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Monday, May 18, 2015
Sri Narayana Panditacharya’s ‘Mani Manjari’
Sri Narayana Panditacharya’s ‘Mani Manjari’ is a work of 301 slokas divided into eight chapters. Traditionally, it is the first text taught to Madhvas. It is among the three works on Sri Madhvacharya – Sri Hari Vayustuti and Sri Sumadhva Vijaya, being the other two – that has had a long tradition of being recited with devotion among orthodox Madhva circles. According to Dr. BNK Sharma, it is an essential prologue to Sri Sumadhva Vijaya. In the collection of essays on Sri Sumadhva Vijaya by Sixteen Eminent Scholars, released in Srirangam in late sixties, Sri Narayana Panditacharya is mentioned as amsha of Sri Subramanya, though no pramanas are given.
The first two chapters deal with Creation and Ramayana. The third and fourth chapter deal with Krishnavatara. The fifth chapter deals with ascent of Buddhism and early days of Advaita. The sixth chapter deals with the birth of Adi Sankara and his early activities. The seventh chapter deals with consolidation of Advaita and the demise of Adi Sankara. The eight chapter deals with the torture of Tattvavadins (before Sri Madhvacharya) by Advaitins and the work closes with birth of Sri Madhva. At the end, Sri Narayana Panditacharya mentions in the end that he has devoted a separate work – his masterpiece – on the life of Sri Madhvacharya.
Sri Mani Manjari of Sri Narayana Panditacharya
Atah Pratamah Sargaha
Vande Govindamaananda Jnanadeham patim sriyam
Srimad anandatirtharya vallabham paramaksharam
I bow to Govinda (1) whose Svarupa is Divine bliss and Knowledge (2), Consort of Lakshmi and the Lord of Srimadanandatirtha and who is Supreme and indestructible in any sense (3).
1. Govinda – Govinda is not merely a name as is in our case; but it means that he is “Veda Pratipadya” – all the Vedas without any exception proclaim His auspicious attributes.
2. There is no difference between whatsoever between His ‘Svarupa’ (Atma)-(Guni) and His auspicious attributes (Guna) like bliss and knowledge.
3. Destruction is four fold – ie. Loss of Very ‘Svarupa’, Loss of eternal body, Sorrowfulness and Imperfection. The Lord is devoid of all these flaws.
Sasarja Bhaghavavnadau tringunam prakruteh parah
Mahatattvam tato vishnuh srustavan brahmapastunum
First, Bhagavan created three gunas (Sattva, Rajas, Tamas) from Jada prakriti (4). From them, Bhagavan Vishnu created Mahatattva, which is the body (5) of Virinchi (Chaturmukha Brahma).
4. ‘Jada Prakriti’ or ‘Mula prakriti’ (Material cause of the world) is not created in the true sense. It is beginingless and endless (anaadi nitya).
5. Body of Virinchi means, the Mahatattva is patronised by him is Virinchi is the Patron deity for ‘Mahatattva’ (Abhimani Devata).
Mahattattvadahankaram sasarja siva vigraham
Daivandehanmana h khani kham ca sa trividhattatah
From Mahatattva, Bhagavan Narayana created Ahamkara tattva, the body of Siva (ie. Siva is the patron deity for Ahamkara Tattva). From this three – fold ahamkara tattva, He created the bodies of all deities (Devatas), Mind (Manas), Sense organs (Indriyas) and Space (Bhutakasha).
Akasadasrujadvaayum vayostejo vyajijanat
Tejasah salilam tasmatprithivimasrujadavibhunah
Omnipotent Narayana created air (Vayu) from space, heat from air, water (Salila) from heat (Tejas), Earth (Prithvi) from water.
Tatah kutasthasthamasrujadvidhim brahmandavigraham
tasminstu Bhagavan bhuyo bhuvanani chaturdasa Tatah kutastha
From the above twenty four tattvas, Bhagavan created Chaturmukha Brahma, who is the patron deity for the whole universe (Brahmanda), consisting of seven upper and seven lower worlds.
A brief account of creation by God is given in the above stanzas. It is elaborated further below:
Before creation, Bhagavan Narayana was lying on a diving banyan leaf in the midst of ‘Pralayadaka’ (Water) – the other form of Goddess Laksmi. She took another form by name ‘Arubhrani’ and prayed Lord that the world may be created. On her request, the Almighty Narayana manifested Himself in various forms – Vasudeva etc (5 forms), Matsya etc (10 forms), Kesava etc (24 forms), Visva etc (1000 forms) and unlimited forms (Ananta rupas). This is called ‘Atma Sristi’. All these forms are fully identical in all respects and there is no iota of difference whatsoever. Similarly, His consort Ramaa takes equal number of forms to serve her husband in those forms. This is ‘Lakshmi Sristi’. Then, Bhagavan created three ‘Gunas’ – Sattva, Rajasa and Tamasa from the original prakriti, which is beginingless and eternal and patronised by Lakshmi. These three matters are mixed in uneven proportions making them fit for further transformations. This is ‘gunatraya’ sristi. With one percent of tamas, twelve percent of rajas, and rest sattva, He created ‘mahatattva’ the body of Virinchi. Although Rajas and Tamas are present in the body, they have no effect on the Patron deity – Virincha. From that portion of Tamas and Rajas in mahatattva, Bhagavan created Ahamkara tattva and Buddhi tattva respectively. All the gunas are present in all the tattvas in some percentage. From Sattvika portion in Ahamkara tattva, He created ‘manas’ (mind) and Vaikarika ahamkara being the bodies of Devatas; so also from Rajas portion, He created Taijasa Ahamkara and ten senses and action organs (Dasendriyas) and from Tamas portion, He created fire ‘Matras’ and five ‘Bhutas’ as follows – Space with sound (Akasa – sabda) -> Air with tangibility (Vayu – Sparsha) -> Heat or light with colour (Tejas – rupa) -> Water with taste (Ap – rasa) ->Earth with odour (Prithvi – Gandha). In this manner, twenty four tattvas, bodies of all devatas and jivas with Avidya (ignorance) were created in minute forms. This is ‘Sukshma sristi’. It may be noted here that Jivas are not created in the true sense
of the word as they are beginingless and eternal.
The Twenty four tattvas are as under:
(1) Mahat (2) Ahamkara (3) Buddhi (4) Manas (5-9) Jnanendriyas – Eye, Ear, Nose, Tongue, Skin (10-14) Karmendriyas – Speech, Hand, Limb, Arms, Genitals (15-19) Matras – Sabda, Rupa, Rasa, Gandha, Sparsha (20-24) Bhuta – space, air, light (heat), water, earth.
All these were created in minutest form.
Then, as requested by Brahma (Virinchi) out of these twenty four tattvas and with his golden divine semen, He created Brahmanda (whole world) and entered there. Thereafter, He created fourteen petalled Lotus from His navel, therefrom Chaturmukha Brahma (ie.Hiranyagarbha or Virinchi). Being satisfied with Brahma’s prayer, He further created five elements – Space etc., for forming fourteen lokas (upper and lower world) from fourteen petals of the lotus.
Tatvikanatha devan ko vairajah purusosrajat
Tathaiva paramann hamsan sanakadisca yoginah
Thereafter, the Patron deity of Brahmanda (Brahmandaabhimani) Brahma, named ‘Purusha’ created Patron deities of eleven tattvas, and then were born Sages of very high order – Sanaka, Sanadana, Sanatsrajata and Sanatkumara.
Asuran dosarupanapyavidyam pancaparvanim
Varnasrama visesamsca dharmakliptim ca so’srjet
He then created ‘Asuras’ (6) who are embodiments of all defects, Five fold Avidya (ignorance) (7), Caste System (8), Ashrama (9), Code of Conduct and Dharma.
(6) ‘Asuras’ means Daityas with all flaws including hatred towards the very creator and other devatas. (7) ‘Five fold Avidya’ refers to Tamas, Moha, Mahaa Moha, Tamisra, Andha Tamisra
(8) Caste System – Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya, Sudra
(9) Ashrama – Brahmacharya, Grhastha, Vanaprastha, Sanyasa
Maricyatrayadayah putra abhuvan paraestinah
Mariceh kasyapo jajnc vamanasya pita batoh
From different parts of the body of Brahma, Marici, Atri and other principal sages were born, Kasyapa, in whom the Lord Vamana manifested Himself was born to Marici.
