्, णिचि &c
      2. meanings with different prefixes उपसर्गैः
      3. meanings of different compound words सामासिकाः
      4. निघण्टु, अमरकोशः are more thesaurus’ than dictionaries, are primarily interpretative but, with the declaration in अमरकोश, of the intent of the composition, as नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् “unto the discipline of nouns and their genders”. Obviously, there is very much, such शब्द concept also.
The “introduction” begins with a श्लोक, selected from कालिदास’s रघुवंशम् The श्लोक is basically an invocation, but fits well, being significant and relevant to the above statement regarding two – शब्द and अर्थ – approaches of works of grammar. The श्लोक is -
वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये |
जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||
By पदच्छेद-s
वाक्-अर्थौ इव संपृक्तौ वाक्-अर्थ-प्रतिपत्तये |
जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||
विश्लेषणम् of grammar and meanings of words in this श्लोक.
(1) वागर्थौ = वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |
वाक् = वाच् (speech, formation of words) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम |
  - तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
वाच् (वच्-क्विप् दीर्घोऽसंप्रसारणं च)
  वच्-क्विप् = a feminine noun derived from धातुः वच्
अर्थः = अर्थ (meaning, purpose, intent) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम |
(2) इव (= ) इति अव्ययम् |
(3) संपृक्तौ = सं + पृच् इति धातुः | तस्य रुधादेः (7 प) क्त-कृदन्तम् पृक्त |
    रु० सेट् प० | पृची सम्पर्के (पृच् = to unite) ७. २५ |
    संपृक्त (= intimately united) इति विशेषणम् |
 - अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |
(4) वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये =
वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |
तयोः प्रतिपत्तिः वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |
प्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge
वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge of words and their meanings
तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
(5) जगतः – जगत् (= world, universe) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम |
तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
(6) पितरौ – माता च पिता च इति पितरौ | एकशेषद्वंद्वः |
पितरौ = parents
अत्र द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |
(7) वन्दे – वन्द् इति धातुः | भ्वा० (१) सेट् आ० |
वदि अभिवादनस्तुत्योः | वन्द् = to pay obeisance, to pray, to eulogize, to pay obeisance and pray
    तस्य वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |
(8) पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ – पार्वती च परमेश्वरः च इति पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ | इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः |
    पार्वती – पर्वतस्य इयं इति पार्वती |
      - पर्वतः अचलः, पार्वती = अचला, निश्चितार्था
 - निश्चितार्था – she had three incarnations. In all three incarnations   she preferred शिव to be her concert.
    परमेश्वरः – परमः ईश्वरः इति परमेश्वरः | कर्मधारयः |
       - परमः – परम-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा वि, एकवचनं च |
         - परम (परं परत्वं माति क)
        परम = परतम ?
        परम = The best, nothing better than this,
          पर → परतर → परतम (परम)
मत्तः परतरं नान्यत् किञ्चिदस्ति धनञ्जय (गीता 7-7)
          पर = the other, different म = not
 परम = one, that is not different (from oneself)
       - ईश्वरः – ईशानां (ईषाणां) वरः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |
        ईशानाम् (ईषाणां) -
          - ईश = ईश्-क | ईश्-धातुतः विशेषणम् | प्रायः पुंल्लिङ्गि नामापि |
 - तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
 - ईश् अ० (२) सेट् आ० | ईश ऐश्वर्ये ईश् = to be glorious, to command
 - ईशः = one who commands gloriously
वरः – वर इति विशेषणम् |
 - वर (वृ कर्मणि अप्) | वृ-धातुतः कर्मणिप्रयोगान्वितं विशेषणम् |
 - वर = preferable, outstanding, excellent
  - ईश्वरः = Excellent among ईश-s
  - परमेश्वरः = Supreme ईश्वर
Dr. Avinash Sathaye sent in a comment -
There is a well known alternate derivation of पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ
पार्वतीप-रमेश्वरौ and here पितरौ becomes पिता च पिता. … I think this was suggested by the famous मल्लीनाथ.