Prajah sisrusurvividha avahatkasyapo ditim
aditim ca danum kadrun kikasam vinatamapi
Kasyapa desired to have many types of progeny and so he married Diti, Aditi, Danu, Kadru, Kikasa and Vinata.
Dityam tato’bhavan daitya adityam ca surah punah
Danau tu danavah kadrau naga nana visolbanah
From Kasyapa daityas were born in Diti, devatas in Aditi, danavas in Danu, most poisonous snakes in Kadru.(10)
10. The words ‘abhavan suga punah’ are in this verse, meaning, Devatas are born again. The idea is as follows:
Firstly, tattvabhimani devatas were created by Lord Visnu in the minute form earlier to the creation of Brahmanda. They do not function in any manner at that stage.
Secondly, they were given birth by Chaturmukha Brahma through his various organs. Now, they preside over tattvas patronised by them. These are mula rupa (original form) of the deities. They have full control over the respective tattvas in sentient and insentient bodies by the grace of Mukhyaprana, who is the Supreme Controller of all, depending on Vishnu only.
Thirdly, these devatas were again born in other forms to Kasyapa and Aditi. In these forms, they serve Lord Vishnu in many ways and participate in His act of creation and destruction of sentient and insentient bodies within the Brahmanda.
As all the Devatas are samsajivas, they are capable of taking any number of bodies; these incarnations will have definite purposes. For example, Vayudeva as Hanuman, Bhima and Madhva; Rudra Deva as Asvathama and Durvasa; Indra as Vali and Arjuna; Surya as Sugriva and Karna and so on.
They serve the cause of Almighty Vishnu in those forms to earn His grace, and thus they pursue their ‘sadhana’ towards salvation. When their sadhana is completed at the time of liberation, they merge in their original form (mula rupa) and finally attain moksa.
Kikalayam yaturdhana vinatayamtu paksinah
Mahaviryah sutah asan kasyapasya mahatmanah
Demons (devourer of human beings) in kikasa and most powerful Garuda as bird in Vinita became sons of the highly intelligent Kasyapa.
Manavanam pita jajne aditayakasyapatmajat
Manurnama mahaprajne etanmanvamtaresvarah
The sraddha Dev by name Manu (Vaivasvata) was born after the birth of Vaivasvan possessing spiritual wisdom of very high order and origin of the human race, who is the son of Sun-God, who is the son of Kasyapa.
Tasya ghranadabutchrimaniksvakuh ksuvato manoh
Tapastaptva virincatsa lebhe Rangesvaram Harim
Once when Vaivasvata Manu sneezed, the great King Iksvaku was born through his nostils. Then he observed religious austerities like fasting etc., and by grace of Virinchi, he got Narayana (Hari) idol with a divine chariot.
Tadanvaye vyajayanta sura rajarsayah pare
Iksvaku got Vikuksi as son. In his dynasty very powerful and spiritually matured Kings (Rajarsis) were born.
Tasminvamsa Dasaratho bahuvatyanta bhagyavan
Sorcanvaimanikam visnum raraksa mahatim mahim
In that family, Dasaratha, the richest emperor was born. He worshipped Vishnu in the divine chariot and ruled the great kingdom.
Tasminkale surah sarve maharaksana piditah
Dugdhabdhi sayinam visnum saranyam saranam yuyuh
During that period, all the Devatas, being importuned by great demons (like Ravana) took refuge with Vishnu lying in the Milky ocean, who protects all from danger.
Ta adistah sriyah patya jajnire ksitimandale
Sakhamrigadi bhavesa Hanuman marute’bhavat
The Devata’s being ordered by the Consort of Lakshmi, Narayana, were born on this earth as monkeys etc, and Vayudeva by name, Hanuman.
Abhayaya satam hatyai raksasanam tato Harih
Rama nama Dasarathat Kausalyayamajayate
In order to protect virtuous people (and to bestow them with salvation – moksa) and to destroy demons (and to send them to eternal hell), Hari – Narayana – incarnated Himself as the son of Dasaratha and Kausalya.
Narayana does not have to take physical body at any time. He is the embodiment of divine knowledge and bliss. As such, Rama is not ‘son’ of his parents in the true sense. He only pretends or acts as a human being. This should be remembered when we read further about Rama, Krishna, and other manifested forms of Almighty Sri Narayana.
Tato Lakhmana Satrughnau Sumitrayam bhabhuvatuh
Kaikayyam Bharatho Jajne sada sbharato nrpat
Thereafter, Lakshmana and Shatrugna were born to Dasaratha in Sumitra and Bharatha, always submerged in auspicious deeds only, was born to Kaikeyi.
Abhyavardhamta samyancah kumarah sukumarakah
Caturbhiscaturaih putraih pitarthairiva nirbabhau
These holy children grew as pleasing boys; the father Dasaratha considered four intelligent boys as four purusarthas (ie.Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksa).
Visvamitrstato yajnanighnato raksassvaran
Nihamtumanayamatham Ramadevam salaksmanam
Then, Viswamitra (11) brought Rama (12) with Lakshmana to his monastery for destroying demon kings, who were attacking yajnas (sacrifices).
11. ‘Viswamitra’ is not merely a name, but it means he is friend of all good and blessed souls.
12. ‘Ramadev’ means Lord to whom even the liberated souls (muktas) offer prayers (Visnu).
Adavyam tatakam hatva sa siddhasramamameyivan
Vidhuya yajnavighnansca videhavisayam yayau
Rama killed Tataka in the forest and went to Siddasrama; then, He killed these demons who were hinderence to the rituals and proceeded further to Videha kingdom.
Rajadyaih pujitah so’tha vihbajya dharnuesvaram
Janakimalabhistooccaih stuyamana suresvaraih
Rama was received with devotion by King Janaka and others and when Rama broke the great bow of Siva (Presented to Janaka by Siva) and procured Janaki (Sita) while Devatas praised His glory.
Gacchan devya sahayodhyam savasistah sahanujah
Kavikayayutajyotsnakantavavat sa vyarocayata
Rama, while going to Ayodhya shone brilliantly with Vasista and his brother, Lakshmana like the Lord of moonlight with Brihaspati and Sukracharya.
(Here, Lord Rama is compared with the Lord of moonlight ie. Moon, Sita withmoonlight, Vasista with Brhaspati, and Lakshmana with Sukracharya).
Pravisya nagarim tatra parvandhya pitaram tatha
Matrusca punjitah sarvaih sa reme sukhacithanuh
After entering the city (Ayodhya) He whose body is very bliss and knowledge, prostrated to His father and mother; He was worshipped by all the citizens and was quite happy.
Ramarajyabhisekaya dadhre Dasaratho manah
Nijaghne sa tu kaikayya matsuto gamavediti
Dasaratha made up his mind to coronate Rama as King but Kaikeya obstructed saying “Let my son, Bharatha rule the Kingdom’.
Ramadevastada stahah Sitalaksmanabhyam samanvitah
Vanamprati yayau vadhyan asesanapi raksasena
Then, Rama left the city and went to the forest along with Sita and Lakshmana for killing all the demons.
Dvastakaram vighnonam ca karyamasa raksetim
Lankesabhaghinim Ramo Lakshmanenanujanmana
Rama asked his Brother Lakshmana to cut off the ears and nose of the demon, Surpanakhi, the sister of the King of Lanka, Ravana.
Rama viprakritah kravyat pratikarmacikirsaya
Ajagama sahanikah kharo dusanasamyutah
The non-vegetarian, Khara came with Dusana, along with the army towards Rama to take revenge against the disrespect and punishment inflicted by him (to Surpanakha). Khara and Dusana were relatives of Ravana.
Tan jaghana ramanatho ramo rajivalocanah
Leelayaiva paranandah surakarya prasiddhaye
Lotus-like eyed Rama with infinite bliss, the consort of Rama killed all of them without any efforts; it was a pastime to him.
Rama purastat paratopi ramo ramah paramdiksu vidiksu ramah
Ramairanantairiti visvarupo nighnannaratin viraraja ramah*
While destroying the enemies Rama was seen with countless forms in all directions – east, west; south-east etc., and shone brilliantly. He assumed so many identical forms as He is – ‘Visvarupi’ – Perfections unlimited.
Iti Srimatkavikulatilaka Trivikrama Panditacharya suta Narayana
Panditacharya Viracitayam Mani Manjaryam Prathamah Sargah
Atah Dwiteeya Sargah
tato dUraM gate raame raavaNassahalakShmaNe
siiteyaM niiyata iti matvaa ninye tadaakR^itim.h
raamaantike sthitaa devii na mandaiH samadR^ishyata |
ruupaantareNa kailaasaM gataa nityaaviyoginii ||1 ||
After destroying Khara, Dusana and others in the forest, when Rama and Laksmana were far away from the asrama, Ravana thought that Sita might be kidnapped but he took away a substitute, that looked like Sita.
Although Sita devi was with Rama, she could not be seen clearly by ignorant people; Sita who is ever insperable from Rama, went to Kailasa by taking a different form.
nityaM pashyannijAM deviim puurNasantoShasambhR^itaH |
raamo na dR^ishyate deviityabhuutsa~NkaTavaaniva || 2 ||
Rama seeing His consort Sita Devi always, was happy to the fullest extent, but He looked as if distressed at not seeing her.
The substance of Stanza 1 & 2 are as follows:
Sita being incarnation of Ramaa (Lakshmi) is all powerful, next only to the almighty, Rama. She is always with her consort in one form and thus inseperable. When Ravana came to her to carry her away, she left the place and went to Kailasa leaving a substitute figure behind, which looked like her in all respects. Indra entered the body in one form and made it sentient. Thus, Ravana was illusioned by the substitute body that he took away.
prabha~njanasutaH shrImaanaa~njaneyo nira~njanaH |
nanaamabhaktisampuurNo raamaM raajiivalochanam.h || 3 ||
The unblemished son of Prabhanjana (Vayu deva), Sri Hanuman (Anjaneya) prostrated before the Lotus-like eyed Rama with all devotion.
raama svaaminnamastubhyaM duShTaa~njahinijaanava |
nirduHkhaanandaliilaatmannityastautsa nijaM gurum.h || 4 ||
Hanuman prayed his eternal (permanent) master – “O Rama, Thou art the embodiment of Bliss, untinged with sorrow, all Thy actions are Thy very nature and effortless, destroy the wicked and protect Thy devotees”.
sa vanaantaramaasaadya raamassugriivamaikShata |
tena sakhyaM samaasaadya nijaghaana tadagrajam.h || 5 ||
He (Rama) went to another forest and there He made friendship with Sugriva and there killed his brother Vali. (Vali was an enemy of Sugriva although they were brothers).
tatassugriivasandiShTaa vaanaraa dikShu sarvashaH |
prasasrurnipuNaa viiraassiitaamaargaNatatparaaH || 6 ||
After the death of Vali (Sugriva got his kingdom back), being ordered by their master, Sugriva’s monkey warriors went in all directions in search of Sita.
dakShiNaaM kakubhaM gatvaa hanumaanambhasaaM niDhim.h |
atila~Nghya gato la~NkaaM siitaakR^itimavaikShata || 7 ||
Hanuman went to the south and jumped over the vast ocean, reached Lanka and found out ‘Sita’. (‘Sita’ within brackets to distinguish mayic Sita from the real Sitadevi who is in Kailasa).
raamaa~NguliiyakaM devyai datvaa chuuDaamaNiM tataH |
sa~NgR^ihya jaanakiimbhaktyaa natvaasaavaaruhattarum.h || 8 ||
Hanuman gave Rama’s ring to ‘Sita’ and collected the Chudamani from her (a jewel worn in the crest by ladies), bowed her with devotion and climbed a tree.
vanaM vishakalayyochchai raakShasaanakShapuurvakaan.h |
nihatya maarutirla~NkaamadahatpuchChavahninaa || 9 ||
Hanuman, son of Vayu, destroyed Simsupa forest and killed Aksakumara (son of Ravana) and other demons; then he set ablaze Lanka with the fire that was in the end of his tail and reduced city to ashes.
Aksa Kumara was one-third of the force of Ravana. He with his army was destroyed completely by Hanuman who was alone.
tato ratnaakaraM tiirtvaa vaanarendraissabhaajitaH |
datvaa chuuDAmaNiM dhanyaH praapya raamaaya so.anamat.h || 10 ||
After destroying Lanka, Hanuman jumped back into the ocean, being worshipped by the great monkeys, he bowed down to Rama and offered the Chudamani jewel to him.
raamo hanumataa saardhaM lakShmaNena cha dhiimataa |
sugriiveNa sasainyena kiinaashaharitaM yayau || 11 ||
Rama went in the direction of south, presided by Yama, along with Hanuman, clever Lakshmana and Sugriva with his army.
sa setuM sakShiNambhodau bandhayaamaasa markaTaiH |
sasainyo vartmanaa tena naktaJNcharapuraM yayau || 12 ||
Rama got constructed a bridge by the monkey; and on that path, He went with His army to Lanka, the city of demons, who traverse during nights.
nijaghno raakShasaaniikaM vaanaraassahalakShmaNAH |
hanumaan bhagavatpriityai jaghaanaatibalaan ripuun.h || 13 ||
Monkeys with Lakshmana destroyed army of demons; and Hanuman destroyed very violently enemy forces to please Bhagavan Rama.
so.ajiivayanmahaarakShomohitaan sarvavaanaraan.h |
gandhamaadanamaaniiya tadgataagadavaayunaa || 14 ||
When all the monkeys were swooned because of this very powerful demon (Indrajit), Hanuman brought Gandhamadhana mountain containing life – giving medicinal herbs and saved their lives. They got consciousness by the very
wind blown from the mountains.
Medicinal herbs are of four kinds:
1. Mrtasanjivini – It gives life to the dead – in war or by accident.
2. Santhanakarini – It joins cut off portions of the body, limbs etc.
3. Savarnakarini – It heals the wounds and removes blood stains etc.
4. Visalyakarani – It removes arrows and such metallic pieces stuck to the body.
Asamhyan raksasanhatva kumbhakarnam ca ravanam
Ramo Vibhisanam raksah samrajyeso’bhyaciklpt
Having killed innumerable number of demons, Ravana and Kumbhakarna, Rama coronated Vibhisana (younger brother of Ravana, and devotee of Rama) as King of the land of rakshasas, Lanka.
ashokamuulamaasaadya darshayaamaasa jaanakiim.h |
nityaaviyoginiiM devIM raamo mandadR^ishaamapi || 16 ||
Rama having gone near Asokavana and presented inivisible and inseperable Sita to the view of ignorants.
hanumatpramukhaiH saardhaM devyaacha puruShottamaH |
aruhya puShpakaM raamo jagaama nagariiM nijaaM || 17 ||
Rama who is Supreme to ksara and aksara pursued (sic) ascended an air-chariot by name Puspaka along with Sita devi, Hanuman and other monkeys and went to his native city, Ayodhya.
bharato bhaktibharito raamamabhyetya nirvR^itaH |
papaata paadayostasya kR^iShNasyeva shvaphalkajaH || 18 ||
Bharata being united with Rama fell on his feet with zeal and affection just like Akrura, son of Svaphalka to Krishna.
tamutthaapya pariShvajya raaghavo.antaH puraM gataH |
sampuujito janaissarvairjananiimabhyavandata || 19 ||
Rama lifted him up and embraced him. Being adored with reverence by all the citizens, Raghava went to the seraglio and bowed down to his mother, Kausalya Devi.
raamo raajyaabhShiktassan shashaasa jagatiiM prabhuH |
dharmaanashikShayatpuurNo bubhuje sampadassukhii || 20 ||
Rama, after being coronated as King, ruled the country. The almighty Rama possessor of infinite bliss and knowledge trained his subjects in varnasrama and enjoyed his possessions.