For पार्वतीप-रमेश्वरौ the विश्लेषणम् would be -
पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ = पार्वतीपः च रमेश्वरः च इति पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ | इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः |
पार्वतीपः = Here प is उपपदम् As in the word गोपः (= cowherd), उपपदम् प stands for पालकः (पालयति protects, takes care of)
    पार्वतीपः = पार्वत्याः पालकः इति पार्वतीपः | उपपद-तत्पुरुषः |
रमेश्वरः = रमायाः ईश्वरः इति रमेश्वरः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |
    रमा = विष्णुपत्नी
Thus one can say that by पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वन्दे Kalidasa pays obeisance to both शिव and विष्णु. There is a concept of two bifurcations in Hinduism वैष्णव-s and शैव-s, (in South India अय्यर-s अय्यंगार-s). To my mind that is simple immaturity. There are any number of स्तोत्र-s, in which there is respectful mention of both शिव and विष्णु. In श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् – त्वं ब्रह्मा त्वं विष्णुस्त्वं रुद्रस् … | At the pinnacle of spiritual attainment, it is all one, maybe, only self-realization !
By paraphrasing अन्वयेन -
(अहं) वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ जगतः पितरौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये वन्दे |
I pay obeisances to and pray
the duet of Supreme ईश्वर and पार्वती (who connotes epitome of steadfastness),
who are also parents of this world (and the universe),
who are as intimately united as words and intents are,
for right knowledge of words to convey only the right intents.
टिप्पण्यः Notes -
(1) Hinduism has number of Gods and Goddesses. It is poetic charm of Kalidasa to have chosen पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ for paying obeisance to, in this verse. He wants to plead for वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये. Between वाक् and अर्थ, वाक् is feminine, अर्थ is masculine. Between पार्वती and परमेश्वर, पार्वती is feminine, परमेश्वर is masculine.
(2) पार्वती and परमेश्वर are never two. अर्धनारीनटेश्वर form of शिव is the most charming, most enchanting form. In this form पार्वती and परमेश्वर are संपृक्तौ intimately united.
(3) वाक् and अर्थ also are possibly never two. One may think that वाक् is the manifestation of अर्थ. But Indian philosophy is very clear that वाक् has four stages or four options of manifestation – परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी. The अर्थ aspect, the aspect of intent or thought is implicit in all the four options of its manifestation as वाक्. So, between वाक् and अर्थ, there is no question of which comes occurs first. They are संपृक्तौ intimately united. It is only such deep perception, which can explain Kalidasa saying वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ.
(4) This brings to mind another famous quote, that of भवभूती in उत्तररामचरितम्
लौकिकानां हि साधूनामर्थं वागनुवर्तते ।
ऋषीणां पुनराद्यानां वाचमर्थोऽनुधावति ॥१-१०॥
It is said that रामायणम् as composed by वाल्मिकी had such compulsive force of idealism, that God thought it fit to incarnate and enact, lend अर्थः, bring meaningfulness, give manifestation to, not to leave it to be regarded as a fiction or fancy to  वाच् of वाल्मिकी, composed by him in his रामायणम्.
(5) Kalidasa’s invocation was to seek वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः i.e. right knowledge of words and their meanings. Words can have different meanings. The meaning can become different even by change in accent. No poet would like meanings to become widely distorted from his own intent. But Kalidasa was well aware, पिण्डे पिण्डे मतिर्भिन्ना “Many people, many minds”. No poet or author has any control on different interpretations by different people. The best option was to pray to the Supreme, that may there be no distortions.
(6) संपृक्तौ वागर्थौ brings to mind a सुभाषितम् -
यथा चित्तं तथा वाचो यथा वाचस्तथा क्रियाः ।
चित्ते वाचि क्रियायाञ्च साधूनामेकरूपता ॥
Unity in thoughts, words and deeds is the hallmark of gentlemen. That can be so, only when वाक् and अर्थ are संपृक्त
(7) What deep philosophical thought and also practical wisdom are presented even in an invocation !
शुभं भवतु !

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रयोदशाधिकशततमः (११३) पाठः ।
आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः
Considering its length and number of words, this is the shortest quote I am putting forth. But some interesting background about the prompt to take this up.
I reached my daughter’s new place yesterday night. She told me, “internet will be installed tomorrow.”