sanakaadiiMshcha tadvaMshyaanmuninanyaaMshcha maarutiH |
raamaantike shrutivyaakhyaavisheShaansamashikShayat.h || 21||
Maruti (son of Maruta – Hanuman) taught well commentaries and sub-commentaries on Vedas to the sages Sanaka and others in his lineage, like Durvasa, in presence of Rama.
suraaNakaaMstamo netuM tatyaajeva sa jaanakIm.h |
vyaaptatvaanniravadyatvaattasyaastyaagaH kathaM bhavet.h || 22 ||
Rama appeared as being separated by Janaki (Sita) in order to send the daityas by name, Suranaka, to hell; how can there be seperation when He is omnipresent and free from all defects?
svaatmaanaM yaj~napuruShaM yaj~nenaayajataatha saH |
tatraagataa satii siitaa vedyaamantardadhe kila || 23 ||
Rama performed sacrifices like ‘Asvamedha’ and satisfied the Supreme God, presiding ceremony which is another form of Himself. Is it so, that Sita came at the time to the platform of the ceremonial hall and disappeared there itself? – (The answer is No, as she is with Rama always in one form).
dharmaM saa~NkhyaM cha yogaM cha varthayaamaasa raaghavaH |
praavochanmarutassuunussampado nanR^itustadaa || 24 ||
Rama (Raghava) directed to conduct scriptures on Dharma, Samkhya, and Yoga; Hanuman, son of Vayu preached them to disciples and the nations’ wealth and all riches were simply dancing. (meaning, the countrymen were very prosperous and happy).
prakR^ityaa paramaa haMsaa brahmaNo maanasaassutaaH |
sanakaadyaastataH shrutvaa vyaachakhystattva ma~njasaa || 25 ||
Sanaka and others, saints by nature, who were born from the very power of the mind of Brahma (Virinchi) learnt the correct interpretation of Vedas and wrote commentaries correctly.
Namo Ramaya Ramaya Rama Rama Namostu te
Ramah svami gati Rama iti loka vicukrusuh
The citizens were shouting loudly – ‘O Rama, magnificient Lord, We bow down to you; you are the controller of all; you are our goal’
Devo jigamisurdhama sviyamathyarthitah suraih
dugdhabdhim prayayou seso Laksmano Ramocoditah
When Rama willed to go back to his place, Vaikunta, Devatas prayed that he may do so; Lakshmana, being instructed by Rama, took his original form of Sesa and went to Ksira Samudra (Ocean of Milk).
Samayata samayata ye ye moksapadecchavah
Evamaghosayadramo dutairdiksu samastsah
Rama proclaimed in all directions through the messengers “O, Whoever desires to have Moksha (liberation from bondage) may come”.
Athottaram disam devah prathastc shasitaya
After such proclamation, Rama with Sita, surrounded by many men, monkeys, birds, animals and others made journey in the northern direction.
Tesam moksapradam datvabhyanujnapya Marutsutam
Raghavah Sitaya sardham vivesa svam param padam
Rama offered all his followers suitable places (Lokas) to stay (in order to give moksa in usual course), ordered Hanuman, the son of Marut (Vayu) to stay on earth itself and proceeded further and entered his principal abode, Vaikunta.
Those souls graced by Rama should wait for final liberation till Chaturmukha Brahma completes his sadhana. As such, they were placed by Rama in different lokas ie. Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka, according to their worthiness.
Satyena bhaktya ca viraktimatya matya ca dhrtya ca tapasyaya ca
Ha Rama Rameti sadopagayan prabhanjanih kimpurusesu reme
Hanuman (son of Prabhanjana), averse to the worldly pleasures, with full of penance, meditation and devotion, spent his time in Kimpurusha khanda, praising and singing always as ‘Ha Rama, Rame, Rama”.
Iti Srimatkavikulatilaka Trivikrama Panditacharya suta Sriman Narayana
Panditacharya viracitayam Manimanjaryam Dvitiyah Sargah
Atah Triteeya adhyayaha
Himansoratriputrasya budho nama suto’bhavat
Pururava maharajastasya putro vyajayate
(Sri Krishnavatara is described in the next two sargas)
Chandra (Moon God), the son of Atri rsi, had the famous Budha as his son. The King Pururava was born as his son.
3.2 Tasyayurbhavatpntro nahusastasya nandanah
Yayatirbhavattasya nandano balaviryavan
King Ayu was the son of Pururava; his son was Nahusa and his son was very powerful King Yayati.
Devayanin ca samistamsa uvaha priye ubhe
Prathamusanasah putrid dvitiyo vrsparvanah
The King Yayati, married two girls, one was Devayani, the daughter of Sukracharya (usanasah) and the other was Sarmista, the daughter of King Vrsaparva.
Yadun ca turvasun raja Devayayanyamajijanat
Drhyam canumca puram ca sarmistayamajijanat
The King Yayati gave birth to the King Yadu and Turvasu in Devayani and to the King Drhya, Anu and Puru in Sarmista.
Yadorvamss tu rajanah kartaviryapurogamah
In Yadu’s family, many Kings Kartavirya and others were born and they were all devotees of God, possessed religious wisdom and followed religious austerities such as severe abstinence.
Purorvamse tu rajanah asan dawsyantipurvakah
Tesam kirtya ca vikrantya samstah purita disah
In Puru’s family also, many kings – Bharata, son of dushyanta and others were born and they were famous for their valour with their fame spread in all directions.
Bhugbharaharanapeksa tasminkale divaukasah
Dugdhabdhisayinam Visnum saranyam saranam yayuh
In order to destroy daityas, who were burden on the earth, the gods in heaven went and appealed to Vishnu, the protector of all, lying in Ksira Samudra (Oceanof Milk).
Vipraksairadibhavena ta adistah suradayah
Babhururbhagavatsevam vidhitsantah smastasah
Having been ordered by the Lord, all the deities and others descended from heaven in the forms – Brahmin, Kshatriya, etc in order to serve him.
Varunah santanurnama purorvamsee vyajayata
Varuna dev was born by name Santanu in Puru’s family; and he got two sons – Vicitravirya and Chitrangada.
Drtarastransca pandusca iti (tasya) putro babhunatuh
Pandoh kunti ca Madri ca dve bharye dharmakovide
Vicitravirya got two sons – Dhrtarastra and Pandu; Pandu married two – Kunti and Madri who were well versed in religious austerities (Dharma).
Sa Pandurmuniscapena strisangamasukham jahau
Bhartrajnaya sutam kunti Dharmallabhe yudhistira
Owing to the curse of a sage, Pandu did not have sexual pleasures through his wife; but on the mandate of her husband, Kunti got Yudhistira through Yamadharmaraja.
Once, a sage was enjoying sexual pleasures with his wife, in form of birds. They were hit with an arrow by Pandu who thought them to be mere birds; while discarding the bird bodies, the sage cursed the King that he may also meet death if he enjoys sexual pleasures with his wife.
Kunti had served Durvasa rsi in her father’s house when she was a virgin. The sage, being satisfied with her service blessed her with a boon that she may get children by the grace of any god by calling his name and respective incantation. Pandu, desiring of having progeny, permitted Kunti to get a child by calling a deity. The clever Kunti called Yamadharmaraja, as He is patron deity of Dharma and justice. She got Yudhistira (Dharmaraja) as son through him. Again, for protecting Dharma in the kingdom, she got Bhimasena as her second son through the most powerful Mukhya Vayu. Third, for expanding the kingdom by conquering the lands, she got Arjuna, though Indra, next to Vayu in power. Then, she administered a mantra to the second wife of Pandu, Madri to get a child. But that intelligent lady called Asvini Devi and got twins – Nakula and Sahadeva.
Dhrtarastrasya Gandharayamasan Duryodhanadayah
Vadhaya Marutastesam Bhimam kuntyamajijanat
Duryodhana etc (one hundred children in all) were born in Gandhari through Dhritarastra; to destroy them Marut (Vayu) gave birth to Bhimasena in Kunti.
Sa lebhe vasavaggisnum yamau Madri ca Dasrayah
Vane vardhanta vatsasta Panduna pariraksitah
Kunti got Arjuna as son through Indra Deva and Madri got twins through Asvini Devas. All the children were well protected by Pandu.
Evam pancala bahlikah avardhanta mahabalah
Similarly, the Kings of Pancala and Bahlika became prosperous and Ugrasena and Devaka were born to Yadava by name King Ahuka.
Devakasya suta jagne Devaki devasammata
Vasudeva uvahainem yadavah suranandanah
With the assent of Sri Hari, Devaki took birth as daughter of Devaka and Vasudeva, the son of Yadava Surasena married her.
Devaki and Vasudeva were the incarnations of Aditi and Kasyapa respectively. As such, Sri Hari gave his consent so that He may manifest as Krishna through them.
Tatra pradurabhuddevah paramatma sanatanah
Dampatyoranayorasah purayan surakaryavan
The Almighty Lord Sri Hari manifested Himself in Devaki to fulfil the desire of the couple and the deities (ie. Destruction of the asuras).
Vasudevasya Rohinyam tatah purvamajayata
Ananto balavatvena balabadhra iti srutah
Earlier to Krishnavatara, Sesa deva was born as a son to Vasudeva in Rohini, by name Balabadhra, as he was very powerful.
Jnananadatanum syamam sankhacakragadadharam
Vyaktamatram Harim drstva tustavarakadundubhih
Vasudeva saw the Lord, Sri Krishna, in bluish colour, having four arms with sankha, chakra, gada and padma. He was embodiment of knowledge and bliss (immortal) and He was not a product of conjoining of his parents. Hence, Vasudeva simply praised him.
Svajnaya sa vrjam nttah kamsatbhittena saurian
Sisurupo yasodayah sayitah sayane sunaih
With His instruction, Vasudeva took Sri Krishna in baby form to Gokula, out of fear from Kamsa; and laid Him down in the bed of Yasoda Devi.
Candikam tatsanodbhutam nitva yadovanandavah
Devakyah sayane nyasya purvavatbandhomayayau
Vasudeva, the son of yadava sowri, took Durga Devi in baby form, just born (in Gokula) and brought her to Mathura, put her in bed by the side of Devaki, and thereafter again went to fetters.
Tam kanyam kamsa aniya nihantumupaicakrame
Mrtyuste jata ityuktra sotpapata nabhastalam
Kamsa took the girl baby out of his house and began to kill her but the baby escaped from his hand and sprung into the sky saying that the killer had already been born elsewhere.
Jatamatrankumacansa nihantum janamadisat
Himsavihara dustatse nijaghnurbalakanbhuvi
Kamsa ordered his men to kill all the babies as soon as born; Those wicked men who took delight in doing evil deeds and killed children on earth.
Jagama Gokulam dusta dhasti kamsasya Putana
Krsnamadatta sa hantum tam jaghana Ramapatih
Putana, the step mother of Kamsa went to Gokula and caught hold of Krishna to kill; but Ramapati (Krishna) killed her himself.
Putana was the step mother of Kamsa because she fed him with breast milk and brought him up. She smeared the nipples of her breast with poison, took a beautiful form and after coming to Gokula, pretended that she would breastfeed Krishna. Fully knowing the cunningness of the wicked lady, the Almighty in baby-form injected the same poison into breast and heart and killed her in no time. She dropped down dead in the original form, which was demonical and the people in Gokula were surprised at the great strength of the baby.
Sayitah saktasyadhah sakataksam jaghama sah
Amimastrnavartam tennitah sa lilaya
Once Krishna was sleeping under the cart, which was another form of Sakataksha, a demon, who had come in that form to kill Krishna; but he shattered the cart into pieces and killed the demon. Again another baby by name Trnavrta came in the form of whirling storm and lifted the baby Krishna high in the sky but Krishna himself killed and dropped him to the ground without any effort.
Gargo’tha sourinadistascakara kratriyocitan
Samkarannama camusya sakalasya vrajangatah
Vasudeva asked Gargacharya, the family priest, to conduct the naming ceremony etc (to Krishna and Balarama) as prescribed for Kshatriyas and he went to Gokula and performed the same.
Pangane rinkhanam kurvam arbhakaih saha Madhavah
The people in Gokula were very happy to see the bright baby, Sri Krishna crawling on his hands and feet along with other children in the courtyard, as his actions were purposeful.
Jaghasa mrttikim devah kadacillilaya Harih
Matropalabdha asye sve vyatte viswamadrasiyat
Once Krishna ate a morsel of mud only while playing. Mother Yashoda scolded Him and His mouth got opened. The Almighty showed her the whole universe in that small mouth.
Dedhyamatvam vibhajyesah kadaciccandra sannibham
Navanitam samadaya raho patva jaghasa ca
Once, the Lord Sri Krishna broke the pot containing curd into pieces and took away the butter, as bright as moon; went to a secluded place and ate it also.
Jananyolukhale baddhah so’rjunavudamulayat
Nalakubera Manigrivau mocayamasa sapatah
Once Sri Krishna was tied to a big mortar by his mother as He was very mischevious. He dragged the mortar without any effort in between the twin trees; they fell down and two Gandharvas by name Nalakubara and Manigriva emerged from them, having been liberated from curse.
The Gandharva sons of Kubera, named above were once walking about for pleasure in a garden in bare body, when the Rishi Narada saw them and he was disgusted with the sight. He immediately cursed them to be in bare body always. They realized their folly and begged his forgiveness. He consoled them saying that they would be liberated from that state when Lord Krishna would touch them. They took the form of big trees (twin trees called Arjuna vrksa) and were awaiting liberation. Now, when Sri Krishna dragged the mortar, His body came in contact with the trees and the Gandharvas were able to get their original bodies and they praised the Lord.
Trndavanamiyasuh san Nandasunurbrhadvane
Sasarga romakupebhyo vrkan vyaghrasamanbale
Tatrorpatabhiya Gopa apurvrndavan vanam
The Nanda’s son, Sri Krishna once desired to go to Vrndavan, a garden town. So He created out of His hair roots in Gokula, wild wolves strong like tigers. The gopalakas (the people in Gokula), out of fear went with Him to Vrndavan gardens.
Sa palayangopakabalavrndaibalena sakam pasuvatsayuthan
Nihatya vatsasuramadidevo bakam ca Gopalakatamavapa
Sri Krishna with Balarama and other cowherd boys protected cows and calves in Vrndavan; killed demons named Baka and Vatasura. He grew up as a young boy.
Iti Manimanjaryam Tritiyah Sargah
Atah Chaturtah Sargah
Krsna kaliyam tyaktya pitva davagnimulbanam
Sa visadrumammuccida daityan govapusohanat
Sri Krishna drove away Kaliya from Yamuna river; swallowed the wild fire in the jungle; uprooted the poisonous tree and killed demons who were in form of cows.
Sa saptoksavadhallebhe nilam gopalakanyakam
Balena dhenukam hatva jaghananyan kharan svayam
Sri Krishna, having killed seven wild boars, married Nila Devi, daughter of Gopala (by name Kumbhaka); He got killed Dhenakasura by Balarama and He Himself killed other demons who were in the form of asses.
Pralambho balabhadrena hate davam papau punah
Nandajo vrjaraksartham krpasindurhi madhavah
Sri Krishna got killed Pralambhasura by Balarama and in order to protect Gokula, He once again swallowed the wild fire in the jungle. Oh, Is he not the ocean of mercy?
Sonnam sanucaro bhuktva cakre tasam anugraham
Once, when Sri Krishna went near an yajnasala (a place of sacrifice) He was much pleased by the sumptuous food brought by the wives of the brahmins and ate them along with other Gopalakas and blessed them.
Once, Sri Krishna went to a Yajnasala along with his companions, pretended to be very hungry, and asked for food. The priests denied him food saying that the ceremonies were still incomplete and hence they could not offer Him anything. They were not aware that He was the Supreme Lord Himself, for whose grace they were performing the ceremonies. The Almighty asked one of His friends to go to the wives of the same brahmins and beg of food on His behalf. When the ladies heard of the Lord Sri Krishna, there was no second word; immediately, they brought all the foods, prepared by them and offered to the Supreme Lord, who ate them with other Gopalakas and blessed the virtuous women, who did not wait for permission from their husbands for offering the food. The Brahmin priests were ignorant of their own actions and failed to have reward from the almighty. They realized their folly, when they came to know later that their ladies were more fortunate and had reward from the God easily.