I slept over digesting that ! And got this prompt to present this study of आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः
Readers may wonder what the connection is between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)
I hope this study will bring forth that.
Before going into the study, let me also appraise that I came to first read the quotation some 55+ years back, when in the public library at our hometown, I used to read Bhavan’s Journal. I read the quote on the cover page itself, since Bhavan’s Journal is published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan and this quote is adopted by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan as its guiding quote. Bhavan’s English translation of the quote is also given alongside आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.
Frankly, one reason, why this quote has stayed put in my mind for all these years, is also that I am intrigued by this translation. That is also another reason for this study.
आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः = आ नः भद्राः क्रतवः यन्तु विश्वतः |
I am intrigued because of a few questions -
First question -
the verb is यन्तु  - How come then translation mentions “may come” ?
Inquiring on this, I am told that the verb to be considered is आयन्तु. I am told that in Vedic texts one would often find the उपसर्ग (here आ) separated from the verb and put at the beginning of the sentence.
But I do not think that doing so is to be taken as a rule. It may be an option. Then we have two options to analyze for the verb – यन्तु and आयन्तु
Second question -
Does not interpretation of विश्वतः become different, depending upon the verb being यन्तु or आयन्तु and are not both interpretations valid ?
Third question -
Is grammar of नः to be taken as second case plural or sixth case plural and again are not both interpretations valid ?
As can be appreciated, all the three questions are not just questions of grammar but also of the syntax and then the interpretations. Two syntaxes seem possible.
  1. भद्राः क्रतवः नः विश्वतः आयन्तु = Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.
  2. आ ! नः भद्राः क्रतवः विश्वतः यन्तु = Let our noble thoughts spread across the universe.
May I tabulate a comparative study of these two optional interpretations -
Sr. No.
Interpretation of
In Option 1
In Option 2
prefix of verb यन्तु hence verb is to be taken as आयन्तु
An invocation at the beginning
An indeclinable
= to us,
second or fourth case plural of pronoun अस्मद्
= our,
sixth case plural of pronoun अस्मद्
The verb is आयन्तु, but the prefix आ is separated and taken to the beginning of the sentence
आयन्तु = may come
The verb is यन्तु = may go to, may  spread
= from all sides
suffix तः = from (fifth case)
= across the universe
suffix तः = unto, at (seventh case)
Study of Grammar and meaning of आ and of suffix तः merit detailing.
From details obtaining in Apte’s dictionary as below, आ is both
  1. an independent word,
    1. an indeclinable स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (पाणिनि १।१।३६) and
    2. From the different meanings given, meaning of ‘आ = verily’ appeals to me very much. This meaning fits beautifully as invocation at the beginning of a ऋच् of ऋग्वेद
  2. a prefix – In उपसर्गवृत्तिः posted at संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् as many as 27 different meanings are given for prefix आ
In काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar आ is detailed as follows -
Suffix तः also has different meanings, primarily from different cases inherent in its usages -
  1. fifth case, ‘from’ e.g. ग्रामतः आगतः (= came from town)
  2. third case, ‘with’ or ‘by’ e.g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते = वृत्तेन न व्यथते = is not disturbed by the news.
  3. sixth, ‘of’ e,g. देवाः अर्जुनतः अभवन् = देवाः अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् = Gods came to the side of Arjuna or
  4. seventh case ‘at, in” e.g. अग्रतः तिष्ठ = stand in front
Meaning of तः is detailed in काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar as follows -
Notes टिप्पण्यः -
  1. By above analysis, both the interpretations seem to be valid.
  2. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (= Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides), one can appreciate that
    1. Rigvedic thoughts of course advocate open-mindedness to all noble thoughts from anywhere
    2. Internet can obtain to us thoughts from all over the world, from all times, whatever will keep on getting recorded on the internet.
  3. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (= May our noble thoughts spread across the universe), one can appreciate that
    1. Rigvedic thoughts promote universal good, benevolence for all.
    2. By grammar whether यन्तु or आयन्तु are forms in Imperative mood, an order. So, it must not be wishful thinking that “our noble thoughts “may” spread across. Imperative mood is आज्ञार्थ an order
      1. If you have good thoughts, you must not keep them to yourself. You must spread the good word.
      2. Every good word is a gospel. The person who got the good thought in his mind has no ownership or authority to it and has no business to keep it to oneself. He must lend expression to it.