Makhabhangarupendrenadistaimeghaih krtam Harih
Vrstim sodhumaktansvan raraksodhrtya parvatam
Sri Krishna obstructed an yajna (a sacrifice) intended for Indra, being performed by Gopalakas. Indra grew angry against Krishna and he ordered heavy clouds to gather and thus brought heavy rains. No one could withstand the heavy downpour; but Sri Krishna lifted the mountains and protected all his men and they continued the ceremony under the shelter of the mountain.
Gopalakas, once went to a mountain by name Gomantaka and performed a sacrifice to get the favour of Indra. At that moment, they forgot that they were in midst of Sri Krishna, the Almighty who was far superior to Indra or any other god. Indra’s position in heaven is fully dependent, not only on the Supreme Lord, but also Mukhyaprana. Thus, he cannot bless anyone independently. This fact was forgotten not only by ordinary men like Gopalakas but also by one of the Supreme deities, Indra. Sri Krishna wanted to bring home the fact to his men and hence, he obstructed the yajna.
Unfortunately, Indra deva was under the veil of momentary ignorance and challenged the Almighty. He wanted to spoil the ceremony which continued in favour of Sri Krishna. He brought heavy clouds and incessant rains for seven days. Sri Krishna lifted the mountain as an umbrella and thus protected the yajna and all men. The ceremonies were completed. Indra came to his senses only after seven days and surrendered to the Lord, and begged pardon from him. Sri Krishna excused him and blessed him to have right knowledge.
Aryanugraha sampratptakama Goapanganastatuh
Ramayamasa Govindacciramaistau ratrisu
Under the influence of Parvati Devi, the Gopikas (women in Gokula) wanted to have union with the Lord, due to inordinate affection. Sri Krishna satisfied their desires for a long time in moon-lit nights.
Surupinanca Gopinam mandale Bhagavan svayam
Nanarta venuna gayan rasakrida mahotsave
Sri Krishna danced while playing his flute in the midst of very beautiful Gopikas, who were assembled in the moonlight night for observing a feast known as Rasakrida.
Sankha cudasuram hatvaristam kesinamapyatha
Mayaputram punavyomam sa cakre vrjaraksanam
Sri Krishna killed the demons by name Sankhacuda, Arista, Kasi and Vyomasura, son of Mayasura and thus protected Gokula.
All these demons were sent to Gokula by Kamsa to kill Krishna.
Kamsapreitamakuram drstva sambhavya tam Harim
Tena sakam yayau devo madhuram balasamyutah
On seeing Akrura, who was sent by Kamsa to Gokula, Sri Krishna welcomed him with respect and went to Mathura along with him. Balarama accompanied Him.
Bhantva kamsadhanuh sarvam hatvambastam ca varanam
Canuramustikau hatva sabalah susubhe Harih
Sri Krishna broke the bow, given by Kamsa by Siva; killed the mahout and the elephant (by name Kuvalayapida) and along with Balarama, he killed the great wrestlers by name Canura and Mustika and thus he was in exalted position.
Mancastam matulam kamsam murdhini saugrhya Madhavah
Nipatya nispipesoccairdharanyam sa mamara ca
Kamsa was the maternal uncle of Sri Krishna. When he was sitting on a cot, Sri Krishna caught hold of his head and threw him down the ground and smashed him to death.
Tadbalam sakalam hatva janan sarvanandayat
Vimucya nigadadisah pitaravabhyavandata
He destroyed the whole army of Kamsa and thus all the people were very happy. He released His parents from the bondage and prostrated before them.
Putravaidhavya sankrdhamabhiyantam jarasutam
Sabalo’bhyaradayatkrsno hatva tatsaunikanmumuhuh
Thus the daughters having attained widowhood, Jarasandha, being angered, came to war against Sri Krishna; Sri Krishna along with Balarama destroyed his army and Jarasandha retreated.
Pandurvane mrtah partha anita munibhih puram
Pidyante kurubhih swairamityasravi madhudhvisa
After the death of Pandu, his sons Dharmaraja and others were brought to Hastinavati; there they were being teased by Kauravas, and came to the knowledge of Sri Krishna.
Akruram pesayamasa krsne nagapuram prati
Kurunamanayam jnatva Drtarastramuvaca sah
Sri Krishna sent Akrura to Hastinavati; he observed bad conduct of Kauravas towards Pandavas and told Dritarastra (as follows) – (Next sloka)
Tava putra na santveva Bhimasuagnibhasmitaah
Ityuktva Bhimaparthabhyam sahitah prayayau purim
‘O Dhritarastra! Know that thou sons will be reduced to ashes to fire like Bhimasena’. So saying he went away to Mathura along with Bhima and Arjuna.
Pujayantau Harim parthav pujitau sarvayadavaih
Oosatuh sucitam tatra bhatijnanamrtasanau
Bhima and Arjuna were adored by all yadavas in Mathura and they worshipped Sri Hari (Krishna). Knowledge and devotion towards the God were nectar-like food for them. They stayed in Mathura for a long time.
Uddhavam presyamasa vrjasokapanuthaye
Sri Krishna sent Uddhava to Gokula to console Gopalakas (as they were distressed by the absence of Krishna for a long time). The Almighty Sri Krishna defeated again Jarasandha in war and drove him away.
Sa srgaladhipam hatva tatputram paryapalayat
Iti citrani karmani cakara purusottamah
Sri Krishna killed Srgala Vasudeva, King of Kolhapur and installed his son Sakradeva as King. Thus, the Almighty Sri Krishna who was far superior to all beings made historical deeds.
Bhismakasya sutam devim Rukminimavahattatah
Vijnanandarupinya sa reme Ramaya taya
Thereafter, Sri Krishna married Bhismaka’s daughter Rukmini Devi, who was incarnation of Lakshmi, whose body was immortal with supreme knowledge and bliss.
Labdham satrajita suryat sa simhapahrtam
Ratnam jambavata nitam jambavatya sahanayat
Sri Krishna came to Dvaraka city along with Jambavati and Syamantakamani (the most precious gem), which was gifted to the King Satrajita by Surya, but it was seized by a lion in the forest, and again seized by Jambavata, from whom Sri Krishna won the gem in the war.
Note: The King Satrajita prayed to Surya who, pleased with his devotion, gifted him the most precious gem by name Syamantakamani. One day, Prasena, the brother of Satrajit wore it on his neck as an ornament and went to the forest. A lion attacked him, killed him and took the gem. Jambavanta in turn killed the lion and seized that gem and took away to his den. Sri Krishna had once asked Satrajit to give him the gem, but he had not obliged. In the circumstances, Satrajit thought Sri Krishna had killed his brother and taken away the gem. The news spread , and being pained, Krishna wanted to prove the allegation false. He went in search of it. He noticed the footprints of a man and then a lion and it led to the den of Jambavata. He entered the den and to His surprise found the gem hanging on a cradle of a child. Sri Krishna fought with Jambavan for days together and finally, seized the gem. When Jamavan came to know that Sri Krishna was none other than Sri Rama himself, he was very happy and gave his daughter Jambavati in marriage to him. Sri Krishna came to King Satrajit, along with Jambavati and gave the gem to him, thereby proving his innocence. King Satrajit was pleased and gave his daughter Satyabhama, also an incarnation of Lakshmi, in marriage to him.
Satrajite dadau ratnam tena dattam saratnakam
Satyabhamamudavahat sakrallaksmim paratparah
The Supreme Being, Sri Krishna gave the gem to Satrajit who was very pleased and gave back the gem to Sri Krishna, along with his daughter Satyabhama. He married her, who was an incarnation of Lakshmidevi.
Note: Jambavati is graced with the presence of Goddess Lakshmi, whereas Satyabhama is very incarnation of Lakshmi in Bhu rupa. It may be noted here that Goddess Lakshmi serves the Almighty in three forms – Bhu, Sri, Durga. 4.23 Hatavan sanujam hamsam krishno reme swadhamani Putran pradyumnasambadin Rukminyadyasvjijanat Having killed a demon by name Hamsa along with his brother Dibika, Sri Krishna was very happy in his house. He got a son named Pradyumna, Samba and others in Rukmini and other wives. 4.24 Pandava Dronamasadya krtasastrastra siksanah Sarvavidyatisaynio mumuduh krsnasangatah Pandavas had Dronocharya as teacher and got training from him in using all types of weapons in the war; and became experts. Once, Krishna came to them and they were all happy to be associated with Him. Notes Ksatra means arrows, cudgels etc., Astra means Brahmastra. 4.25 Sambhavita Bhagavatah Pandava snehasambrtah Anujnatah puram jagmuh sada tadbhaktitatparah Once, pandavas had gone to Dwaraka with Bhagavan Sri Krishna and they were highly respected there. After some time, they were ordered to go back to Hastinavati. Being fully devoted to Him for all guidance, they obeyed Him and went away.
Svamitvena subrtvena bandhutvena ca pandavah
Sakhitvena gatitvena tameva saranam yayuh
Pandavas observed that Sri Krishna was their master, friend, kinsmen, benevolence, final beatifier (as their goal even after salvation). Hence they surrendered to Him with all humility.
Puranniryapita dustairhidimbam ca bakam tatha
Nihatya pandavah prapuh Krsnam krsnavayamvare
Having been sent out of Hastinavati by Duryodhana and other wicked men, Pandavas went to forest and killed demons Hidimba and thereafter, Bakasura; and then they met Sri Krishna on the occasion of the marriage with Draupadi.
Notes: As the pandavas were very powerful, the wicked Duryodhana with evil advice of his maternal uncle, Sakuni planned to send them out of Hastinavati and somehow put them to death. So he got constructed a palatial building at Varanavati (a far away place) using lac-gum etc; the building was glittering with precious stones like diamonds, pearls etc. With much reluctance, Bhisma and Drtharastra asked Pandavas to leave the city and go to the new place, without knowing the evil designs of wicked men. But Vidura was aware of their plans and hence to save Pandavas, he constructed a trench from within the building secretly, which was made known to Bhimasena.
Pandavas went there the same night and the same night Bhimasena carried his mother and all his brothers on his shoulders (as they were asleep) and he himself set fire to the building and escaped through the trench. He sighted Sri Vedavyasa, prostrated before Him and got His blessings. There, in the forest, he killed a demon by name Hidimba and married his sister named Hidimbi under the instructions of Vedavyasa. He proceeded along with his mother and brother to Ekacakranagara and there he killed the monstrous demon Bakasura. It was a great relief to the people in the town. Then they went to the court of King Drupada. Bhimasena asked his brother Arjuna to shoot the arrow successfully from the bow, which was kept as a stake by Drupada for marrying his daughter Draupadi. Arjuna won the stake and by providence all the brothers married Draupadi, Bhimasena being the chief and real husband (further details are available in our Sri Madhvachaya’s Mahabharatha Tatparya Nirnaya). Pandavas were very much pleased to see Sri Krishna at the marriage time, as it was very long since they met Him.
Labdhakrsnanujnapya pandavan svapuram gatah
Nihatya satadhanvanam Parthanamantikam yayau
Sri Krishna asked Pandavas to stay in Pancalanagara only and went to Dvaraka and killed Satadhanva and come back to Pancalanagara for attending the marriages.
Notes: Satadhanva was a yadava who killed Satrajita, the father-in-law of Sri Krishna. On hearing the news, Sri Krishna went to Dvaraka immediately and punished Satadhanava to death and returned to Panchalanagara.
Karapitva Hariprastam tatra parthannivesya sah
Upameya ca kalindim Dwarakamapa Madhavah
Sri Krishna set up a town, Indraprastha and fixed Pandavas there; He married Kalindi and went to Dwaraka.
Notes: Indraprastha city was already in existence. Pandavas were directed to go there by Dritarastra he Almighty, Sri Krishna ordered the Divine Engineer, Viswakarma to construct a palatial building for Pandavas. It was done in no time. Then, he went to bank of river Jamuna, only to marry Kalinda Devi, who was in deep meditation to have Sri Krishna as her husband. 4.30 Neelam nanajitah putrim mitravindam pitravasuh Bhadram ca kaikayasutam laksanam svam ca so’vahat Sri Krishna married Neela Devi, the daughter of King Nagnajit, Mitravinda Devi, the daughter of His father’s sister, Bhadra Devi, the daughter of Kaikaya king and Lakshmi devi, who was his better half only.
sothascaryatamo dhanyo bhoumam hatva divam gatah
apaharatparijatam parajitya purandaram
Sri Krishna, who is perfect in all respects and wonder of wonders killed Narakasura, the son of Bhudevi and went to heaven, Indra’s abode. He defeated Indra and seized Parijata tree from him.
Notes: Sri Krishna went to Raivata mountain to liberate thousands of Princesses, who were imprisioned by Narakasura. Narada Rsi came there and praised Him saying that he was ‘Dhanya’ meaning that He was perfect in all respects and ‘Aascharyatamaha’ meaning that His deeds were beyond the comprehension of even Devas – unimaginable, wonder of wonders. He killed Narakasura and went to heaven along with his wife, Satyabhama Devi. She was delighted to see the divine tree called Parijata Vriksha and desired it to be taken to Dvaraka. Immediately, when Sri Krishna uprooting it, the guards attacked him but they were defeated. Then, Indra came with a big army and fought with Krishna. At that moment, he was under the veil of ignorance and he could make out that it was the Lord Sri Krishna, who uprooted the tree. When he was defeated he came to realize the fact and apologized and offered the Divine tree Himself. Sri Krishna excused him and went to Dvaraka with the tree and Satyabhama Devi.
Mahisinam sahasrani sodasavahadacyntah
Satam ca tasu pratyekam putra dasa dasabhavan
He married sixteen thousand women who were eligible to become his queens and He gave birth to ten children in each of his wives.
Dyute jitah krtaranyavasa ajnatavasatah
Parangta upaplavye parthastam pratilebhire
Having been defeated completely in disc play (gambling) by Duryodhana, Pandavas went to forest for twelve years and were in disguise at Viratanagara for one year. After undergoing this punishment, they joined Sri Krishna in upaplavya city.
4.34 Doutyena vancayitva praoo Bhimena sarvasah
Jaghana krtasaratyah Krsnah parthanapadharih
As a messenger, Krishna deluded the enemies and destroyed them through Bhimasena and protected Pandavas by being the Charioteer to Arjuna.
Notes: Sri Krishna deceived Duryodhana by creating an impression that he would be of no use, by saying that he would not be armed with any weapon in the war.
Vayurvamsanivanyoyam prarighataan sambhavaih
Vairavaisvanajvalaih sanjahara hariryadun
Sri Krishna destroyed all yadavas (except Uddhava) by creating enemity among themselves. They fought themselves and died just like bamboo trees in a forest which are destroyed themselves by generating fire by rubbing one another.
Uddhavam sanakadinsca Durvasaprabrtinsca sah
Nyayunkta sarvavedantavartane shasisyakan
Sri Krishna (along with Bhima) ordered Uddhava, Sanaka etc., and Durvasa Rsi
with his disciples to spread Vedanta philosophy.
Evam citracaritrastu Krsnonujnapya Pandavan
Rupenaikyenasa bhumavekena sa divam yayau
Thus, with such wonderful deeds, Sri Krishna ordered Pandavas to go back to their original form and He himself left an invisible form on this earth and went to the heavens in another form.
Evam krishnasahayaste Partha Duryodhanadikan
Sri krisnadvesino hatva sakrsnah krsnamanvayuh
In this manner, Pandavas who had Sri Krishna as their solace, destroyed the enemies of Sri Krishna ie. Duryodhana and others (and also the demons known as Krodhavasah, Maniman etc) and followed the path of the Lord along with Drupada Devi.
Athabhimanyostanayah pariksitraja savajre jagatim vijitya
Sarvatmabhavam parame dadhanah
After Sri Krishna and Pandavas departed from this world, the King Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu (or grandson of Arjuna) along with Vajra (ie. Son of Aniruddha or grandson of Sri Krishna) expands the kingdom by defeating the enemies and ruled the wealthy kingdom. He was highly devoted to Sri Hari and was in an exalted position.