    3. Internet affords to us the facility to upload and share good thoughts and knowledge, not only during the lifetime, but for the benefit of future generations as well.
I guess this study does bring forth a positive connection between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)
शुभं भवतु |

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वादशाधिकशततमः (११२) पाठः ।
There are many verses eulogizing गीता. They are often found in books of गीता as a compilation, popularly known as गीतामाहात्म्यम्. One verse, which has great poetic beauty is -
पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् |
नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |
लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |
भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||
पदच्छेदान् कृत्वा -
पाराशर्य-वचः सरोजम् अमलं गीता-अर्थ-गन्ध-उत्कटम् |
नाना-आख्यानक-केसरं हरि-कथा-संबोधन-आबोधितम् |
लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहः-अहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |
भूयात् भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||
The split-up of संधि-s, both explicit and also those implicit in compound words are shown above. We can now study all the words, deciphering also the compound words.
  1. पाराशर्यवचः = पाराशर्यम् वचः (कर्मधारयः)
    1. पाराशर्यम् = पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् | नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      1. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः = son of पराशर, hence पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः
      2. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः (तद्धितं नाम) |
      3. पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् (तद्धितनाम्नः अन्यत्तद्धितम्) |
    2. वचः = वचस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    3. पाराशर्यवचः = (this) वचः speech of पाराशर i.e. of व्यासमुनिः
  2. सरोजम् = lotus
  3. अमलम् =
    1. न मलः यस्य (अथवा यस्मिन्) तत् – (नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः)
    2. मलः dirt, dust, blemish
    3. अमलम् = having no blemish
  4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् =
    1. गीतार्थः
      1. गीतायाः अर्थः → (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) अथवा
      2. गीतायां अर्थः अथवा
      3. गीता एव अर्थः → गीतार्थः (कर्मधारयः)
      4. गीतार्थः = meaningfulness contained in गीता or meaningfulness derived from गीता or meaningfulness by virtue of having been contained in गीता
    2. गीतार्थस्य गन्धः → गीतार्थगन्धः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
      1. गीतार्थगन्धः = fragrance of गीतार्थ
    3. गीतार्थगन्धेन उत्कटम् → गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
      1. उत्कटम् = overwhelming
    4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ.
  5. नानाख्यानककेसरम् =
    1. आख्यानकं एव केसरं → आख्यानककेसरम् (कर्मधारयः)
    2. नाना आख्यानककेसराणि यस्य तत् (बहुव्रीहिः) → नानाख्यानककेसरम्
    3. आख्यानकम् = आ + ख्या इति धातुः | तस्मात् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “आख्यान” |
      1. तस्य प्रियं च लघुत्वम् च “आख्यानकम्” |
      2. आख्यानम् → आख्यानकम् (तद्धितम्)
      3. आख्यानकम् = short story, episode, story within a story
    4. केसरम् (पुष्पस्य) = filament of a flower
    5. नाना – विशेषणात्मकं बहुवचनात्मकं तथापि अव्ययम् | नाना = many, innumerable
    6. नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having many innumerable episodes, which are like the innumerable filaments in a (lotus) flower
  6. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् =
    1. हरेः कथा इति हरिकथा | अथवा हरिणा कथा इति हरिकथा |
    2. हरिकथा च (तेन) संबोधनं च → हरिकथासंबोधनम् (समाहारद्वन्द्वः)
      1. हरिकथासंबोधनम् = story (biography) of हरि and also his advice
    3. हरिकथासंबोधनेन आबोधितम् = हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्
      1. आबोधितम् = made vibrant, excited, exciting
    4. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice
  7. लोके = जगति = in the world
  8. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः =
    1. षट् पदानि यस्य सः षट्पदः (बहुव्रीहिः) = भृङ्गः = honeybee
    2. सज्जनः एव षट्पदः सज्जनषट्पदः (कर्मधारयः)
    3. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees
  9. अहरहः अहनि अहनि इति अहरहः (अव्ययीभावः) | अहरहः = day after day
  10. पेपीयमानम् -
    1. “पा” इति धातुः – पा (पिबति to drink)|
    2. तस्मात् कर्मणिप्रयोगे “पीयते” (= is drunk) |
    3. तस्मात् यङि (frequentative) “पेपीयते” |
    4. तस्य शानच्-कृदन्तं “पेपीयमान” |
    5. पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively
  11. मुदा =
    1. मुद् इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – मुद् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | मुद हर्षे १. १६
    2. मुद् इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम अपि | मुदा = तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    3. मुदा = हर्षेण, सहर्षम् = with joy, joyously