Iti Manimanjaryam Caturtah Sargah
Atah Panchama Sargah
That Paramahamsa ye krsnabhimanusiksitah
Having been taught by Sri Krishna and Bhimasena, Durvasa, the son of Atri
Rsi and others spread Vedas and treatises of philosophical theology with the
authority of Sri Vedavyasa.
Krsne Bhime ca vidvesamaddhikam dadhato’surah
Having realized that they could not defeat Krsna and Bhimasena with muscle
power, the Demons made up their mind with much more hatred, to spoil the real
meaning of Vedas and other related scriptures with wrong interpretations.
Notes: By doing so, the demons thought that they would antagonize Sri Krishna and Bhimasena or they were the incarnations of the Supreme Being, Sri Hari and Sri Vayu. Vayu who is none other than Virinci is the highest among the jivas and Sri Hari is most Supreme with infinite attributes. This is the gist of all the Vedas and other sacred scriptures. But the demons decided to reject those facts by muddling with words in Vedas, by wrong interpretations and confer arguments without any basis, purporting to the character assassination of Sri Hari and Vayu.
Kahah sambhuya te sarve buddhimanto nyamantrayan
Svakaryas ddayenyo’nyam yathoprajnavijrmbhanam
Those perverted men assembled in a secret place and had deliberations as to how they could destroy the valid knowledge, derieved from Vedas. They went on discussing the ways and means as they liked. (‘sarve buddhimanta’ to be split as sarva + abuddhimanta – thereby meaning, minds in perversion).
Sakunirdwaparah smaha vacastattvartha brhmitam
Lokayatatanujena canikyena procoditah
Sakuni, the presiding demon for Dvapara yuga, having been instigated by Canikya, the son of Carvaka, represented the following, which he thought to be salient.
Duradharso Bhimaseno nah Krrnopyatyanta dussahah
Tabhyam niriksita daityah mrtyum yanti na samsayah
Both Bhimasena and Krishna can hardly be defeated by me. If their inflamed sight falls on demons, there is no doubt that the demons will die away.
Krishno daivam gururbhimo vedavidya ca parsati
Tasya utsadanensiva yatastavatisankatam
For all devotees, Krishna is God, Bhima is Spiritual master, Draupadi, the daughter of Prsada, is the patron deity of all Vedas and sacred scriptures. If this knowledge is destroyed in the minds of devotees, they (Krishna and others) will be in distress. This is how we can take revenge on them.
Tasmajjanesu vidvatsu vedvyakhyanesalisu
Pravisya sadyatam vidya kaishitutpadya bhutale
Therefore some of us should take birth on the earth and enter the minds of scholars, who are commentators of Vedas. Let the Vedas be destroyed by wrong interpretation.
Viparitani sastrani kartavyani bahunyapi
Asattarkaih kutarkairva vedavidya nirasyatam
Let the right knowledge of Vedas be distracted by interpreting the scriptures illogically, resulting in many schools of thought, confusing the valid knowledge.
Vedasastrannano bhitirasti karyantaraprham
Lokayatamatam manahinam nadriyate janaih
As our aim is to plague Krishna and Bhimasena, we need not worry about right knowledge of Vedas. The atheists were not accepted by theists as they were against verbal testimony (vide. Pramanya).
Aksapadah kanadasca kapilascaparo janah
Sastrantarni krtvapi vedadvesam na kurvate
Although Aksapada, Kapila (not the God incarnate Kapila, son of Devahuti), Kanada have imposed their philosophies, they do not hate Vedas.
Notes: Aksapada had composed Nyaya sutrs, Kanada Vaisesika and Kapila, Sankhya philosophies. They do not rule out the validity of Vedas clearly. As such they do not serve our purpose.
Harena nihitah purvem tripura asurah punah
Jatah samsargadosena pamarh sraddhustrayim
Tripurasuras (Daityas who were in Tripura town constructed with gold, silver and steel) who were destroyed by Siva were again born on earth. Having associated with theists, they accepted the validity of Vedas and had firm belief in the rituals.
Bhouddhasastramtatastenurajnatva tanmatam param
Buddha, the God Incarnate deceived them (tripurasuras) stating that the Vedas were ‘apramana’ having no verbal testimony. He made them believe in His words; they could not follow the implied meaning of His teachings. Thus, having been deluded they spread the philosophy as spread by them.
Notes: Tripurasuras were not fit people for studying Vedas and other scriptures. But they had keen interest in studying and observing rituals. All the Devatas prayed to Almighty, Sri Hari to dissociate the sacred Vedas from the demons. Sri Hari fulfilled their prayer and incarnated Himself as Buddha, son of Suddhodhana. When the parents performed rituals in connection with the birth of the child and named it, the baby laughed at them and asked them to stop the meaningless ceremonies, and so no offerings were made to Siva, Indra and other Devatas. As planned earlier, the Devatas attacked the child with their weapons ‘angrily’, but the child collected all of them effortlessly. When the child took his immortal disc – Sudarshana, the Devatas stopped attacking him out of fear. Then the child taught his father, and all those related to him that this world was asat – sunya, ksanika, etc. Thus, the demon understood that the world is illusory and does not exist like a snake imposed upon a rope, Vedas have no validity etc. Having seen the superiority of the child over all other gods, they had full faith in him. They started their own philosophy based on those teachings. But the implied meanings of the same words were made known to the devatas by Bhagavan Buddha.
Nirasraman dusacaram prayaksam dvisatah srutih
Brahmana garhayantyetanveda bahanakausalan
These Buddhists who had no code of Vedic conduct but who decried the Vedas were censured by the Brahmanas who had full faith in the Vedas and Sri Hari.
Vedavidvesinopyete tatropayam na janate
Jaina and Saivates who opposed supremacy of Lord Vishnu were also censured by the Brahmins. Although they do not accept the validity of Vedas, they do not know the device to propagate the same.
Sarvan vedan dvijo bhutva srtah paramasramam
Vedantivyapadcsena nirayannah parah suhrt
Now, therefore, one of us should take birth as Brahmin on the earth and embrace sannyasa (or sainthood) and under the garb of Vedanta, he should discard the validity of Vedas. He would be our trusted friend indeed.
Asminkarye vidagdhoyam Manimaneva drsyate
Adestavyo’muna rajna kalina karyasiddhaye
The fittest person to implement our plan is Maniman only, as he has enemity with Bhimasena. Therefore, the King Kali (Previously, Duryodhana) may order him to do so.
Evamuktva dvaparena kalipurvah suradvisah
Hrsta ahuya sambhavya Manimantam babhasira
Kali and other demons (the enemies of Devatas) were very happy to hear the plan of Dvpara (formerely Sakuni) and honoured Maniman with zeal and spoke to him thus.
Yahi bhratarnamastubhyanutapadyasva mahitale
Vidyavedapuranadyah bhrsam viplavaye drtam
‘O brother, salutations to you; take birth on earth and destroy the Vedas, puranas and other scriptures completely soon’.
Vidusaya gunan visnorjivaikyam pratipadaya
Bhumau vrkodarabhavannasankam katrumarsi
‘Condemn the attributes of Vishnu and proclaim the identity of jivas with Brahman. As there is no Bhimasena now on earth, you need not have any fear’.
Notes: All the Vedas praise the attributes of glorious Brahman (Sri Hari) but there are some words in the Vedas which seem to be contrary, ie. ‘Kevalo Nirgunadasca’, but if the sentences are read in the right perspective according to the context, there would not be any contradictions. ‘Nirguna’ does not mean attributelessness but it means that Brahman has no prakrita ‘guna’ ie. Satva, Rajas and Tamas, meaning that all his attributes are immortal. The demons take advantage of this Vedic word and proclaim that Brahman has no attributes at all – thus leading to character assisination; similarly, there is another passage in Chandogyopanishad – ‘Tattvamasi’. This is exploited by them as stating identity of Brahman with jivas. But this also, when interpreted correctly, is an evidence of difference between Brahman and Jivas. No passage in the Vedas are favourable to them. But they instigated Maniman to make use of such passages, which might.