  12. भूयात् -
    1. भू इति धातुः |
    2. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – भू | भ्वा० सेट् प० | भू सत्तायाम् १. १
    3. तस्य विध्यर्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |
    4. भूयात् = may it be
  13. भारत-पंकजं
    1. भारतं एव पंकजम् → भारतपंकजम् (कर्मधारयः)
    2. पङ्के जायते इति पङ्कजम् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) = born in mud, lotus
    3. भारतम् इति महाभारतम् |
    4. भारतपङ्कजम् = this महाभारतम्, which is a lotus itself
  14. कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि
    1. कलेः मलः इति कलिमलः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) = dirt of कलि
    2. कलिमलस्य प्रध्वंसि इति कलिमलप्रध्वंसि (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    3. प्रध्वंसि – “प्र + ध्वंस्” इति धातुः |
      1. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – ध्वंस् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | ध्वंसु- [अवस्रंसने]| ध्वंसु गतौ च १. ८५८
      2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “प्रध्वंसिन्” | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      3. प्रध्वंसि = remover
    4. कलिमलप्रध्वंसि = remover of dirt of कलि
  1. नः – “अस्मद्” सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च | नः = our
  2. श्रेयसे -
    1. “श्रि” इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – श्रि | भ्वा० सेट् उ० | श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४
    2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “श्रेयस्” | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम अपि श्रेयस् = serviceable, useful, for good, beneficial|
    3. श्रेयसे – श्रेयस् → चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च = for our benefit
Having deciphered meaning of all words, my father always advised that deciphering the meaning of the sentence or of clauses and sub-clauses should start by first analyzing the sentence(s), also the clauses and sub-clauses. The clauses and sub-clauses have either a verb क्रियापदम् or a verbal derivative धातुसाधितम् .
Here there is one clear क्रियापदम् verb – भूयात्
The subject-word कर्तृपदम् can be deciphered by asking question to the verb
कः/का/किम् भूयात् ? भारत-पंकजं भूयात् |
भूयात् is an intransitive verb. So, we do not have to decipher the कर्मपदम् object-word.
Then we can ask questions – How कथम्, when कदा, why किमर्थम्, where कुत्र.
भारत-पंकजं कथं भूयात् ? – भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |
किमर्थं भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् ? – नः श्रेयसे भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |
This covers and puts into syntax all the words in the last line.
Since we located a verb-word भूयात् in the fourth line, we did the syntax of the fourth line.
Now going upwards to the third line पेपीयमानम् (= being drunk repetitively) is
  • a verbal derivative and has passive voice inbuilt.
  • So the subject of this verbal derivative ought to be with “with” or “by”.
  • पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively → by whom ? सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees
  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, when ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कदा ? अहरहः = day after day
  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, how ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कथम् ? मुदा = joyously
  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, where ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कुत्र ? लोके = in the world.
This brings the third line into syntax -
Being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्
This is an adjectival phrase. Which noun does it qualify ? सरोजम् lotus.
Which lotus ? पाराशर्यवचः the speech of पाराशर
The other words and phrases in the first two lines are also adjectival of the सरोजम् lotus.
  • अमलम् = blemishless
  • गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ
  • नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower
  • हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice
First three lines having so many adjectival words and phrases do not have an explicit verb. The most common implicit verb is “is अस्ति / भवति”
The syntax can then be -
लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्
गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम्, नानाख्यानककेसरम्, हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्, अमलम् सरोजम् अस्ति / भवति |
The speech of पाराशर is a blemish-less lotus, (nectar of) which,
- is being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees,
- is overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ,
- is having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower,
- is, what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice !
To analyze the meter -
पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् | (१९ अक्षराणि)
(२-२-२)-(१-१-२) (१-२-१)-(१-१-२) (२-२-१)-(२-२-१)-२ इति मात्राः ।
म, स, ज, स, त, त, ग इति गणाः
नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |
लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |
भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||
अत्र शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम् |
अस्य लक्षणपदम् – सूर्याश्वैर्यदि मः सजौ सततगाः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् |
Notes टिप्पण्यः -
  1. The poetic beauty of the verse is obvious, right ?
    1. The poetic beauty is not just from the metrical discipline शब्दालङ्कार of शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम्  but
      1. The choice of the meter is also intelligent. शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम् has as many 19 letters in each line. It becomes an expansive meter.
      2. Eulogy should be expansive, right ?
    2. Possibly, poetic beauty is more charming due to the रूपक-अर्थालङ्कार use of ‘metaphor’ figure of speech.
      1. There is metaphor in महाभारतम् as the lotus
      2. also in calling the episodes as filaments of a lotus and
      3. in calling the readers, the gentlemen as honey-bees
      4. and in calling the reading of महाभारतम् as drinking the nectar, as by the honey-bees !
  2. In अहरहः पेपीयमानम् there is both repetitiveness, day after day, and also frequentative action. So the action “to drink” is not just day after day (once in a day), but frequentative, even in a day !
  3. Mention is of ‘speech of  पाराशर’. पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः composed it, narrated it, but got it written by श्रीगणेशः. As far as पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः is concerned, his was वचः only.
  4. Although it was mentioned in the beginning that the verse is found in verses eulogizing गीता, it is not just about गीता. It speaks about the entire महाभारतम्, especially by virtue of mention of नानाख्यानककेसरम्.
  5. The lotus, being itself blemish-less, can remove dirt from us also !
शुभं भवतु |

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 111

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 111
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकादशाधिकशततमः (११) पाठः ।
In the previous lesson, mention was made of another सुभाषितम् which is a conversation between शिव and पार्वती and starts with कस्त्वं. The सुभाषितम् is as follows -
कस्त्वं शूली मृगय भिषजं नीलकण्ठः प्रियेऽहं
केकामेकां वद, पशुपतिर्नैवदृश्ये विषाणे ।
मुग्धे स्थाणुः, स चरति कथं, जीवितेशः शिवाया
गच्छाटव्यामिति हतवचाः पातु वश्चन्द्रचूडः ।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा –
कः त्वं शूली मृगय भिषजं नीलकण्ठः प्रिये अहं
केकाम् एकां वद, पशुपतिः न एव दृश्ये विषाणे ।
मुग्धे स्थाणुः, सः चरति कथं, जीवितेशः शिवायाः
गच्छ अटव्याम् इति हतवचाः पातु वः चन्द्रचूडः ।।
अन्वयेन -
  1. (पार्वती पृच्छति) कः त्वं ? (शिवः उत्तरति) (अहं) शूली (अस्मि) ।
    • पार्वती asks, “Who is that ?” Shiva replies, “I am शूली”.
      • This word शूली has two meanings -
        1. शूली = one who carries शूल, the trident
        2. शूली = one suffering from pain, typically headache
  2. (पार्वती सूचयति) मृगय भिषजं Taking the second meaning of शूली, Parvati suggests, “Go, find a doctor”.
    • मृगय – “मृग्” इति चुरादि (10) आत्मनेपदी धातुः । मृग अन्वेषणे (मृग् = to find, to hunt for)। तस्य लोट्-आज्ञार्थे मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
    • भिषजम् – “भिषज्” (= a physician, a doctor) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  3. (शिवः स्मारयति) प्रिये अहं नीलकण्ठः (अस्मि) । – Shiva reminds, “Oh dear ! I am नीलकण्ठः
    • नीलकण्ठः grammatically means ‘one whose neck is blue’. This again lends two interpretations.
      1. Shiva is known as नीलकण्ठः, because his neck turned blue after consuming the poison, which came out during the churning of the ocean by Gods and demons.
      2. नीलकण्ठः becomes an apt adjective for a peacock
  4. (पार्वती सूचयति) एकां केकाम् वद – Taking the second meaning, Parvati suggests, “Can you please demonstrate one note of the peacock ?’ The note emitted by a peacock is called as केका.
  5. (शिवः स्मारयति) (अहं) पशुपतिः (अस्मि) । – Shiva then reminds, “I am पशुपति”
    • पशुपतिः also has two connotations
      1. Shiva is पशुपति, because he is considered to be the lord of all animal-world
      2. पशुपति also refers to the supreme among four-legged animals, especially as नंदी carrier of Shiva
  6. .(पार्वती आलोचनं करोति) विषाणे दृश्ये न एव । -
    • Considering the second meaning, Parvati observes, “How come I do not see horns (on you) ?”
    • Literally, विषाणे दृश्ये न एव = Horns are not in sight at all.
      • दृश्ये – “दृश्” इति भ्वादि (1) परस्मैपदी धातुः । दृशिर् प्रेक्षणे (दृश् = to see) । तस्मात् नपुम्सकलिङ्गि नाम दृश्य (= sight, what is in sight) । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
  7. (शिवः स्मारयति) मुग्धे (अहं) स्थाणुः (अस्मि) । -
    • Shiva wonders, “Why is she so confused ?” and reminds saying, “I am स्थाणुः”. But स्थाणुः again has different meanings, two popular ones being
      1. स्थाणु is an epithet of Shiva
      2. स्थाणुः means something, which is rock-solid, a pillar
    • मुग्धे – “मुह्” इति दिवादि (4) तथा रधादि (7) परस्मैपदी धातुः । मुह वैचित्ये (मुह् = to be confused) । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गी गि “मुग्धा” (= one, who is confused) । तस्य संबोधनप्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च
  8. (पार्वती आलोचनं करोति) सः चरति कथं ?
    • Taking the second meaning, Parvati asks, “How then are you moving about ?”
  9. (शिवः स्मारयति) (अहं) शिवायाः जीवितेशः (अस्मि) ।
    • Shiva almost gives out his own name, saying, “I am the very life of शिवा”. But शिवा still has different meanings -
      1. शिवा means Parvati, the spouse of शिव.
      2. शिवा also means a jackal in general, the Sami tree, yellow grass, etc.
  10. (पार्वती सूचयति) अटव्याम् गच्छ
    • Taking the meaning of शिवा as jackal, Parvati suggests, “Go to the jungle”.
  11. इति हतवचाः चन्द्रचूडः वः पातु । – May the Lord चन्द्रचूडः (= who wears the moon on his head), so defeated in the debate, (yet) protect us !!
Notes -
  1. Even when the poet is narrating how Shiva was defeated in the debate by Parvati, finally he prays for protection by Shiva, This seems to be in a vein that the poet as a devotee would consider himself to be a friend of the Godhood and would have the liberty to narrate a funny incident that happened with his friend. Friendship is considered to be one of nine ways of doing devotion to God. Even in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता अर्जुन pleads, सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तं हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति (See 11-41)
  2. The meter of this verse is मन्दाक्रान्ता
    • There are 17 syllables in each quarter
    • लक्षणपदम् –  मन्दाक्रान्तांबुधिरसनगैर्मो भनौ तौ गयुग्मम्. Hence गण-s are म, भ, न, त, त, ग, ग.
  3. The verse is beautiful specimen of poetry, focusing on alternate meanings of words.
    • In Shiva calling Parvati as मुग्धें, the poet has resorted to the figure of speech of irony विरोधाभास. It is not Parvati, who is confused. She is provoking Shiva to declare in unambiguous words, who He is.
  4. It is also a good example of a rule in effective communication, that communication should employ words which have clarity of meaning.
  5. By getting Shiva to state, who He is, in so many ways, the poet has also presented various facets of Shiva’s caricature.
  6. All in all, the verse is a good, highly enjoyable specimen of Sanskrit poetry.
  7. This verse also underscores a good precept that Goddesses are also as intelligent and smart as the Gods, if not smarter. Intelligence has no gender-bias. Rightly hence is the diktat in मनुस्मृति – यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः । Gods enjoy and bless the place, where women are respected.
शुभमस्तु ।